Lunnon (//, Inglis: London) is the caipital an maist populous ceety o Ingland an the Unitit Kinrick. Staunin on the River Thames, Lunnon haes been a major dounset for twa millennia, its history that gangs back tae its foundin bi the Romans, wha named it Londinium. Lunnon's auncient core, the Ceety o Lunnon, lairgely retains its 1.12-square-mile (2.9 km2) medieval boundaries an in 2011 haed a resident population o 7,375, makin it the smawest ceety in Ingland. Syne the 19t century or mair, the term Lunnon haes referred tae the metropolis developed aroond this core an aa. The bulk o this conurbation forms the Greater Lunnon admeenistrative aurie (coterminous wi the Lunnon region),[note 1] govrened bi the Mayor o Lunnon an the Lunnon Assembly.[note 2]
Lunnon region in the Unitit Kinrick
|Sovereign state||Unitit Kinrick|
|Ceremonial coonties||Ceety an Greater Lunnon|
|Destricts||Ceety an 32 burghs|
|Settled bi Romans||as Londinium, c. 43 AD|
|• Regional authority||Greater Lunnon Authority|
|• Regional assembly||Lunnon Assembly|
|• Mayor o Lunnon||Sadiq Khan|
| • UK Pairlament|
|Elevation||24 m (79 ft)|
|• Density||5,490/km2 (14,200/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC±0 (GMT)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC+1 (BST)|
Lunnon is a leadin global ceety, wi strenths in the arts, commerce, eddication, entertainment, fashion, finance, healthcare, media, professional services, research an development, tourism, an transport aw contributing tae its prominence. It is ane o the warld's leadin financial centres an haes the fift-or saxt-lairgest metropolitan aurie GDP in the warld dependin on measurement.[note 3] Lunnon is a warld cultural caipital. It is the warld's maist-visitit ceety as measured by international arrivals an haes the warld's lairgest ceety airport system measured bi passenger traffic. Lunnon's 43 varsities form the lairgest concentration o higher education institutes in Europe. In 2012, Lunnon became the first ceety tae host the modren Simmer Olympic Gemmes three times.
Lunnon haes a diverse range o fowk an culturs, an mair nor 300 leids is spoken wiin Greater Lunnon. The Greater Lunnon Authority estimatit its population tae be 8.63 million in 2015, the lairgest o ony municipality in the European Union, an accoonting for 12.5 percent o the UK population. Lunnon's urban aurie is the seicont maist populous in the EU, efter Paris, wi 9,787,426 indwallers accordin tae the 2011 census. The ceety's metropolitan aurie is the ane o the maist populous in Europe wi 13,614,409 indwallers,[note 4] while the Greater Lunnon Authority pits the population o Lunnon metropolitan region at 21 million. Lunnon wis the warld's maist populous ceety frae aroond 1831 tae 1925.
Lunnon conteens fower Warld Heritage Steids: the Touer o Lunnon; Kew Gardens; the site comprisin the Pailace o Wastmeenster, Westminster Abbey, an St Margaret's Kirk; an the historic dounset o Greenwich (in whilk the Royal Observatory, Greenwich marks the Prime Meridian, 0° langitude, an GMT). Ither famous laundmerks include Buckingham Palace, the Lunnon Ee, Piccadilly Circus, St Paul's Cathedral, Tower Bridge, Trafalgar squerr, an The Shard. Lunnon is home tae numerous museums, galleries, libraries, sporting events an ither cultural institutions, includin the British Museum, National Gallery, Tate Modern, British Library an 40 West End theatres. The Lunnon Unnergrund is the auldest unnerground railway network in the warld.
The etymology o Lunnon is uncertain. It is an auncient name, foond in soorces frae the 2nt century. It is recorded c. 121 as Londinium, that pynts tae Romano-British origin. The earliest attemptit explanation, nou disregarded, is attributit tae Geoffrey o Monmouth in Historia Regum Britanniae. This haed it that the name originatit frae a supposed Keeng Lud, wha haed allegedly takken ower the ceety an named it Kaerlud.
Frae 1898, it wis commonly acceptit that the name wis o Celtic origin an meant place belangin tae a man cawed *Londinos; this explication haes syne been rejeckit. Richard Coates pit forrit an explication in 1998 that it is derived frae the pre-Celtic Auld European *(p)lowonida, meanin 'burn ower wide for tae ford', an suggestit that this wis a name gien tae the pairt o the River Thames that rins throu Lunnon; frae this, the dounset gained the Celtic form o its name, *Lowonidonjon; this requires quite a serious amendment houiver. The ultimate difficulty lies in reconciling the Latin form Londinium wi the modren Welsh Llundain, that should demand a form *(h)lōndinion (as opposed tae *londīnion), frae earlier *loundiniom. The possibility canna be ruled oot that the Welsh name wis borrowed back in frae Inglis at a later date, an for that raison canna be uised as a basis frae that tae reconstruct the oreeginal name.
Twa recent discoveries indicate probable vera auld settlements near the Thames in the Lunnon aurie. In 1999, the remains o a Bronze Age bridge war foond on the foreshore north o Vauxhall Bridge. This brig aither gaed athort the Thames, or gaed tae a nou lost island in the burn. Dendrology datit the timbers tae 1500 BC. In 2010 the foundations o a lairge timmer structur, datit tae 4500 BC, war foond on the Thames foreshore, sooth o Vauxhall Bridge. The function o the mesolithic structur is nae kent. Baith structures are on South Bank, at a naitural crossin pynt whaur the River Effra flows intae the River Thames.
Tho thare is evidence o scattered Brythonic settlements in the aurie, the first major dounset wis foondit bi the Romans efter the invasion o 43 AD. This anerly lastit til aroond 61, whan the Iceni tribe led bi Queen Boudica stormed it, burning it tae the grund. The next, heivy planned, incarnation o Londinium prospered an superseded Colchester as the caipital o the Roman province o Britannia in 100. At its hicht in the 2nt century, Roman Lunnon haed a population o aroond 60,000.
Anglo-Saxon Lunnon (an Viking period)Eedit
Wi the collapse o Roman rule in the early 5t century, Lunnon ceased tae be a caipital an the walled ceety o Londinium wis effectively abandoned, awtho Roman civilisation continued in the St Martin-in-the-Fields aurie until aroond 450. Frae aroond 500, an Anglo-Saxon dounset kent as Lundenwic developed in the same aurie, slichtly tae the wast o the auld Roman ceety. By aboot 680, it haed revived sufficiently tae acome a major port, awtho thare is little evidence o lairge-scale production o goods. Frae the 820s the toun declined acause o repeatit Viking invasions. Thare three recordit Viking assaults on Lunnon; twa o whilk wis wun tae in 851 an 886 AD, tho thay war defeatit in the attack o 994 AD.
The Vikings established Denlaw ower a fair feck o the eastren an northren pairt o Ingland wi its mairch gaun frae aboot Lunnon tae Chester. It wis an aurie o political an geographical control imposed bi the Viking incursions that wis formally agreed tae bi the Dens warlord, Guthrum an wast-Saxon keeng, Alfred the Great in 886 AD. Denlaw lastit in mony pairts o Ingland for centuries tae come. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recordit that Lunnon wis "refounded" by Alfred the Great in 886. Archaeological research shows that this involved abandonment o Lundenwic an a revival o life an tred wiin the auld Roman walls. Lunnon then grew slowly until aboot 950, efter whilk activity increased dramatically.
Bi the 11t century, Lunnon wis ayont aw comparison the lairgest toun in Ingland. Wastmeenster Abbey, rebiggit in the Romanesque style by King Edward the Confessor, wis ane o the grandest kirks in Europe. Winchester haed aforehaun been the caipital o Anglo-Saxon Ingland, but frae this time on, Lunnon acame the main forum for foreign traders an the base for defence in time o war. In the view o Frank Stenton: "It had the resources, an it was rapidly developing the dignity an the political self-consciousness appropriate tae a national capital."
Follaein his victory in the Battle o Hastings, William, Duke o Normandy, wis crowned Keeng o Ingland in the newly finished Wastmeenster Abbey on Christmas Day 1066. William biggit the Touer o Lunnon, the first o the mony Norman castles in Ingland tae be rebuilt in stone, in the sootheastren corner o the ceety, tae intimidate the native indwallers. In 1097, William II began the biggin o Wastmeenster Hall, close bi the abbey o the same name. The hall acame the basis o a new Pailace o Wastmeenster.
During the 12t century, the institutions o central government, whilk haed hitherto accompanied the ryal Inglis court as it moved aroond the kintra, grew in size an sophistication an acame increasingly fixed in ane place. In maist cases this wis Wastmeenster, awtho the ryal treasury, haein been moved frae Winchester, came tae rest in the Tower. While the Ceety o Wastmeenster developed intae a true caipital in governmental terms, its distinct neighbour, the ceety o Lunnon, remained Ingland's lairgest ceety an principal commercial centre, an it flourished unner its ain unique admeenistration, the Corporation o Lunnon. In 1100, its population wis aroond 18,000; by 1300 it haed grown tae nearly 100,000.
During the Tudor period the Reformation produced a gradual shift tae Protestantism, wi much o Lunnon passin frae kirk tae private ainership. The traffic in woollen cloths shipped undyed an undressed frae Lunnon tae the nearby shores o the Law Kintras whaur it wis considered indispensable. But the tentacles o English maritime enterprise hardly extendit beyond the seas o north-wast Europe. The commercial route tae Italy an the Mediterranean Sea normally lay throu Antwerp an ower the Alps; ony ships passing throu the Strait o Gibraltar tae or frae England war likely tae be Italian or Ragusan. Upon the re-openin o the Netherlands tae English shipping in Januar 1565 thare at ance ensued a strang outburst o commercial activity. The Royal Exchange wis foondit. Mercantilism grew an monopoly trading companies sic as the East Indie Company war established, wi tred expanding tae the New World. Lunnon acame the principal North Sea port, wi migrants arrivin frae England an abroad. The population rose frae an estimatit 50,000 in 1530 tae aboot 225,000 in 1605.
In the 16t century, William Shakespeare an his contemporaries lived in Lunnon at a time o hostility tae the development o the theatre. By the end o the Tudor period in 1603, Lunnon wis still vera compact. Thare wis an assassination attempt on James I in Westminster, throu the Gunpowder Plot on 5 November 1605. Lunnon wis plagued by disease in the early 17t century, culminatin in the Great Plague o 1665–1666, whilk killt up tae 100,000 bodies, or a fift o the population.
The Great Fire o Lunnon broke oot in 1666 in Pudding Lane in the ceety an quickly swept throu the widden biggins. Rebiggin teuk ower ten year an wis supervised by Robert Hooke as Surveyor o Lunnon. In 1708 Christopher Wren's masterpiece, St Paul's Cathedral wis completit. During the Georgian era new destricts sic as Mayfair war formed in the wast; an new brigs ower the Thames encouraged development in South Lunnon. In the east, the Port o Lunnon expanded downstream.
In 1762, George III acquired Buckingham House an it wis enlairged ower the next 75 year. During the 18t century, Lunnon wis dogged by crime an the Bow Street Runners war established in 1750 as a professional police force. In tot, mair nor 200 offences war punishable by death, includin petty theft. Most childer born in the ceety died afore reakin thair third birthday. The coffeehouse became a popular place tae debate ideas, wi growin literacy an the development o the prentin press makkin news widely available; an Fleet Street became the centre o the British press.
Accordin tae Samuel Johnson:
Ye cannae fin a man, at aw intellectual, wha is willin tae leave Lunnon. Naw, Sir, whan a man is fauchelt Lunnon, he is tired o life; for there in Lunnon aw that life can afford.
Late modren an contemporaryEedit
Lunnon wis the warld's lairgest ceety frae aboot 1831 tae 1925. Lunnon's overcrowded conditions led tae cholera epidemics, claimin 14,000 lifes in 1848, an 6,000 in 1866. risin traffic congestion led tae the creation o the warld's first local urban rail network. The Metropolitan Board o Works oversaw infrastructure expansion in the caipital an some surroondin counties; it wis abolished in 1889 when the Lunnon County cooncil wis creatit oot o those auries o the counties surroondin the caipital. Lunnon wis bombed bi the Germans during the First World War while during the Seicont World War the Blitz an ither bombin bi the German Luftwaffe killed ower 30,000 Lunnoners an destroyed lairge tracts o housing an ither biggins athort the ceety. Immediately efter the war, the 1948 Simmer Olympics war held at the oreeginal Wembley Stadium, at a time when Lunnon haed barely recovered frae the war.
In 1951, the Festeeval o Britain wis held on the Sooth Bank. The Great Smog o 1952 led tae the Clean Air Act 1956, that endit the "pea soup fogs" for whilk Lunnon haed been notorious. Frae the 1940s onwart, Lunnon became hame tae numerous immigrants, lairgely frae Commonweel countries lik Jamaica, Indie, Bangladesh an Pakistan, makkin Lunnon ane o the maist diverse ceeties in Europe.
Primarily stairtin in the mid-1960s, Lunnon acame a centre for the warldwide youth cultur, exemplified bi the Swinging Lunnon subculture associatit wi the Keeng's Road, Chelsea an Carnaby Street. The role o trendsetter wis revived in the punk era. In 1965 Lunnon's political boundaries wis expandit tae tak intae accoont the growthe o the urban aurie an a new Greater Lunnon cooncil wis creatit. Throu The Troubles in Northren Ireland, Lunnon wis subjectit tae bombin attacks bi the Provisional IRA. Racial inequality wis hielichtit bi the 1981 Brixton riot.
Greater Lunnon's population declined steadily in the decades efter the Seicont World War, frae an estimatit peak o 8.6 million in 1939 tae aroond 6.8 million in the 1980s. The principal ports for Lunnon moved downstream tae Felixstowe an Tilbury, wi the Lunnon Docklands aurie acomin a focus for regeneration, includin the Canary Wharf development. This wis borne oot o Lunnon's ever-increasin role as a major international financial centre during the 1980s. The Thames Barrier wis completit in the 1980s tae pertect Lunnon against tidal surges frae the North Sea.
The Greater Lunnon cooncil wis abolished in 1986, whilk left Lunnon as the anerly lairge metropolis in the warld wioot a central admeenistration. In 2000, Lunnon-wide govrenment wis restored, wi the creation o the Greater Lunnon Authority. tae celebrate the stairt o the 21st century, the Millennium Dome, Lunnon Eye an Millennium Bridge war biggit. On 6 Julie 2005 Lunnon wis awairdit the 2012 Simmer Olympics, makkin Lunnon the first ceety tae stage the Olympic Gemmes three times. The naxt day (7 Julie 2005) Lunnon's tube network wis hit bi major bomb attacks. In Februar 2015, Greater Lunnon's population wis estimatit tae be 8.6 million, the heichest level syne 1939.
The admeenistration o Lunnon is formed o twa tiers—a ceety-wide, strategic tier an a local tier. ceety-wide admeenistration is coordinatit bi the Greater Lunnon Authority (GLA), while local admeenistration is carried oot by 33 smawer authorities. The GLA consists o twa electit components; the Mayor o Lunnon, wha haes executive powers, an the Lunnon Assembly, whilk scrutinises the mayor's decisions an can accept or reject the mayor's budget proposals ilka year. The headquarters o the GLA is City Hall, Southwark; the mayor is Sadiq Khan. The mayor's statutory planning strategy is published as the Lunnon Plan, whilk daed it's maist recent revision in 2011. The local authorities are the cooncils o the 32 Lunnon boroughs an the City o Lunnon Corporation. Thay are responsible for maist local services, sic as local planning, schuils, social services, local roads an refuse collection. Certaint functions, sic as waste management, are providit throu jynt arrangements. In 2009–2010 the combined revenue expenditure by Lunnon cooncils an the GLA amountit tae juist ower £22 billion (£14.7 billion for the boroughs an £7.4 billion for the GLA).
Policing in Greater Lunnon, except the City o Lunnon, is providit bi the Metropolitan Police Force, overseen bi the Mayor throu the Mayor's Office for Policing an Crime (MOPAC). The ceety o Lunnon haes its ain police force – the City o Lunnon Police. The British Transport Police are responsible for police services on National Rail an Lunnon Unnergrund services.
The Lunnon Fire Brigade is the statutory fire an rescue service for Greater Lunnon. It is run bi the Lunnon Fire an Emergency Planning Authority an is the third lairgest fire service in the warld. National Health Service ambulance services are providit bi the Lunnon Ambulance Service (LAS) NHS Trust, the lairgest free-at-the-pynt-o-uise emergency ambulance service in the warld. The Lunnon Air Ambulance charity operates in conjunction wi the LAS whaur required. Her Majesty's Coastguard an the Royal National Lifeboat Institution operate on the River Thames, whilk is unner the jurisdiction o the Port o Lunnon Authority frae Teddington Lock tae the sea.
Lunnon is the seat o the Govrenment o the Unitit Kinrick. Mony govrenment departments are based close tae the Pailace o Wastmeenster, parteecularly alang Whitehall, includin the Prime Minister's residence at 10 Downing Street. The British Parliament is eften referred tae as the "Mother o Parliaments" (awtho this sobriquet wis first applied tae England itself by John Bright) acause it haes been the model for maist ither parliamentary systems. Thare are 73 Members o Parliament (MPs) frae Lunnon, who correspond tae local parliamentary constituencies in the national Parliament. As o Juin 2017, 49 are frae the Labour Party, 21 are Conservatives, an 3 are Liberal Democrat.
Greater Lunnon is the tap-level administrative subdiveesion coverin Lunnon.[note 5] The wee, ancient City o Lunnon at its core ance contained the hale dounset, but as the urban aurie grew the City Corporation resistit attemps tae amalgamate it wi its suburbs, causin "Lunnon" tae be defined in a nummer weys for different purposes. Forty per cent o Greater Lunnon is covered bi the Lunnon post toun, wiin whilk 'Lunnon' forms pairt o postal addresses.
The Lunnon telephone aurie code (020) covers a lairger aurie, seemilar in size tae Greater Lunnon, awtho some outer destricts are omeetit an some places juist ootside are included. The Greater Lunnon boundary haes been aligned tae the M25 motorway in places.
Outward urban expansion is nou preventit bi the Metropolitan Green Belt, awtho the biggit-up aurie extends beyond the boundary in places, resultin in a separately defined Greater Lunnon Urban aurie. Beyond this is the vast Lunnon commuter belt. Greater Lunnon is split for some purposes intae Inner Lunnon an Outer Lunnon. The ceety is split bi the River Thames intae North an South, wi an informal central Lunnon aurie in its interior. The coordinates o the nominal centre o Lunnon, tradeetionally considered tae be the oreeginal Eleanor Cross at Charing Cross near the junction o Trafalgar squerr an Whitehall, are approximately .
Athin Lunnon, baith the City o Lunnon an the City o Westminster hae ceety status an baith the ceety o Lunnon an the remainder o Greater Lunnon is the ceremonial counties. The aurie o Greater Lunnon haes incorporatit auries that war ance pairt o the historic counties o Middlesex, Kent, Surrey, Essex an Hertfordshire. Lunnon's status as the caipital o England, an later the Unitit Kinrick, haes never been grantit or confirmed offeecially—by statute or in written form.[note 6]
Its poseetion wis formed throu constitutional convention, makkin its status as de facto caipital a pairt o the UK's unwritten constitution. The caipital o Ingland wis moved tae Lunnon frae Winchester as the Pailace o Wastmeenster developed in the 12t an 13t centuries tae acome the permanent location o the royal court, an sicweys the political caipital o the naition. Mair recently, Greater Lunnon haes been defined as a region o England an in this context is kent as Lunnon.
Greater Lunnon encompasses a tot aurie o 1,583 square kilometre (611 sq mi), an aurie that haed a population o 7,172,036 in 2001 an a population density o 4,542 inhabitants per square kilometre (11,760/sq mi). The extendit aurie kent as the Lunnon Metropolitan Region or the Lunnon Metropolitan Agglomeration, comprises a tot aurie o 8,382 square kilometre (3,236 sq mi) haes a population o 13,709,000 an a population density o 1,510 inhabitants per square kilometre (3,900/sq mi). Modern Lunnon stauns on the Thames, its primary geographical featur, a navigable river whilk crosses the ceety frae the sooth-wast tae the east. The Thames Valley is a floodplain surroondit by gently rolling hills includin Parliament Hill, Addington Hills, an Primrose Hill. The Thames wis ance a fair bit broader, shallaer burn wi extensive marshlands; at heich tide, its shores reakit five times thair present width.
Syne the Victorian era the Thames haes been extensively embanked, an mony o its Lunnon tributaries nou flow unnerground. The Thames is a tidal river, an Lunnon is vulnerable tae flooding. The threat haes increased ower time acause o a slaw but continuous rise in heich watter level bi the slow 'tilting' o Britain (up in the north an doun in the sooth) caused by post-glacial rebound.
In 1974, a decade o work began on the construction o the Thames Barrier athort the Thames at Woolwich tae deal wi this threat. While the barrier is expectit tae function as designed til aboot 2070, concepts for its future enlairgement or redesign is awready bein discussed.
Lunnon haes a temperate oceanic climate (Köppen: Cfb ), seemilar tae aw o soothren Britain. Maugre its reputation as bein a rainy ceety, Lunnon receives less precipitation (601 mm (24 in) in a year), than Roum, Bordeaux, Toulouse, Naples an even Sydney in Australie. Temperature extremes for aw sites in the Lunnon aurie range frae 38.1 °C (100.6 °F) at Kew during August 2003  doun tae −16.1 °C (3.0 °F) at Northolt during Januar 1962.
Simmers are generally warm an whiles het, Lunnon's average Julie heich is 24 °C (75.2 °F). On average, Lunnon will see 31 days abuin 25 °C (77.0 °F) ilka year, an 4.2 days abuin 30.0 °C (86.0 °F) ilka year. Throu the 2003 European heat wave thare war 14 consecutive days abuin 30 °C (86.0 °F) an 2 consecutive days whaur temperatures reakit 38 °C (100.4 °F), leadin tae hunners o heat relatit daiths. Winters are generally cuil an damp wi little temperature variation. Snowfall daes occur frae time tae time, an can cause traivel disruption whan this happens. Spring an hairst are mixed seasons an can be leesome. As a lairge ceety, Lunnon haes a considerable urban heat island effect, makkin the centre o Lunnon at times 5 °C (9 °F) warmer than the suburbs an outskirts. The effect o this can be seen ablo whan comparin Lunnon Heathrow that is locatit 15 mile wast o Lunnon wi the Lunnon Weather Centre that is locatit in the centre o Lunnon.
|Climate data for Lunnon Heathrow 1981-2010|
|Record heich °C (°F)||17
|Average heich °C (°F)||8
|Average law °C (°F)||2
|Record law °C (°F)||−22
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||55.2
|Mean monthly sunshine oors||61.5||77.9||114.6||168.7||198.5||204.3||212.0||204.7||149.3||116.5||72.6||52.0||1,632.6|
|Source #1: |
|Source #2: |
|Climate data for Lunnon Weather Centre UHI|
|Average heich °C (°F)||8.5
|Daily mean °C (°F)||6.8
|Average law °C (°F)||5.0
|Source #1: |
|Source #2: |
Lunnon's vast urban aurie is aften describit uisin a set o destrict names, lik Bloomsbury, Mayfair, Wembley an Whitechapel. Thay are aither informal designations, reflect the names o villages that hae been absorbed by sprawl, or are superseded administrative units sic as parishes or umwhile boroughs.
Siclike names hae remained in uise throu tradeetion, ilk o thaim referrin tae a local aurie wi its ain distinctive character, but wioot official boundaries. Syne 1965 Greater Lunnon haes been dividit intae 32 Lunnon boroughs in addition tae the ancient ceety o Lunnon. The ceety o Lunnon is the main financial destrict, an Canary Wharf haes recently developed intae a new financial an commercial hub in the Docklands tae the east.
The West End is Lunnon's main entertainment an shoppin destrict, attracting tourists. West Lunnon includes expensive residential auries whaur properties can sell for tens o millions o pounds. The average price for properties in Kensington an Chelsea is ower £2 million wi a seimilarly heich outlay in maist o central Lunnon.
The East End is the aurie closest tae the oreeginal Port o Lunnon, kent for its heich immigrant population, as weel as for bein ane o the poorest auries in Lunnon. The surroondin East Lunnon aurie saw a fair bit o Lunnon's early industrial development; nou, brownfield sites throughout the aurie are bein redeveloped as pairt o the Thames Gateway includin the Lunnon Riverside an Lower Lea Valley, that wis developed intae the Olympic Park for the 2012 Olympics an Paralympics.
Lunnon's biggins are ower diverse tae be characterised by ony parteecular architectural style, partly acause o thair varyin ages. Mony grand houses an public biggins, sic as the National Gallery, are biggit frae Portland stone. Some auries o the ceety, parteecularly those juist wast o the centre, are characterised by white stucco or whitewashed biggins. Few structures in central Lunnon pre-date the Great Fire o 1666, thir bein a few trace Roman remains, the Tower o Lunnon an a few scattered Tudor survivors in the ceety. Faur oot is, for insample, the Tudor period Hampton Court Palace, England's auldest surviving Tudor palace, biggit by Cardinal Thomas Wolsey c. 1515.Wren's late 17t-century kirks an the financial institutions o the 18t an 19t centuries lik the Royal Exchange an the Bank o England, tae the early 20t century Old Bailey an the 1960s Barbican Estate form pairt o the varied architectural heritage.
The disuised, but suin tae be rejuvenated, 1939 Battersea Power Station bi the burn in the sooth-wast is a local laundmerk, while some railway termini are excellent insamples o Victorian architecture, maist notably St. Pancras an Paddington. The density o Lunnon varies, wi heich employment density in the central aurie, heich residential densities in inner Lunnon an laicher densities in Outer Lunnon.
The Monument in the ceety o Lunnon provides views o the surroondin aurie while commemoratin the Great Fire o Lunnon, whilk originatit fae a biggin naurhaun. Marble Arch an Wellington Arch, at the north an sooth ends o Park Lane respectively, hae royal connections, as dae the Albert Memorial an Royal Albert Hall in Kensington. Nelson's Column is a nationally recognised monument in Trafalgar squerr, ane o the focal pynts o the ceety centre. Older biggins are mainly brick biggit, maist commonly the yellae Lunnon stock brick or a warm orange-red variety, eften decoratit wi carvings an white plaster mouldings.
In the dense auries, maist o the concentration is via medium- an heich-rise biggins. Lunnon's skyscrapers lik 30 St Mary Axe, Tower 42, the Broadgate Tower an One Canada squerr are maistly in the twa financial destricts, the City o Lunnon an Canary Wharf. High-rise development is restrictit at certaint sites if it wad obstruct pertectit views o St Paul's Cathedral an ither historic biggins. Housomeiver, thare a nummer o verra heich skyscrapers in central Lunnon (see Tall biggins in Lunnon), includin the 72-storey Shard Lunnon Bridge, the heichest biggin in the European Union.
Other notable modern biggins include City Hall in Southwark wi its distinctive oval shape, an the British Library in Somers Town/Kings Cross. What wis formerly the Millennium Dome, bi the Thames tae the east o Canary Wharf, is nou an entertainment venue cried The O2 Arena.
The Lunnon Natural History Society suggest that Lunnon is "one o the World's Greenest ceeties" wi mair nor 40 percent green space or open watter. Thay indicate that 2000 species o flowering plant hae been foond growin thare an that the tidal Thames supports 120 species o fish. Thay an aa state that ower 60 species o bird nest in central Lunnon an that thair members hae recordit 47 species o butterflee, 1173 moths an mair nor 270 kinds o speeder aroond Lunnon. Lunnon's wetland auries support nationally important populations o mony watter birds. Lunnon haes 38 Sites o Special Scientific Interest (SSSIs), twa National Nature Reserves an 76 Local Nature Reserves.
Amphibians are common in the caipital, includin smooth newts livin bi the Tate Modern, an common frogs, common toads, palmate newts an great crestit newts, housamiver, native reptiles lik slow-worms, common lizards, grass snakes an adders, are maistly anly seen in outer Lunnon.
Amang ither indwallers o Lunnon are 10,000 tods, sae that thare are nou 16 tods for every squerr mile (2.6 squerr kilometres) o Lunnon. Thir urban tods are noticeably bolder than thair kintra cousins, sharin the pavement (sidewalk) wi pedestrians an raisin cubs in people's backyards. Tods hae even sneaked intae the Houses o Parliament, whaur ane wis foond asleep on a filing cabinet. Anither broke intae the grunds o Buckingham Palace, reportedly killin some o Queen Elizabeth II's prized pink flamingos. Generally, housamiver, tods an ceety folk appear tae get alang. A survey in 2001 bi the Lunnon-based Mammal Society foond that 80 percent o Lunnoners liked haein them aroond.
Other mammals foond in Greater Lunnon are hedgehogs, rats, mice, rabbit, shrew, vole, an squirrels, In wilder auries o Outer Lunnon, sic as Epping Forest, a wide variety o mammals are foond includin hare, brock, field, bank an watter laund-moose, wid moose, yellae-neck moose, mowdiwarp, shrew, an wheasel, in addition tae tod, squirrel an hurcheon. A deid otter wis foond at The Highway, in Wapping, aboot a mile frae the Tower Bridge, that wad suggest that thay hae begun tae muive back efter bein absence a hunner year frae the ceety. Ten o England's eighteen species o bats hae been recorded in Epping Forest: soprano, nathusius an common pipistrelles, noctule, serotine, barbastelle, daubenton's, brown Long-eared, natterer's an leisler's.
Amang the strange sights seen in Lunnon hae been a whale in the Thames, while The BBC Twa programme "Natural World: Unnatural History o Lunnon", shaws pigeons uisin the Lunnon Unnergrund tae get aroond the ceety, a seal that taks fish frae fishmongers athoot Billingsgate Fish Market, an tods that will "sit" gif thay're gien sausages.
Herds o red an fallow deer roam freely wiin hantle o Richmond an Bushy Park. A cull takes place ilk November an Februar tae ensure nummers can be sustained. Epping Forest is an aa kent for its fallow deer, whilk can frequently be seen in herds tae the north o the Forest. A rare population o melanistic, black fallow deer is an aa maintained at the Deer Sanctuary near Theydon Bois. Muntjac deer, that escaped frae deer parks at the turn o the twentieth century, are foond in the wid. While Lunnoners are accustomed tae wildlife sic as birds an tods sharin the ceety, mair recently urban deer hae acomin a regular featur, an hale herds o fallow an white tailed deer come intae residential auries at nicht tae tak advantage o the Lunnon's green spaces. Thare are in Lunnon an aa mony muntjak deer, but acause thay are shy it is less common tae see them.
|2011 Unitit Kinrick Census|
|Kintra o birth||Population|
Wi increasin industrialisation, Lunnon's population grew rapidly outthrou the 19t an early 20t centuries, an it wis for some time in the late 19t an early 20t centuries the maist populous ceety in the warld. Its population peaked at 8,615,245 in 1939 immediately afore the outbreak o the Seicont World War, but haed declined tae 7,192,091 at the 2001 Census. Housamiver, the population then grew by juist ower a million atween the 2001 an 2011 Censuses, tae reak 8,173,941 in the latter enumeration.
Houiver, Lunnon's continuous urban aurie extends ayont the borders o Greater Lunnon an wis home tae 9,787,426 people in 2011, while its wider metropolitan aurie haes a population o atween 12 an 14 million dependin on the definition uised. Accordin tae Eurostat, Lunnon is the maist populous ceety an metropolitan aurie o the European Union an the seicont maist populous in Europe (or third if Istanbul is included). in the period 1991–2001 a net 726,000 immigrants arrived in Lunnon.
The region covers an aurie o 1,579 square kilometre (610 sq mi). The population density is 5,177 inhabitants per square kilometre (13,410/sq mi), mair nor ten times that o ony ither British region. In terms o population, Lunnon is the 19t mucklemaist ceety an the 18t mucklemaist metropolitan region in the warld. As o 2014, Lunnon haes the mucklemaist nummer o billionaires (British Pound Sterling) in the warld, wi 72 residing in the ceety. Lunnon ranks as ane o the maist expensive ceeties in the warld, alongside Tokyo an Moscow.
Accordin tae the Office for National Statistics, based on the 2011 Census estimates, 59.8 per cent o the 8,173,941 indwallers o Lunnon war White, wi 44.9 per cent White British, 2.2 per cent White Irish, 0.1 per cent gypsy/Irish traveller an 12.1 per cent classifee'd as Other White.
20.9 per cent o Lunnoners are o Asian an mixed-Asian strynd. 19.7 per cent are o full Asian strynd, wi those o mixed-Asian heritage comprisin 1.2 o the population. Indiens accoont for 6.6 per cent o the population, followed by Pakistanis an Bangladeshis at 2.7 per cent for ilk o thaim. Chinese fowks accoont for 1.5 per cent o the population, wi Arabs comprisin 1.3 per cent. A faur 4.9 per cent are classifee'd as "Other Asian".
15.6 per cent o Lunnon's population are o Black an mixed-Black strynd. 13.3 per cent are o fou Black strynd, wi thaim that's o mixed-Black heritage comprisin 2.3 per cent. Black Africans accoont for 7.0 per cent o Lunnon's population, wi 4.2 per cent as Black Caribbean an 2.1 per cent as "Other Black". 5.0 per cent are o mixed race.
athort Lunnon, Black an Asian childer outnumber White British childer by aboot sax tae fower in state schuils. Altogether at the 2011 census, o Lunnon's 1,624,768 population aged 0 tae 15, 46.4 per cent war White, 19.8 per cent war Asian, 19 per cent war Black, 10.8 per cent war Mixed an 4 per cent representit anither ethnic group. In Januar 2005, a survey o Lunnon's ethnic an religious diversity claimed that thare war mair nor 300 leids spoken in Lunnon an mair nor 50 non-indigenous communities wi a population o mair nor 10,000. figurs frae the Office for National Statistics shaw that, in 2010[update], Lunnon's foreign-born population wis 2,650,000 (33 per cent), up frae 1,630,000 in 1997.
The 2011 census shawed that 36.7 per cent o Greater Lunnon's population war born athoot the UK. The table tae the right shows the 30 maist common countries o birth o Lunnon residents in 2011, the date o the last published UK Census. A portion o the German-born population are as lik as tae be British nationals born tae parents servin in the British Armed Forces in Germany. Estimates produced bi the Office for National Statistics indicate that the five mucklemaist foreign-born groups livin in Lunnon in the period Julie 2009 tae Juin 2010 war those born in Indie, Poland, the Republic o Ireland, Bangladesh an Nigerie.
Accordin tae the 2011 Census, the mucklemaist releegious groupins are Christians (48.4 per cent), follaed bi those o no releegion (20.7 per cent), Muslims (12.4 per cent), nae reponse (8.5 per cent), Hindus (5.0 per cent), Jews (1.8 per cent), Sikhs (1.5 per cent), Buddhists (1.0 per cent) an ither (0.6 per cent).
Lunnon haes tradeetionally been Christian, an haes a hantle o kirks, parteecularly in the Ceety o Lunnon. The well-kent St Paul's Cathedral in the Ceety an Southwark Cathedral sooth o the river are Anglican admeenistrative centres, while the Archbishop o Canterbury, principal bishop o the Krik o Ingland an warldwide Anglican Communion, haes his main residence at Lambeth Palace in the Lunnon Borough o Lambeth.
Important national an royal ceremonies are shared atween St Paul's an Westminster Abbey. The Abbey is nae tae be confused wi nearby Westminster Cathedral, that is the mucklemaist Roman Catholic cathedral in England an Wales. Despite the prevalence o Anglican kirks, observance is verra laich wiin the Anglican denomination. Kirk attendance continues on a lang, slaw, steady decline, accordin tae Kirk o Ingland statistics.
Lunnon is hame tae sizeable Muslim, Hindu, Sikh, an Jewish commonties an aw. Notable mosques include the East Lunnon Mosque in Touer Hamlets, Lunnon Central Mosque on the edge o Regent's Park an the Baitul Futuh Mosque o the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community. Follaein the ile boom, increasin nummers o wealthy Hindus an Middle-Eastren Muslims hae based themselves aroond Mayfair an Knightsbridge in Wast Lunnon. Thare muckle Muslim commonties in the eastren boroughs o Touer Hamlets an Newham. lairge Hindu communities are in the north-wastren boroughs o Harrow an Brent; the latter is hame tae Europe's mucklemaist Hindu temple, Neasden Temple. Lunnon is hame tae 42 Hindu temples. Thare are Sikh communities in East an West Lunnon, parteecularly in Southall, hame tae ane o the mucklemaist Sikh populations an the mucklemaist Sikh temple ootside Indie.
The majority o Breetish Jews live in Lunnon, wi signeeficant Jewish commonties in Stamford Hill, Stanmore, Golders Green, Finchley, Hampstead, Hendon an Edgware in North Lunnon. Bevis Marks Synagogue in the Ceety o Lunnon is affiliatit tae Lunnon's heestoric Sephardic Jewish commonty. It is the anly synagogue in Europe that haes held regular services continuously for ower 300 year. Stanmore an Canons Pairk Synagogue haes the mucklemaist membership o ony single Orthodox synagogue in the whole o Europe, owertakin Ilford synagogue (an aa in Lunnon) in 1998. The commonity set up the unnon Jewish Forum in 2006 in response tae the growin signeeficance o devolved Lunnon Govrenment.
Thare are mony accents that are tradeetionally thocht on as Lunnon accents. The maist weel kent o the Lunnon accents lang syne acquired the Cockney label, that is haurd baith in Lunnon itself, an athort the wider South East England region mair generally. The accent o a 21st-century 'Lunnoner' varies widely; what is acomin mair an mair common amongst the unner-30s houiver is some fusion o Cockney wi a whole array o 'ethnic' accents, in parteecular Caribbean, that form an accent labelled Multicultural Lunnon English (MLE). The ither widely heard an spoken accent is RP (Received Pronunciation) in various forms, that can aften be haurd in the media an mony o ither traditional professions an ayont this aurie, tho this accent isnae leemitit tae Lunnon an South East England, an can be haurd selectively atouer the hale UK amang certaint social groupins.
Lunnon generates aboot 20 per cent o the UK's GDP (or $446 billion in 2005); while the economy o the Lunnon metropolitan aurie—the lairgest in Europe—generates aboot 30 per cent o the UK's GDP (or an estimatit $669 billion in 2005). Lunnon is ane o the pre-eminent financial centres o the warld an vies wi New York ceety as the maist important location for international finance.
Lunnon's lairgest industry is finance, an its financial exports mak it a lairge contributor tae the UK's balance o payments. Aroond 325,000 fowk wis employed in financial services in Lunnon til mid-2007. Lunnon haes ower 480 owerseas banks, mair nor ony ither ceety in the warld. Ower 85 percent (3.2 million) o the employed population o greater Lunnon works in the services industries. Acause o its prominent global role, Lunnon's economy haed been affectit bi the Late-2000s financial crisis. Housamiver, by 2010 the ceety haes recovered; pit in place new regulatory powers, proceedit tae regain lost ground an re-established Lunnon's economic parity wi New York. The City o Lunnon is home tae the Bank o England, Lunnon Stock Exchange, an Lloyd's o Lunnon insurance mercat.
Ower hauf o the UK's tap 100 listit companies (the FTSE 100) an ower 100 o Europe's 500 lairgest companies hae thair headquarters in central Lunnon. Ower 70 per cent o the FTSE 100 are wiin Lunnon's metropolitan aurie, an 75 per cent o Fortune 500 companies hae offices in Lunnon.
Alang wi professional services, media companies are concentratit in Lunnon an the media distribution industry is Lunnon's seicont maist competitive sector. The BBC is a significant employer, while ither broadcasters hae heidquarters aroond the ceety an aa. Mony naitional newspapers are editit in Lunnon. Lunnon is a major retail centre an in 2010 haed the heichest non-food retail sales o ony ceety in the warld, wi a tot spend o aroond £64.2 billion. The Port o Lunnon is the seicont-lairgest in the Unitit Kinrick, handlin 45 million tonnes o cargo ilka year.
Lunnon haes five major business destricts: the ceety, Westminster, Canary Wharf, Camden & Islington an Lambeth & Southwark. One wey tae get an idea o thair relative importance is tae leuk at relative amounts o office space: Greater Lunnon haed 27 million m2 o office space in 2001, an the ceety conteens the maist space, wi 8 million m2 o office space. Lunnon haes some o the heichest real estate prices in the warld.
A growin nummer o technology companies are based in Lunnon notably in East Lunnon Tech ceety, an aa kent as Silicon Roundabout. In Aprile 2014, the ceety wis amang the first tae receive a geoTLD.
Lunnon haes the heichest property prices o ony European ceety accordin tae the Office for National Statistics an the European Office o Statistics. On average the price per squerr metre in central Lunnon is €24,252 (Aprile 2014). This is higher than the property prices in ither G8 European caipital ceeties; Berlin €3,306, Rome €6,188 an Paris €11,229.
The gas an electricity distribution networks that manage an operate the touers, cables an pressure systems that deliver energy tae consumers athort the ceety are managed by National Grid plc, SGN an UK Power Networks.
Lunnon is a popular centre for tourism, ane o its prime industries, employin the equivalent o 350,000 fou-time workers in 2003, while annual expenditure by tourists is aroond £15 billion. Lunnon attracks ower 14 million international visitors a year; that gars it Europe's maist visitit ceety. Lunnon attracts 27 million overnicht-stay visitors every year. In 2010 the ten maist-visitit attractions in Lunnon war:
- British Museum
- Tate Modern
- National Gallery
- Natural History Museum
- Imperial War Museum
- Science Museum
- Victoria an Albert Museum
- Madame Tussauds
- National Maritime Museum
- Tower o Lunnon
Thousans o faimlies athoot hames fin thairsels stuck in emergency accommodation for at least twa year. A growthe in the nummer o UK households haes led tae the homeless charity Shelter statin: "This growth is a result o people livin langer, mair fowk livin on thair lanesomes or in weeer hoosehauds, an net migration."
Transport is ane o the fower main auries o policy administered bi the Mayor o Lunnon, houiver the mayor's financial control disnae extend tae the langer distance rail network that enters Lunnon. In 2007 he assumed responsibility for some local lines, that nou form the Lunnon Overground network, adding tae the existin responsibility for the Lunnon Unnergrund, trams an buses. The public transport network is administered by Transport for Lunnon (TfL) an is ane o the priceymaist in the warld.
The lines that formed the Lunnon Unnergrund, as weel as trams an buses, became pairt o an integratit transport system in 1933 when the Lunnon Passenger Transport Board or Lunnon Transport wis creatit. Transport for Lunnon is nou the statutory corporation responsible for maist aspects o the transport system in Greater Lunnon, an is run by a board an a commissioner appyntit bi the Mayor o Lunnon.
Lunnon is a major international air transport hub wi the lairgest ceety airspace in the warld.[citation needit] Aicht airports uise the wird Lunnon in thair name, but maist traffic passes throu sax o thir. Lunnon Heathrow Airport, in Hillingdon, West Lunnon, is the busiest airport in the warld for international traffic, an is the major hub o the naition's banner carrier, British Airways. In Mairch 2008 its fift terminal wis opened. Thare war plans for a third runway an a sixth terminal houiver thir war cancelled bi the Coalition Government on 12 Mey 2010.
Stanstit Airport, north east o Lunnon in Essex, is a local UK hub an Luton Airport tae the north o Lunnon in Bedfordshire, caters maistly for cheap short-haul flights. Lunnon ceety Airport, the weeest an maist central airport, in Newham, East Lunnon, is focused on business travellers, wi a mixtur o fou service short-haul schedult flichts an considerable business jet traffic. Lunnon Southend Airport, east o Lunnon in Essex, is a smawer, regional airport that mainly caters for cheap short-haul flights.
The Airports Commission is due tae report in Summer 2015 on future expansion o airport capacity.
Underground an DLREedit
The Lunnon Unnergrund, commonly referred tae as the Tube, is the auldest an seicont langest metro system in the warld. The system serves 270 stations an wis formed frae several private companies, includin the warld's first unnerground electric line, the City an South Lunnon Railway. It dates frae 1863.
Ower three million journeys is made ilk a day on the Underground network, ower 1 billion ilk a year. An investment programme is attemptin tae reduce congestion an impruive reliability, includin £6.5 billion (€7.7 billion) spent afore the 2012 Summer Olympics. The Docklands Light Railway, that opened in 1987, is a seicont, mair local metro system uisin smawer an lighter tram-teep vehicles that serve Docklands an Greenwich.
Thare are 366 railway stations in the Lunnon Travelcard Zones on an extensive abuin-ground suburban railway network. South Lunnon, parteecularly, haes a heich concentration o railways as it haes fewer Underground lines. Maist rail lines terminate aroond the centre o Lunnon, running intae eighteen terminal stations, cep for the Thameslink trains connecting Bedford in the north an Brighton in the sooth via Luton an Gatwick airports. Lunnon haes Britain's busiest station by nummer o passengers – Waterloo, wi ower 184 million people uisin the interchange station complex (whilk includes Waterloo East station) ilka year. Clapham Junction is the busiest station in Europe bi the nummer o trains passing.
Wi the need for mair rail capacity in Lunnon, Crossrail is due tae open in 2018. It will be a new railway line runnin east tae wast throu Lunnon an intae the Home Counties wi a branch tae Heathrow Airport. It is Europe's biggest construction project, wi a £15 billion projectit cost.
Inter-city an internationalEedit
Lunnon is the centre o the National Rail network, wi 70 percent o rail journeys stairtin or endin in Lunnon. Lik suburban rail services, regional an inter-ceety trains depart frae several termini aroon the ceety centre, linkin Lunnon wi the rest o Britain includin Cambridge, Bristol, Cardiff, Exeter, Birmingham, Holyhead, Sheffield, Southampton, Leeds, Manchester, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, Edinburgh an Glasgow.
Some international railway services tae Continental Europe wis operatit during the 20t century as boat trains, lik the Admiraal de Ruijter tae Amsterdam an the Night Ferry tae Paris an Brussels. The openin o the Channel Tunnel in 1994 connectit Lunnon directly tae the continental rail network, allouin Eurostar services tae begin. Syne 2007, heich-speed trains link St. Pancras International wi Lille, Paris, Brussels an European tourist destinations via the High Speed 1 rail link an the Channel Tunnel. The first heich-speed domestic trains stairtit in Juin 2009 linking Kent tae Lunnon. Thare plans for a seicont heich speed line linkin Lunnon tae the Midlands, North West England, an Yorkshire.
Awtho rail freight levels are far doun compared tae thair heicht, significant quantities o cargo are an aa carried intae an oot o Lunnon by rail; chiefly biggin materials an landfill waste. As a major hub o the British railway network, Lunnon's tracks an aa cairy lairge amounts o freight for the ither regions, sic as container freight frae the Channel Tunnel an English Channel ports, an nuclear waste for reprocessing at Sellafield.
Buses an tramsEedit
Lunnon's bus network is ane o the lairgest in the warld, runnin 24 oor a day, wi aboot 8,500 buses, mair nor 700 bus routes an aroond 19,500 bus stops. In 2013, the network haed mair nor 2 billion commuter trips per annum, mair nor the Underground. Aroond £850 million is taen in revenue ilk a year. Lunnon haes the lairgest wheelchair accessible network in the warld an, frae the 3rd quarter o 2007, acame mair accessible tae hearin- an sicht- impaired passengers as audio-visual announcements wis introduced. The distinctive reid double-decker buses is a international recognised trademark o Lunnon transport alang wi black cabs an the Tube.
Lunnon haes a modern tram network, kent as Tramlink, centred on Croydon in South Lunnon. The network haes 39 stops an fower routes, an carried 28 million bodies in 2013. Syne Juin 2008 Transport for Lunnon haes completely owned Tramlink, an it plans tae spend £54m by 2015 on maintenance, renewals, upgrades an capacity enhancements.
Lunnon's first an anly cable car, kent as the Emirates Air Line, opened in Juin 2012. Crossin the River Thames, linking Greenwich Peninsula an the Royal Docks in the east o the ceety, the cable car is integratit wi Lunnon's Oyster Card ticketing system.
Cycling is an increasingly popular wey tae get aroond Lunnon. The launch o a cycle hire scheme in Julie 2010 haes been successfu an generally weel received. The Lunnon Cycling Campaign lobbies for better provision.
Port an river boatsEedit
Frae bein the lairgest port in the warld, the Port o Lunnon is nou anly the seicont-lairgest in the Unitit Kinrick, handling 45 million tonnes o cargo each year. Most o this actually passes throu the Port o Tilbury, ootside the boundary o Greater Lunnon.
Lunnon haes frequent river boat services on the Thames kent as Thames Clippers. Thir run up tae every 20 minutes atween Embankment Pier an North Greenwich Pier. The Woolwich Ferry, wi 2.5 million passengers every year, is a frequent service linking the North an South Circular Roads. Other operators run baith commuter an tourist boat services in Lunnon.
Awtho the majority o journeys involvin central Lunnon are made bi public transport, car traivel is common in the suburbs. The inner ring road (aroond the ceety centre), the North an South Circular roads (in the suburbs), an the outer orbital motorway (the M25, athoot the biggit-up aurie) encircle the ceety an are intersectit by a nummer o busy radial routes—but verra few motorways penetrate intae inner Lunnon. A plan for a comprehensive network o motorways atouer the ceety (the Ringways Plan) wis prepared in the 1960s but wis maistly cancelt in the air 1970s. The M25 is the langest ring-road motorway in the warld at 121.5 mi (195.5 km) long. The A1 an M1 connect Lunnon tae Leeds, an Newcastle an Edinburgh.
Lunnon is notorious for its traffic congestion, wi the M25 motorway the busiest stretch in the kintra. The average speed o a car in the rush oor is 10.6 mph (17.1 km/h).
In 2003, a congestion charge wis introduced tae reduce traffic volumes in the ceety centre. Wi a few exceptions, motorists are required tae pey £10 a day tae drive wiin a defined zone encompassing a fair bit o central Lunnon. Motorists wha is resident o the defined zone can buy a greatly reduced saison pass. Lunnon government initially expectit the Congestion Charge Zone tae increase daily peak period Underground an bus users by 20,000 people, reduce road traffic bi 10 tae 15 per cent, increase traffic speeds by 10 tae 15 per cent, an reduce queues by 20 tae 30 per cent. Ower the course o several years, the average nummer o cars enterin the centre o Lunnon on a weekday wis reduced frae 195,000 tae 125,000 cars – a 35-per-cent reduction o vehicles driven a day.
Lunnon is a major centre o heicher eddication lair an research an its 43 varsities form the lairgest concentration o heicher education institutes in Europe. In 2008/09 it haed a higher education student population o aroond 412,000 (aboot 17 per cent o the UK tot); oot o thaim, aroond 287,000 wis registered for unnergraduate degrees an 118,000 war studyin at postgraduate level. In 2008/09 thare war aroond 97,150 international students in Lunnon, aboot 25 per cent o aw international students in the UK.
A nummer o warld-leadin education institutions are based in Lunnon. In the 2014/15 QS World University Rankings, Imperial College Lunnon is ranked jynt 2nt in the warld (alongside The University o Cambridge), University College Lunnon (UCL) is ranked 5t, an Keeng's College Lunnon (KCL) is ranked 16t. The Lunnon School o Economics haes been describit as the warld's leadin social science institution for baith teaching an research. The Lunnon Business School is considert ane o the warld's leadin business schuils an in 2015 its MBA programme wis ranked seicont best in the warld bi the Financial Times.
Wi 120,000 students in Lunnon, the federal University o Lunnon is the lairgest contact teaching varsity in the UK. It includes fower lairge multi-faculty varsities – Keeng's College Lunnon, Queen Mary, Royal Holloway an UCL – an a nummer o smawer an mair specialised institutions includin Birkbeck, the Courtauld Institute o Art, Goldsmiths, Guildhall School o Music an Drama, the Institute o Education, the Lunnon Business School, the Lunnon School o Economics, the Lunnon School o Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, the Royal Academy o Music, the Central School o Speech an Drama, the Royal Veterinary College an the School o Oriental an African Studies. Members o the University o Lunnon hae thair ain admissions procedures, an some awaird thair ain degrees.
Thare a nummer o varsities in Lunnon that is ootwi the University o Lunnon system, includin Brunel University, City University Lunnon, Imperial College Lunnon, Keengston University, Lunnon Metropolitan University, Middlesex University, University o East Lunnon, University o West Lunnon an University o Westminster, (wi ower 34,000 students, the lairgest unitary varsity in Lunnon), Lunnon South Bank University, Middlesex University, University o the Arts Lunnon (the lairgest varsity o airt, design, fashion, communication an the performin arts in Europe), University o East Lunnon, the University o West Lunnon an the University o Westminster. In addition, thare three international varsities in Lunnon – Regent's College, Richmond University an Schiller International University.
Lunnon is home tae five major medical schools – Barts an The Lunnon School o Medicine an Dentistry (pairt o Queen Mary), Keeng's College Lunnon School o Medicine (the lairgest medical schuil in Europe), Imperial College School o Medicine, UCL Medical School an St George's, University o Lunnon – an haes numerous affiliatit teaching hospitals. Forbye, it is a major centre for biomedical research, an three o the UK's five academic health science centres is based in the ceety – Imperial College Healthcare, Keeng's Health Partners an UCL Partners (the lairgest sic centre in Europe).
Thare are a nummer o business schuils in Lunnon, includin the Lunnon School o Business an Finance, Cass Business School (pairt o City University Lunnon), Hult International Business School, ESCP Europe, European Business School Lunnon, Imperial College Business School an the Lunnon Business School. Lunnon is an aa hame tae mony specialeet arts education institutions, includin the Lunnon College o Contemporary Arts (LCCA), the Academy o Live an Recorded Arts, the Lunnon Contemporary Dance Scuil, RADA, the Royal College o Art, the Royal College o Music an Trinity Laban.
Primary an secondary educationEedit
The majority o primary an seicontar schuils an faur education colleges in Lunnon is controlt bi the Lunnon boroughs or otherwise state-funded; leadin ensaumples include City an Islington College, Ealing, Hammersmith an West Lunnon College, Leyton Sixth Form College, Tower Hamlets College an Bethnal Green Academy. Thare a nummer o private schuils an colleges in Lunnon an aa, some auld an famous, lik City o Lunnon Scuil, Harrow, St Paul's Scuil, University College Scuil, Highgate Scuil an Westminster Scuil.
Leisure an entertainmentEedit
wiin the City o Westminster, the entertainment destrict o the West End haes its focus aroond Leicester squerr, whaur Lunnon an warld film premieres are held, an Piccadilly Circus, wi its giant electronic advertisements. Lunnon's theatre destrict is here, as is mony cinemas, bars, clubs an restaurants, includin the ceety's Chinatown destrict (in Soho), an juist tae the east is Covent Garden, an aurie housing speciality shops. The ceety is the hame o Andrew Lloyd Webber, whase musicals hae dominate the West End theatre syne the late 20t century. The Unitit Kinrick's Royal Ballet, English National Ballet, Royal Opera an English National Opera are based in Lunnon an perform at the Royal Opera House, the Lunnon Coliseum, Sadler's Wells Theatre an the Royal Albert Hall as weel as tourin the kintra.
Islington's 1 mile (1.6 km) lang Upper Street, extendin northlins frae Angel, haes mair bars an restaurants nor ony ither street in the Unitit Kinrick. Europe's busiest shopping aurie is Oxford Street, a shopping street nearly 1 mile (1.6 km) long, makin it the langest shopping street in the Unitit Kinrick. Oxford Street is home tae vast nummers o retailers an department stores, includin the warld-famous Selfridges flagship store. Knightsbridge, hame tae the equally renowned Harrods department store, lees tae the sooth-wast.
Lunnon is home tae designers Vivienne Westwood, Galliano, Stella McCartney, Manolo Blahnik, an Jimmy Choo amang others; its renowned airt an fashion schuils mak it an international centre o fashion alang wi Paris, Milan, an New York ceety. Lunnon offers a great variety o cuisine as a result o its ethnically diverse population. Gastronomic centres include the Bangladeshi restaurants o Brick Lane an the Chinese food restaurants o Chinatown.
Thare is a variety o annual events, beginnin wi the relatively new New Year's Day Parade, fireworks display at the Lunnon Eye, the warld's seicont lairgest street party, the Notting Hill Carnival is held durin the late August Bank Holiday ilka year. Traditional parades include November's Lord Mayor's Show, a centuries-auld event celebrating the annual appointment o a new Lord Mayor o the ceety o Lunnon wi a procession alang the streets o the ceety, an Juin's Trooping the Colour, a formal military pageant performed by regiments o the Commonwealth an British armies tae celebrate the Queen's Official Birthday.
Literature, film an televisionEedit
Lunnon haes been the setting for mony works o literature. The literary centres o Lunnon hae tradeetionally been hilly Hampstead an (syne the early 20t century) Bloomsbury. Writers closely associatit wi the ceety are the diarist Samuel Pepys, notit for his eyewitness accoont o the Great Fire, Charles Dickens, whose representation o a foggy, snawy, grimy Lunnon o street sweepers an pickpockets haes been a major influence on people's vision o early Victorian Lunnon, an Virginia Woolf, regarded as ane o the foremost modrenist literary figurs o the 20t century.
The pilgrims in Geoffrey Chaucer's late 14t-century Canterbury Tales set oot for Canterbury frae Lunnon – specifically, frae the Tabard inn, Southwark. William Shakespeare spent a lairge pairt o his life livin an working in Lunnon; his contemporary Ben Jonson wis an aa based thare, an some o his work—maist notably his play The Alchemist—wis set in the ceety. A Journal o the Plague Year (1722) bi Daniel Defoe is a fictionalisation o the events o the 1665 Great Plague. Later important depictions o Lunnon frae the 19t an early 20t centuries are Dickens' novels, an Arthur Conan Doyle's Sherlock Holmes stories. Modern writers pervasively influenced bi the ceety include Peter Ackroyd, author o a "biography" o Lunnon, an Iain Sinclair, wha writes in the genre o psychogeography.
Lunnon haes played a significant role in the film industry, an haes major studios at Ealing an a special effects an post-production community centred in Soho. Working Title Films haes its headquarters in Lunnon. Lunnon haes been the setting for films includin Oliver Twist (1948), Scrooge (1951), Peter Pan (1953), The 101 Dalmatians (1961), My Fair Lady (1964), Mary Poppins (1964), Blowup (1966), The Long Good Friday (1980), Notting Hill (1999), Love Actually (2003), V For Vendetta (2005), Sweeney Todd: The Demon Barber o Fleet Street (2008) an The King's Speech (2010). Notable actors an filmmakers frae Lunnon include; Charlie Chaplin, Alfred Hitchcock, Michael Caine, Helen Mirren, Gary Oldman, Christopher Nolan, Jude Law, Tom Hardy, Keira Knightley an Daniel Day-Lewis. As o 2008, the British Academy Film Awards haes taen place at the Royal Opera House. Lunnon is a major centre for television production, wi studios includin BBC Television Centre, The Fountain Studios an The Lunnon Studios. Mony television programmes hae been set in Lunnon, includin the popular television soap opera EastEnders, broadcast bi the BBC syne 1985.
Museums an art galleriesEedit
Lunnon is home tae mony museums, galleries, an ither institutions, mony o thaim free o admission charges an are major tourist attractions as weel as playin a research role. The first o thaim tae be established wis the British Museum in Bloomsbury, in 1753. oreeginally containin antiquities, naitural history specimens an the national leebrar, the museum nou haes 7 million artefacts frae aroond the globe. In 1824 the National Gallery wis foondit tae hoose the British national collection o Western pentins; this nou occupies a prominent poseetion in Trafalgar squerr.
In the latter hauf o the 19t century the locale o South Kensington wis developed as "Albertopolis", a cultural an scientific quarter. Three major national museums are thare: the Victoria an Albert Museum (for the applied arts), the Natural History Museum an the Science Museum. The National Portrait Gallery wis foondit in 1856 tae hoose depictions o figurs frae British history; its holdings nou comprise the warld's maist extensive collection o portraits. The national gallery o British airt is at Tate Britain, oreeginally established as an annexe o the National Gallery in 1897. The Tate Gallery, as it wis umwhile kent, an aa became a major centre for modern airt; in 2000 this collection muived tae Tate Modern, a new gallery housed in the umwhile Bankside Power Station.
Lunnon is ane o the major classical an popular music capitals o the warld an is hame tae major muisic corporations, sic as EMI an Warner Music Group as weel as countless bands, musicians an industry professionals. The ceety is an aa home tae mony orchestras an concert halls, lik the Barbican Arts Centre (principal base o the Lunnon Symphony Orchestra an the Lunnon Symphony Chorus), Cadogan Hall (Royal Philharmonic Orchestra) an the Royal Albert Hall (The Proms). Lunnon's twa main opera houses are the Royal Opera House an the Coliseum Theatre. The UK's lairgest pipe organ is at the Royal Albert Hall. Other significant instruments are at the cathedrals an major kirks. Several conservatoires are wiin the ceety: Royal Academy o Music, Royal College o Music, Guildhall School o Music an Drama an Trinity College o Music.
Lunnon haes numerous venues for rock an pop concerts, includin lairge arenas sic as Earls Court, Wembley Arena an the O2 Arena, as weel as mony mid-sized venues, sic as Brixton Academy, the Hammersmith Apollo an the Shepherd's Bush Empire. Several music festivals, includin the Wireless Festival, are held in Lunnon. The ceety is hame tae the first an oreeginal Hard Rock Cafe an the Abbey Road Studios whaur The Beatles recorded mony o thair hits. In the 1960s, 1970s an 1980s, musicians an groups lik Elton John, Pink Floyd, David Bowie, Queen, The Kinks, The Rolling Stones, The Who, Eric Clapton, Led Zeppelin, The Small Faces, Iron Maiden, Fleetwood Mac, Elvis Costello, Cat Stevens, The Police, The Cure, Madness, The Jam, Dusty Springfield, Phil Collins, Rod Stewart an Sade, derived thair sound frae the streets an rhythms vibrating throu Lunnon.
Lunnon wis instrumental in the development o punk muisic, wi figurs sic as the Sex Pistols, The Clash, an Vivienne Westwood aw based in the ceety. Mair recent artists tae emerge frae the Lunnon music scene include George Michael, Kate Bush, Seal, Siouxsie an the Banshees, Bush, the Spice Girls, Jamiroquai, Blur, The Prodigy, Gorillaz, Mumford & Sons, Coldplay, Amy Winehouse an Adele. Lunnon is a centre for urban music an aa. In parteecular, the genres UK garage, drum an bass, dubstep an grime evolved in the ceety frae the foreign genres o hip hop an reggae, anent local drum an bass. Black music station BBC Radio 1Xtra wis set up tae support the rise o home-grown urban music baith in Lunnon an in the rest o the UK.
Parks an open spacesEedit
The lairgest parks in the central aurie o Lunnon are three o the aicht Royal Parks, namely Hyde Park an its neighbour Kensington Gardens in the wast, an Regent's Park tae the north. Hyde Park in parteecular is popular for sports an whiles hosts open-air concerts. Regent's Park conteens Lunnon Zoo, the warld's auldest scientific zoo, an is near the tourist attraction o Madame Tussauds Wax Museum. Primrose Hill in the northren pairt o Regent's Park at 256 feet (78 m) is a popular spot tae view the ceety skyline.
Close tae Hyde Park are smawer Royal Parks, Green Park an St. James's Park. A nummer o lairge parks lie ootside the ceety centre, includin the remainin Royal Parks o Greenwich Park tae the sooth-east an Bushy Park an Richmond Park (the lairgest) tae the sooth-wast, Hampton Court Park is an aa a royal park, but, acause it conteens a palace, it is administered bi the Historic Royal Palaces, unlik the aicht Royal Parks.
Close tae Richmond Park is Kew Gardens whilk haes the warld's lairgest collection o livin plants. In 2003, the gardens war pit on the UNESCO leet o World Heritage Sites. Thare a thrang o parks administert bi Lunnon's borough cooncils, includin Victoria Park in the East End an Battersea Park in the centre. Some mair informal, semi-naitural open spaces an aa exist, includin the 320-hectare (790-acre) Hampstead Heath o North Lunnon, an Epping Forest, whilk covers 2,476 hectares (6,118.32 acres) in the east. Baith is controlt bi the City o Lunnon Corporation. Hampstead Heath incorporates Kenwood House, the umwhile stately home an a popular location in the summer months whaur classical muisical concerts is held bi the lake, attracting thousans o fowk ilka weekend tae enjoy the muisic, scenery an fireworks. Epping Forest is a popular venue for various outdoor activities, includin moontain biking, walking, horse ridin, golf, anglin, an orienteerin.
Walking is a popular recreational activity in Lunnon. auries that provide for walks include Wimbledon Common, Epping Forest, Hampton Court Park, Hampstead Heath, the aicht Royal Parks, canals an disuised railway tracks. Access tae canals an rivers haes improved recently, includin the creation o the Thames Path, some 28 mile (45 km) o whilk is wiin Greater Lunnon, an The Wandle Trail; this rins 12 mile (19 km) throu South Lunnon alang the River Wandle, a tributary o the River Thames. Ither long distance paths, linkin green spaces, hae been creatit an aa, includin the Capital Ring, the Green Chain Walk, Lunnon Outer Orbital Path ("Loop"), Jubilee Walkway, Lea Valley Walk, an the Diana, Princess o Wales Memorial Walk.
Lunnon haes hostit the Simmer Olympics three times: in 1908, 1948, an 2012. It wis chosen in Julie 2005 tae host the 2012 Olympics an Paralympics, makin it the first ceety tae host the modren Gemmes three times. The ceety wis an aa the host o the Breetish Empire Gemmes in 1934. In 2017 Lunnon will host the World Championships in Athletics.
Lunnon's maist popular sport is fitbaw an it haes fourteen League fitbaa clubs, includin sax in the Premier League: Arsenal, Chelsea, Crystal Palace, Queens Park Rangers, Tottenham Hotspur, an West Ham United. In Mey 2012, Chelsea acame the first Lunnon club tae win the UEFA Champions League.
Frae 1924, the oreeginal Wembley Stadium wis the hame o the Inglish naitional fitba team. It hostit the 1966 FIFA World Cup Final, wi Ingland defeatin Wast Germany, an serd as the venue for the FA Cup Final as weel as rugby league's Challenge Cup final. The new Wembley Stadium sers exactly the same purposes an haes a capacity o 90,000.
Five Aviva Premiership rugby union teams is based in Lunnon, (Lunnon Irish, Saracens, Wasps, Lunnon Welsh an Harlequins), awbesit currently anly Harlequins an Saracens play thair hame gemmes wiin Greater Lunnon. Lunnon Scottish play in the RFU Championship club an ither rugby union clubs in the ceety include Richmond F.C., Rosslyn Park F.C., Westcombe Park R.F.C. an Blackheath F.C.. Twickenham Stadium in sooth-wast Lunnon is the naitional rugby union stadium, an haes a capacity o 82,000 nou that the new sooth staund haes been completit.
While rugby league is mair popular in the north o England, thare are twa professional rugby league clubs in Lunnon – the seicont tier Championship One team the Lunnon Broncos wha play at The Hive in Edgware an the third tier League 1 team the Lunnon Skolars frae Wood Green, Haringey; in addition, Hemel Stags frae Hemel Hempstead north o Lunnon play in League 1 an aa.
Ane o Lunnon's best-kent annual sports competitions is the Wimbledon Tennis Championships, held at the All England Club in the sooth-wastren suburb o Wimbledon. Played in late Juin tae early Julie, it is the auldest tennis tournament in the warld, an widely considered the maist prestigious.
Cricket in Lunnon is served by twa Test cricket grunds Lord's (hame o Middlesex C.C.C.) in St John's Wood an the Oval (home o Surrey C.C.C.) in Kennington. Lord's haes hostit fower finals o the Cricket World Cup.
Ither key events is the annual mass-participation Lunnon Marathon, in whilk some 35,000 runners attemp a 26.2 mile (42.2 km) course aroond the ceety, an the Oxford an Cambridge Boat Race on the River Thames atween Putney an Mortlake.
Thare 46 ither places on sax continents namit efter Lunnon. As weel as Lunnon's twinnin, the Lunnon burghs hae twinnins wi pairts o ither ceeties the warld ower. Shawn ablo is the leet o ceeties that the Greater Lunnon Authority haes twinnin arrangements wi:
The follaein ceeties hiv a freendship greement wi Lunnon:
- See an aa: Independent ceety § National capitals.
- The Lunnon Mayor isnae tae be confused wi the Lord Mayor o Lunnon wha heids the City o Lunnon Corporation, that administers the ceety o Lunnon.
- Rankings o ceeties by metropolitan aurie GDP can vary as a result o differences in the definition o the boundaries an population sizes o the auries compared, exchange rate fluctuations an the method uised tae calculate throu-pit. Lunnon an Paris are o about similar size in terms o total economic throu-pit that can result in third party sources varyin as tae whit ane o thaim is defined as haein the fifth- an sixth-lairgest ceety GDP in the warld. A report by the McKinsey Global Institute published in 2012 estimatit that Lunnon had a ceety GDP o US$751.8 billion in 2010, compared tae US$764.2 billion for Paris, makkin thaim respectively the saxt- an fift-mucklemaist in the warld. A report by PricewaterhouseCoopers published in November 2009 estimatit that Lunnon haed a ceety GDP measured in purchasing power parity o US$565 billion in 2008, compared tae US$564 billion for Paris, makkin thaim respectively the fift- an saxt-mucklemaist in the warld. The McKinsey Global Institute study uised a metropolitan aurie wi a population o 14.9 million for Lunnon compared tae 11.8 million for Paris, while the PricewaterhouseCoopers study uised a metropolitan aurie wi a population o 8.59 million for Lunnon compared tae 9.92 million for Paris.
- According tae the European Statistical Agency, Lunnon has the lairgest lairger Urban Zone that uises conurbations an auries o heich population as its definition. A ranking o population wiin municipal boundaries places Lunnon first. However, the University o Avignon in France claims that Paris is first an Lunnon second whan includin the hale urban aurie an hinterland, that is the outlying ceeties as well.
- Greater Lunnon isnae a ceety in the sense that the word applies in the Unitit Kinrick, that o havin ceety status grantit by the Crown.
- According tae the Collins English Dictionary definition o 'the seat o government', Lunnon isnae the offeecial capital o England, as England doesnae hae its ain government. Accordin tae the Oxford English Reference Dictionary definition o 'the maist important toun' an mony ither authorities.
"London, United Kingdom Forecast : Weather Underground (weather and elevation at Heathrow Airport)". The Weather Underground, Inc. Archived frae the oreeginal (online) on 19 May 2011. Retrieved 6 June 2008. Unknown parameter
|deadurl=ignored (help); Cite journal requires
|journal=(help)CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- "Population Growth in London, 1939–2015" (PDF). London Datastore. Greater London Authority. Archived frae the oreeginal on Feb 2015. Retrieved 7 July 2015. Unknown parameter
- "London". Collins Dictionary. n.d. Retrieved 23 September 2014.
- "The World Factbook". Central Intelligence Agency. 1 February 2014. Retrieved 23 February 2014.
- "Roman London". Museum o Lunnon. n.d. Archived frae the oreeginal on 22 June 2008.
- Mills 2001, p. 140
- "Government Offices for the English Regions, Fact Files: London". Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 4 May 2008.[deid airtin]
- Elcock, Howard (1994). Local Government: Policy and Management in Local Authorities. Lunnon: Routledge. p. 368. ISBN 978-0-415-10167-7.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Jones, Bill (2007). Politics UK. Harlow: Pearson Education. p. 868. ISBN 978-1-4058-2411-8. Unknown parameter
|author=suggested) (help)CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Adewunmi, Bim (10 March 2013). "London: the everything capital of the world". The Guardian. Lunnon.
- "What's The Capital Of The World?". More Intelligent Life. Retrieved 4 July 2013.
- "The World's Most Influential Cities 2014". Forbes. Retrieved 2 March 2015.
- "Global Power City Index 2014". Institute for Urban Strategies – The Mori Memorial Foundation. Retrieved 2 March 2015.
- "London is 'the most desirable city in the world tae work in', study finds". The Independent. Retrieved 2 March 2015.
- "London leads the UK for world-class research". Lunnon & Partners. Retrieved 2 March 2015.
- "Worldwide Centres of Commerce Index 2008" (PDF). Mastercard.
- "Global Financial Centres 9" (PDF). Z/Yen. 2011.
- "World's Most Economically Powerful Cities". Forbes. New York. 15 July 2008. Archived frae the oreeginal on 19 May 2011. Unknown parameter
- "The Most Dynamic Cities of 2025". Foreign Policy. September–October 2012. Retrieved 28 September 2012.
- "Global city GDP rankings 2008–2025". PricewaterhouseCoopers. Archived frae the oreeginal on 19 May 2011. Retrieved 16 November 2010. Unknown parameter
- Calder, Simon (22 December 2007). "London, capital of the world". The Independent. Lunnon.
- Teodorczuk, Tom (20 March 2007). "London is the world capital of the 21st century ... says New York". Lunnon Evening Standard.
- "London is world capital of culture says LSE expert" (Press release). Lunnon School o Economics. 11 March 2008.
- "Cultural Strategy". Greater Lunnon Authority. 6 September 2010. Retrieved 10 February 2012.
- "London tops ranking of destination cities". The Independent. Lunnon. 1 June 2011. Retrieved 12 June 2012.
- "Beijing tae overtake london as world's largest aviation hub". Centre for Aviation. Retrieved 12 June 2012.
- "Number of international students in London continues tae grow" (Press release). Greater Lunnon Authority. 20 August 2008. Archived frae the oreeginal on 19 May 2011.
- "IOC elects London as the Host City of the Games of the XXX Olympiad in 2012". International Olympic Committee. 6 July 2005. Retrieved 3 June 2006.
- "Languages spoken in the UK population". National Centre for Language. Archived frae the oreeginal on 19 May 2011. Retrieved 6 June 2008. Unknown parameter
- "Largest EU City. Over 7 million residents in 2001". Office for National Statistics. Archived frae the oreeginal on 26 July 2007. Retrieved 28 June 2008. Unknown parameter
- "Focus on London – Population and Migration | London DataStore". Greater Lunnon Authority. Retrieved 10 February 2012.
- "2011 Census – Built-up areas". ONS. Retrieved 29 June 2013.
- "Metropolitan Area Populations". Eurostat. 30 August 2012. Retrieved 4 May 2013.
- The London Plan – Introduction – Positioning London. Greater Lunnon Authority. Retrieved 12 July 2013.
- "London: The greatest city". Channel 4. Archived frae the oreeginal on 19 May 2011. Retrieved 12 October 2008. Unknown parameter
|deadurl=ignored (help)CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- "Lists: United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland". UNESCO. Retrieved 26 November 2008.
- "West End Must Innovate tae Renovate, Says Report". What's On Stage. Lunnon. 25 January 2008. Archived frae the oreeginal on 19 May 2011. Retrieved 15 November 2010. Unknown parameter
- "Oyster card celebrates 150th Tube anniversary". BBC News. 10 December 2012. Retrieved 10 January 2013.
- "Shanghai now the world's longest metro". Railway Gazette International. Lunnon. 4 May 2010. Archived frae the oreeginal on 19 May 2011. Retrieved 4 May 2010. Unknown parameter
- Mills 2001, p. 139
- Ackroyd, Peter (2 December 2001). "London". The New York Times. ISBN 978-0-7011-7279-4. Retrieved 28 October 2008.
- Coates, Richard (1998). "A new explanation of the name of London". Transactions o the Philological Society. 96 (2): 203–229. doi:10.1111/1467-968X.00027. Archived frae the oreeginal on 19 May 2011. Unknown parameter
|deadurl=ignored (help)CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Denison, Simon (July 1999). "First 'London Bridge' in River Thames at Vauxhall". British Archaeology (46). Archived frae the oreeginal on 19 May 2011. Retrieved 15 April 2011. Unknown parameter
- Milne, Gustav. "London's Oldest Foreshore Structure!". Frog Blog. Thames Discovery Programme. Archived frae the oreeginal on 19 May 2011. Retrieved 15 April 2011. Unknown parameter
- Perring, Dominic (1991). Roman London. Lunnon: Routledge. p. 1. ISBN 978-0-203-23133-3.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- "British History Timeline —Roman Britain". BBC. Archived frae the oreeginal on 19 May 2011. Retrieved 7 June 2008. Unknown parameter
- "The last days of Londinium". Museum o Lunnon. Archived frae the oreeginal on 8 January 2009. Retrieved 31 March 2013.
- "The early years of Lundenwic". The Museum o Lunnon. Archived frae the oreeginal on 10 June 2008.
- "Viking Attacks". https://web.cn.edu/kwheeler/. Retrieved 24 August 2014. Unknown parameter
|deadurl=ignored (help); External link in
- Vince, Alan (2001). "London". In Lapidge, Michael; Blair, John; Keynes, Simon; Scragg, Donald (eds.). The Blackwell Encyclopedia o Anglo-Saxon England. Blackwell. ISBN 978-0-631-22492-1.CS1 maint: uises editors parameter (link)
- Stenton, Frank (1971). Anglo-Saxon England (3rd ed.). Oxford University Press. pp. 538–539. ISBN 978-0-19-280139-5.
- Blair, John (2001). "Westminster". In Lapidge, Michael; Blair, John; Keynes, Simon; Scragg, Donald (eds.). The Blackwell Encyclopedia o Anglo-Saxon England. Blackwell. ISBN 978-0-631-22492-1.CS1 maint: uises editors parameter (link)
- "History – 1066 – King William". BBC. Archived frae the oreeginal on 19 May 2011. Retrieved 5 May 2008. Unknown parameter
- Tinniswood, Adrian. "A History of British Architecture — White Tower". BBC. Archived frae the oreeginal on 19 May 2011. Retrieved 5 May 2008. Unknown parameter
- "UK Parliament — Parliament: The building". UK Parliament. 9 November 2007. Archived frae the oreeginal on 11 March 2008. Retrieved 27 April 2008.
- "Palace of Westminster". UK Parliament. Archived frae the oreeginal on 4 April 2008. Retrieved 27 April 2008.
- Schofield, John; Vince, Alan (2003). Medieval Towns: The Archaeology of British Towns in Their European Setting. Continuum International Publishing Group. p. 26. ISBN 978-0-8264-6002-8.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- "Black Death". BBC History. Archived frae the oreeginal on 19 May 2011. Retrieved 3 November 2008. Unknown parameter
|deadurl=ignored (help); Cite journal requires
|journal=(help)CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- "Richard II (1367–1400)". BBC. Archived frae the oreeginal on 19 May 2011. Retrieved 12 October 2008. Unknown parameter
- Pevsner, Nikolaus. Lunnon I: The ceeties o Lunnon an Westminster rev. edition, 1962. Introduction p. 48.
- J. G. Pounds (1976). "An Historical Geography o Europe 450 B.C.-A.D. 1330, Part 1330". p. 430. CUP Archive,
- Ramsay, George Daniel (1986). The Queen's Merchants an the Revolt o the Netherlands: The End o the Antwerp Mart. Volume 2, pp. 1 an 62–63. Manchester University Press. ISBN 978-0-7190-1849-7
- The life an times o Sir Thomas Gresham, founner o the Royal Exchange: including notices o many o his contemporaries. wi illustrations, Volume 2, pages 80–81, John William Burgon, E. Wilson, 1839.
- Durston, Christopher (1993). James I. Lunnon: Routledge. p. 59. ISBN 978-0-415-07779-8.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- "A List of National Epidemics of Plague in England 1348–1665". Urban Rim. 4 December 2009. Archived frae the oreeginal on 3 May 2009. Retrieved 3 May 2010. Unknown parameter
- "Story of the plague". Channel 4. Archived frae the oreeginal on 19 May 2011.
- Pepys, Samuel (2 September 1666) . Mynors Bright (decipherer); Henry B. Wheatley (eds.). The Diary of Samuel Pepys. 45: August/September 1666. ISBN 978-0-520-22167-3. Archived frae the oreeginal on 19 May 2011. Unknown parameter
|deadurl=ignored (help)CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Schofield, John (17 February 2011). "London After the Great Fire: Civil War and Revolution". BBC History. Archived frae the oreeginal on 19 May 2011. Retrieved 4 July 2013. Unknown parameter
- "Rebuilding after the fire". Museum o Lunnon. Archived frae the oreeginal on 1 February 2008.
- The Rebuilding of London After the Great Fire. Thomas Fiddian. 1940. Retrieved 27 April 2008.
- The curious life o Robert Hooke, the man who measured Lunnon by Lisa Jardine
- "Thief Taker, Constable, Police". Public Broadcasting Service (PBS).
- Jackson, Peter (3 August 2009). "Rough justice – Victorian style". BBC News. Retrieved 13 December 2011.
- "National Affairs: Capital punishment: a fading practice". Time. New York. 21 March 1960. Retrieved 13 December 2011.
- "The Foundling Hospital". BBC History. 17 February 2011. Retrieved 13 December 2011.
- "When a man is tired of London, he is tired of life: Samuel Johnson". Archived frae the oreeginal on 19 May 2011. Unknown parameter
|deadurl=ignored (help)CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- "London: The greatest city". Channel 4. Archived frae the oreeginal on 19 May 2011. Retrieved 12 October 2008. Unknown parameter
|deadurl=ignored (help)CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- "Hidden extras: cholera comes tae Victorian London". Lunnon: The Science Museum. Retrieved 13 December 2011.
- Brown, Robert W. "London in the Nineteenth Century". University o North Carolina at Pembroke. Retrieved 13 December 2011.
- "London beats Paris tae 2012 Games". BBC Sport. 6 July 2005. Retrieved 28 September 2012.
- "London's population hits 8.6m record high". BBC News. Retrieved 2015-05-21.
- "About the Greater London Authority". Lunnon Government. Archived frae the oreeginal on 19 May 2011. Retrieved 27 September 2008. Unknown parameter
- "The London Plan". Greater Lunnon Authority. Archived frae the oreeginal on 25 May 2012. Retrieved 25 May 2012. Unknown parameter
- "Links tae other websites — London boroughs". Lunnon Government. Archived frae the oreeginal on 19 October 2007. Retrieved 27 September 2008.
- "About MOPAC". Greater Lunnon Authority. Retrieved 4 May 2013.
- "MPA: Metropolitan Police Authority". Metropolitan Police Authority. 22 May 2012. Retrieved 4 May 2013.
- "Policing". Greater Lunnon Authority. Archived frae the oreeginal on 21 January 2008. Retrieved 25 August 2009.
- "Areas". British Transport Police. Archived frae the oreeginal on 19 May 2011. Retrieved 25 August 2009. Unknown parameter
- "Who we are". Lunnon Fire Brigade. Archived frae the oreeginal on 19 May 2011. Retrieved 25 August 2009. Unknown parameter
- "About us". Lunnon Ambulance Service NHS Trust. Archived frae the oreeginal on 19 May 2011. Retrieved 25 August 2009. Unknown parameter
- "Station list". Maritime an Coastguard Agency. 2007. Archived frae the oreeginal on 19 May 2011. Retrieved 25 August 2009. Unknown parameter
- "Thames lifeboat service launched". BBC News. 2 January 2002. Archived frae the oreeginal on 19 May 2011. Retrieved 25 August 2009. Unknown parameter
- "10 Downing Street — Official Website". Archived frae the oreeginal on 10 May 2008. Retrieved 26 April 2008.
- "UK Politics: Talking Politics — The 'Mother of Parliaments'". BBC. 3 June 1998. Archived frae the oreeginal on 19 May 2011. Retrieved 6 June 2008. Unknown parameter
- "General Election Results 2015". Lunnon DataStore. Greater Lunnon Authority. 2015-05-08. Retrieved 2015-05-10.
- Beavan, Charles (1865). "Reports of Cases in Chancery, Argued and Determined in the Rolls Court". Saunners an Benning. Unknown parameter
|author=suggested) (help); Cite journal requires
|journal=(help)CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Stationery Office (1980). The Inner London Letter Post. H.M.S.O. p. 128. ISBN 978-0-10-251580-0.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Geographers' A-Z Map Company (2008). London Postcode and Administrative Boundaries (6 ed.). Geographers' A-Z Map Company. ISBN 978-1-84348-592-6.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- "The Essex, Greater London and Hertfordshire (County and London Borough Boundaries) Order". Office o Public Sector Information. 1993. Archived frae the oreeginal on 19 May 2011. Retrieved 6 June 2008. Unknown parameter
- Dilys, M Hill (2000). Urban Policy and Politics in Britain. St. Martin's Press. p. 268. ISBN 978-0-312-22745-6.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- "London in its Regional Setting" (PDF). Lunnon Assembly. Archived frae the oreeginal (PDF) on 27 May 2008. Retrieved 6 June 2008.
- London Government Act 1963. Office o Public Sector Information. ISBN 978-0-16-053895-7. Archived frae the oreeginal on 19 May 2011. Retrieved 6 May 2008. Unknown parameter
- "London — Features — Where is the Centre of London?". BBC. Archived frae the oreeginal on 18 January 2010. Retrieved 6 June 2008. Unknown parameter
- "Lieutenancies Act 1997". OPSI. Archived frae the oreeginal on 19 May 2011. Retrieved 7 June 2008. Unknown parameter
- Barlow, I. M. (1991). Metropolitan Government. Routledge. p. 346.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- (1994) Collins English Dictionary, Collins Education plc.
- Oxford English Reference Dictionary, Oxford English.
- "HC 501 0304.PDF" (PDF). Parliament Publications
- Schofield, John (June 1999). "British Archaeology" (45). British Archaeology. ISSN 1357-4442. Archived frae the oreeginal on 19 May 2011. Retrieved 6 May 2008. Unknown parameter
|deadurl=ignored (help); Cite journal requires
|journal=(help)CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- "Metropolis: 027 London, World Association of the Major Metropolises" (PDF). Retrieved 3 May 2010.[deid airtin]
- Sheppard, Francis (2000). London: A History. Oxford University Press. p. 10. ISBN 978-0-19-285369-1. Retrieved 6 June 2008.
- "Flooding". UK Environment Agency. Archived frae the oreeginal on 15 February 2006. Retrieved 19 June 2006.
- ""Sea Levels" – UK Environment Agency". Environment Agency. Archived frae the oreeginal on 23 May 2008. Retrieved 6 June 2008.
- Adam, David (31 March 2009). "Thames Barrier gets extra time as London's main flood defence". The Guardian. UK. Archived frae the oreeginal on 19 May 2011. Retrieved 7 November 2009. Unknown parameter
|deadurl=ignored (help)CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- "Climate statistics for Australian locations". bom.gov.au.
- "Weather Information for Naples". Worldweather.org. 5 October 2006. Retrieved 4 May 2013.
- tabella CLINO della stazione / CLINO Averages Listed for the station Napoli Capodichino[deid airtin]
- The Weather Network 18 November 2011
- Prévisions météo de Météo-France – Climat en France 18 November 2011
- World Weather Information Service – Toulouse 18 November 2011
- "August 2003 weather". Retrieved 18 September 2012.
- "January 1962 weather". Retrieved 18 September 2012.
- Johnson, H; Kovats, RS; McGregor, G; Stedman, J; Gibbs, M; Walton6, H (1 July 2005). "The impact of the 2003 heat wave on daily mortality in England and Wales and the use of rapid weekly mortality estimates". Eurosurveillance. 10 (7).
- "London's Urban Heat Island: A Summary for Decision Makers" (PDF). Greater Lunnon Authority. October 2006. Retrieved 29 April 2015.
- "Ever warmer as temperatures rival France". Telegraph. 16 May 2015.
- "London Heathrow Airport". Met Office. Retrieved 17 September 2014.
- "British Weather Extremes: Daily Maximum Temperatures". Torro. Retrieved 17 September 2014.
- "London Weather Centre analysis". weatheronline.co.uk. Retrieved 17 November 2014.
- "climate: Climate London Weather Centre". Tutiempo. Retrieved 17 November 2014.
- "London boroughs — London Life, GLA". Lunnon Government. Archived frae the oreeginal on 13 December 2007. Retrieved 3 November 2008.
- Dogan, Mattei; Kasarda, John D. (1988). The Metropolis Era. Sage. p. 99. ISBN 978-0-8039-2603-5.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- "London as a financial centre". Mayor o Lunnon. Archived frae the oreeginal on 6 January 2008.
- "West End still drawing crowds". BBC News. 22 October 2001. Archived frae the oreeginal on 19 May 2011. Retrieved 6 June 2008. Unknown parameter
- Meek, James (17 April 2006). "Super Rich". The Guardian. Lunnon. Archived frae the oreeginal on 19 May 2011. Retrieved 7 June 2008. Unknown parameter
- "Information on latest house prices in the Royal Borough". Royal Borough o Kensington an Chelsea.
- Rupert Jones (8 August 2014). "Average house prices in London jump 19 percent in a year". The Guardian. Lunnon. Retrieved 24 September 2014.
- Flynn, Emily (6 July 2005). "Tomorrow's East End". Newsweek. New York. Archived frae the oreeginal on 29 August 2006.
- Foyle, Jonathan (29 March 2011). "Hampton Court: The Lost Palace". BBC History. Archived frae the oreeginal on 19 May 2011. Retrieved 16 June 2013. Unknown parameter
- "Paddington Station". Great biggins. Archived frae the oreeginal on 19 May 2011. Retrieved 6 June 2008. Unknown parameter
|deadurl=ignored (help)CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Lonsdale, Sarah (27 March 2008). "Eco homes: Wooden it be lovely... ?". The Daily Telegraph. Lunnon. Archived frae the oreeginal on 19 May 2011. Retrieved 12 October 2008. Unknown parameter
- "Inside London's new 'glass egg'". BBC News. 16 July 2002. Archived frae the oreeginal on 19 May 2011. Retrieved 26 April 2008. Unknown parameter
- "Wildlife in London, England: LNHS Home page". lnhs.org.uk.
- Lunnon Natural History Society.
- "London's amphibians and reptile populations mapped". Laurie Tuffrey, The Guardian, Friday 27 July 2012
- "10,000 Foxes Roam London". James Owen in London for National Geographic News, May 15, 2006
- "Mammals". The Royal Parks.
- Peter Law. "London's first wild otter found". This Is Local Lunnon.
- "Mammals". cityofLunnon.gov.uk.
- Liam O'Brien, (24 March 2013). "Dead whale found floating in the Thames Estuary 'will be examined'". The Independent on Sunday (Lunnon).
- "BBC Nature - A Question of Nature: How hidden is the UK's wild side?". BBC Nature.
- Rachel Bishop (5 November 2012). "Richmond Park deer cull begins". Wandsworth Guardian. Lunnon. Retrieved 9 November 2012.
- "In pictures: London's urban deer". The Evening Standard.
- Emma Innes. "Photographer snaps Muntjac deer in Mill Hill garden". Times Series.
- "Table QS213EW 2011 Census: Country of birth (expanded), regions in England and Wales". Office for National Statistics. 26 March 2013. Retrieved 15 July 2015.
- "2011 Census. London population". Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 27 May 2015
- "The Principal Agglomerations o the World". City Population. Archived frae the oreeginal on 23 July 2010. Retrieved 3 March 2009. Unknown parameter
- "British urban pattern: population data" (PDF). ESPON project 1.4.3 Study on Urban Functions. European Spatial Planning Observation Network. March 2007. p. 119. Retrieved 22 February 2010.
- Leppard, David (10 April 2005). "Immigration rise increases segregation in British cities". The Times. Lunnon. Retrieved 8 August 2009. (subscription needit)
- Metropolis World Association o the Major Metropolises (PDF). ISBN 978-0-7306-2020-4. Retrieved 3 May 2010.[deid airtin]
- "Population density o London: by London borough, 2006" (PDF). UK Statistics Authority. Archived frae the oreeginal (PDF) on 24 June 2008.
- "'Rich List' counts more than 100 UK billionaires". BBC News Online. 11 May 2014. Retrieved 11 May 2014.
- "World's Most Expensive Cities 2004". CNN. 11 June 2004. Archived frae the oreeginal on 19 May 2011. Retrieved 16 August 2007. Unknown parameter
- "2011 Census: Key Statistics for Local Authorities in England and Wales". ONS. Retrieved 3 July 2014
- Paton, Graeme (1 October 2007). "One fifth o children frae ethnic minorities". The Daily Telegraph. Lunnon. Archived frae the oreeginal on 15 June 2009. Retrieved 7 June 2008. Unknown parameter
|deadurl=ignored (help)CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- ONS. "LC2109EWls - Ethnic group by age". www.nomisweb.co.uk. Retrieved 26 March 2015.
- Benedictus, Leo (21 January 2005). "Every race, colour, nation and religion on earth". The Guardian. Lunnon. Archived frae the oreeginal on 19 May 2011. Retrieved 6 May 2008. Unknown parameter
- "Census 2001: London". Office for National Statistics. Archived frae the oreeginal on 19 May 2011. Retrieved 3 June 2006. Unknown parameter
- Kyambi, Sarah (7 September 2005). Beyond Black and White: Mapping new immigrant communities. Institute for Public Policy Research. ISBN 978-1-86030-284-8. Archived frae the oreeginal on 19 May 2011. Retrieved 20 January 2007. Unknown parameter
- "Table 1.4: Estimated population resident in the United Kingdom, by foreign country o birth, July 2009 tae June 2010". Office for National Statistics. Archived frae the oreeginal on 19 May 2011. Retrieved 7 March 2011. Unknown parameter
|deadurl=ignored (help) figur given is the central estimate. See the source for 95 per cent confidence intervals.
- "2011 Census, Key Statistics for Local Authorities in England and Wales". Ons.gov.uk. 11 December 2012. Retrieved 4 May 2013.
- "About Saint Paul's Cathedral". Dean an Chapter St Paul's. Archived frae the oreeginal on 7 April 2008. Retrieved 27 April 2008.
- "Lambeth Palace Library". Lambeth Palace Library. Archived frae the oreeginal on 19 May 2011. Retrieved 27 April 2008. Unknown parameter
- "Westminster Abbey". Dean an Chapter o Westminster. Archived frae the oreeginal on 19 May 2011. Retrieved 27 April 2008. Unknown parameter
- "West Minster Cathedral". Westminster Cathedral. Archived frae the oreeginal on 27 March 2008. Retrieved 27 April 2008.
- "Church o England Statistics" (PDF). Church o England. Retrieved 6 June 2008. Cite journal requires
|journal=(help)CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Cite error: Invalid
<ref>tag; no text was provided for refs named
- "sikhchic.com - The Art and Culture o the Diaspora - Sikh-Britons Second Wealthiest: Government Report". sikhchic.com.
- "Comment: British Sikhs are the best insample o cultural integration". politics.co.uk.
- Bill, Peter (29 May 2008). "The $300 billion Arabs are coming". Lunnon Evening Standard. Archived frae the oreeginal on 19 May 2011. Retrieved 3 July 2013. Unknown parameter
- Census 2001 Key Statistics, Local Authorities in England and Wales Office for National Statistics
- "Hindu London". BBC Lunnon. 6 June 2005. Archived frae the oreeginal on 18 February 2006. Retrieved 3 June 2006.
- "£17 m Sikh temple opens". BBC News. 30 March 2003. Archived frae the oreeginal on 19 May 2011. Retrieved 7 June 2008. Unknown parameter
- "Stanmore". The Jewish Agency for Israel. Archived frae the oreeginal on 19 May 2011. Retrieved 12 October 2008. Unknown parameter
- Paul, Jonny (10 December 2006). "Livingstone apologizes tae UK's Jews". The Jerusalem Post. Archived frae the oreeginal on 19 May 2011. Retrieved 5 February 2011. Unknown parameter
- "Cracking Up!". p. 178. Lulu.com
- Brown, Jonathan (11 April 2006). "Jafaican and Tikkiny drown out the East End's Cockney twang". The Independent. Lunnon. Archived frae the oreeginal on 19 May 2011. Retrieved 22 August 2008. Unknown parameter
- "London's place in the UK economy, 2005–06" (PDF). City o Lunnon. Retrieved 11 March 2008.
- "The Economic Positioning of Metropolitan Areas in North Western Europe" (PDF). The Institute for Urban Planning an Development o the Paris Île-de-France Region. December 2002. Archived frae the oreeginal (PDF) on 24 June 2008. Retrieved 27 August 2008.
- "After the fall". The Economist. Lunnon. 29 November 2007. Archived frae the oreeginal on 19 May 2011. Retrieved 15 May 2009. Unknown parameter
- "Financial Centres — Magnets for money". The Economist. Lunnon. 13 September 2007. Archived frae the oreeginal on 19 May 2011. Retrieved 15 May 2009. Unknown parameter
- "London Stock Exchange". Lunnon Stock Exchange plc. 2008. Archived frae the oreeginal on 19 May 2011. Retrieved 27 April 2008. Unknown parameter
- "London's Place in the UK Economy, 2005–6" (PDF). Oxford Economic Forecasting on behalf o the Corporation o Lunnon. November 2005. p. 19. Retrieved 19 June 2006.
- Potter, Mark (17 February 2011). "London tops world cities spending league". Reuters. Archived frae the oreeginal on 19 May 2011. Retrieved 29 April 2011. Unknown parameter
- "ARCHIVED CONTENT] Provisional Port Statistics 2009". Department for Transport – Webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk. Archived frae the oreeginal on 19 May 2011. Retrieved 26 April 2011. Unknown parameter
- Lowe, Felix (19 February 2008). "Highgate trumps Chelsea as priciest postcode". The Daily Telegraph. Lunnon.
- "U.K.'s Most Expensive Postcodes". Forbes. 12 December 2007.
- "Availability". mydotLunnon.com.
- "London named as European City of the Future". Lunnon&Partners. Lunnon. 17 February 2014.
- "European Cities and Regions of the Future 2014/15". fDiIntelligence.com. Lunnon. 17 February 2014.
- "City Mayors: UK and European cities compared". citymayors.com.
- Global Property Guide. "Price per Square Meter United Kingdom - British Cost per Square Meter". Global Property Guide.
- "Gas distributors". https://www.ofgem.gov.uk/. Retrieved 15 September 2014. External link in
- "Electricity distributor". http://www2.nationalgrid.com/. Retrieved 15 September 2014. External link in
- "London is the HR centre of opportunity in the UK". PersonnelToday.com. 15 February 2005. Archived frae the oreeginal on 19 May 2011. Retrieved 3 June 2006. Unknown parameter
- ""The Importance of Tourism in London" (PDF). Archived frae the oreeginal (PDF) on 28 June 2007.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)", Visit Lunnon. Retrieved 3 June 2006.
- "Euromonitor International's Top 100 City Destinations Ranking". Euromonitor International. 10 January 2012. Retrieved 25 February 2012.
- ""London 101: One Hundred and One Amazing Facts About London" (PDF). Visit Lunnon. Archived frae the oreeginal (PDF) on 28 June 2007.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- "Top 10 London Attractions". Visit Lunnon. 1 April 2011. Archived frae the oreeginal on 19 May 2011. Retrieved 26 April 2011. Unknown parameter
- Emily Dugan (6 August 2014). "Housing shortage leaves homeless families 'stuck' in hostels for two years". The Independent. Lunnon. Retrieved 11 August 2014.
- "Immigration and housing" (PDF). Shelter. p. 9.
- "Transport for London". Transport for Lunnon. Archived frae the oreeginal on 18 January 2010. Retrieved 27 April 2008. Unknown parameter
- "How do I find out about transport in London?". Greater Lunnon Authority. Archived frae the oreeginal on 19 October 2007. Retrieved 5 June 2008.
- "BAA Heathrow: Official Website". BAA. Retrieved 27 April 2008.
- "Heathrow Airport Terminal 5". TMC Ltd. Archived frae the oreeginal on 19 May 2011. Retrieved 27 April 2008. Unknown parameter
- "Heathrow runway plans scrapped by new government". BBC News. 12 May 2010. Archived frae the oreeginal on 19 May 2011. Retrieved 30 January 2011. Unknown parameter
- "BAA Gatwick: Gatwick Airport". BAA. Archived frae the oreeginal on 19 May 2011. Retrieved 27 April 2008. Unknown parameter
- BAA Stansted : Stansted Airport. BAA. 2008. ISBN 978-0-86039-476-1. Archived frae the oreeginal on 19 May 2011. Retrieved 27 April 2008. Unknown parameter
- London Luton Airport. Lunnon Luton Airport. ISBN 978-0-11-510256-1. Archived frae the oreeginal on 19 May 2011. Retrieved 27 April 2008. Unknown parameter
- "London City Airport — Corporate Information". Lunnon ceety Airport Ltd. Archived frae the oreeginal on 19 May 2011. Retrieved 6 June 2008. Unknown parameter
- Transport for Lunnon. London Underground: History. ISBN 978-0-904711-30-1. Retrieved 30 December 2012.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- "Key facts". Transport for Lunnon. Retrieved 15 October 2009. Cite journal requires
|journal=(help)CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Schwandl, Robert (2001). London Underground. UrbanRail.net. ISBN 978-3-936573-01-5. Archived frae the oreeginal on 6 October 2006. Retrieved 24 September 2006.
- "Tube breaks record for passenger numbers" (Press release). Transport for Lunnon. 27 December 2007. Archived frae the oreeginal on 19 May 2011. Retrieved 5 February 2011. Unknown parameter
- "The London 2012 legacy". Transport for Lunnon. Retrieved 11 August 2013.
- "First Capital Connect". First Capital Connect. Archived frae the oreeginal on 1 February 2010. Retrieved 27 April 2008.
- "Rail Station Usage". Office o Rail Regulation. Archived frae the oreeginal on 16 July 2007. Retrieved 24 October 2009. Unknown parameter
- "Tube exits". Transport for Lunnon. Archived frae the oreeginal on 22 July 2007. Retrieved 24 October 2009. Unknown parameter
- "Crossrail Regional Map". Crossrail. Retrieved 8 September 2013.
- "Crossrail's giant tunnelling machines unveiled". BBC News. 2 January 2012.
- Leftly, Mark (29 August 2010). "Crossrail delayed tae save £1bn". The Independent on Sunday. Lunnon.
- "Rail". Lunnon First. Lunnon First. Retrieved 5 April 2014.
- "Eurostar". Eurostar. Archived frae the oreeginal on 19 May 2011. Retrieved 6 June 2008. Unknown parameter
- "Highspeed". Southeastern. Archived frae the oreeginal on 19 May 2011. Retrieved 5 February 2011. Unknown parameter
- August 2007, Rail Freight Strategy, Lunnon Rail
- "What we do – Buses". Transport for Lunnon. Transport for Lunnon. Retrieved 5 April 2014.
- "London's bus improvements get Parliamentary seal of approval". Transport For Lunnon. 23 May 2006. Archived frae the oreeginal on 19 May 2011. Retrieved 5 February 2011. Unknown parameter
- "London Black Cabs". Lunnon Black Cabs. Archived frae the oreeginal on 19 May 2011. Retrieved 27 April 2008. Unknown parameter
- "Tube". Transport for Lunnon. Archived frae the oreeginal on 19 May 2011. Retrieved 27 April 2008. Unknown parameter
- "What we do – Trams". Transport for Lunnon. Transport for Lunnon. Retrieved 5 April 2014.
- "Tramlink Factsheet". Transport for Lunnon. Summer 2009. Archived frae the oreeginal (PDF) on 11 March 2010. Retrieved 19 February 2010.
- "London Cycling Campaign". Rosanna Downes. 20 November 2006. Archived frae the oreeginal on 19 May 2011. Retrieved 27 April 2008. Unknown parameter
- Transport for London: Woolwich Ferry, 50 years on Retrieved 8 September 2013
- Campbell, Ken (2000). "Guinness World Records 2001". p. 150.
- "Beds, Herts and Bucks Travel — All you need tae know about the M25". BBC. 17 August 1988. Archived frae the oreeginal on 19 May 2011. Retrieved 20 February 2010. Unknown parameter
- Mulholland, Hélène (16 March 2009). "Boris Johnson mulls 'intelligent' congestion charge system for London". The Guardian. Lunnon. Archived frae the oreeginal on 19 May 2011. Retrieved 1 September 2009. Unknown parameter
|deadurl=ignored (help)CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- "Charging Zone". Transport for Lunnon. Archived frae the oreeginal on 19 May 2011. Retrieved 7 June 2008. Unknown parameter
|deadurl=ignored (help); Cite journal requires
|journal=(help)CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- "Who pays what". Transport for Lunnon. Archived frae the oreeginal on 8 June 2008. Retrieved 7 June 2008.
- "Residents". Transport for Lunnon. Archived frae the oreeginal on 19 May 2011. Retrieved 7 June 2008. Unknown parameter
- Santos, Georgina; Button, Kenneth; Noll, Roger G. "Lunnon Congestion Charging/Comments." Brookings-Wharton Papers on Urban Affairs. 15287084 (2008): 177,177–234.
- Table 3 in Santos, Georgina; Button, Kenneth; Noll, Roger G. "Lunnon Congestion Charging/Comments." Brookings-Wharton Papers on Urban Affairs.15287084 (2008): 177,177–234.
- "Numbers of students in London". Lunnon Higher. Archived frae the oreeginal on 19 May 2011. Retrieved 26 August 2010. Unknown parameter
- "QS World University Rankings – Overall for 2014". Retrieved 13 November 2014.
- Hipwell, Deirdre (23 September 2007). "The Sunday Times Good University Guide 2007 – Profile for London School of Economics". The Sunday Times. Lunnon. Archived frae the oreeginal on 19 May 2011. Retrieved 6 June 2008. Unknown parameter
|deadurl=ignored (help)CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- "FT Global MBA Rankings". Financial Times. Lunnon. Archived frae the oreeginal on 19 May 2015. Retrieved 25 January 2010. Unknown parameter
- "About us". University o Lunnon. Retrieved 1 December 2014.
- HESA Statistics: United Kingdom. HESA. Retrieved 6 April 2015
- "Colleges and Institutes". University o Lunnon. Archived frae the oreeginal on 19 May 2011. Retrieved 23 September 2010. Unknown parameter
- About London Met Lunnon Metropolitan University, August 2008
- "University of the Arts London". The Guardian. Lunnon. 1 May 2008. Archived frae the oreeginal on 19 May 2011. Retrieved 27 August 2010. Unknown parameter
- Carvel, John (7 August 2008). "NHS hospitals tae forge £2bn research link-up with university". The Guardian. Lunnon. Archived frae the oreeginal on 19 May 2011. Retrieved 6 September 2010. Unknown parameter
- "Piccadilly Lights". Land Securities. Archived frae the oreeginal on 19 May 2011. Retrieved 3 November 2008. Unknown parameter
- Sondheim and Lloyd-Webber: the new musical The New York Times.. refert tae Andrew Lloyd Webber as "the maist commercially successful composer in history"
- "Theatres and concert halls". Your Lunnon. Archived frae the oreeginal on 24 January 2008. Retrieved 6 June 2008.
- "2001: Public houses". BBC. Archived frae the oreeginal on 19 May 2011. Retrieved 4 June 2008. Unknown parameter
|deadurl=ignored (help); Cite journal requires
|journal=(help)CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- "Oxford Street gets its own dedicated local police team". The Lunnoner. September 2006. Archived frae the oreeginal on 30 September 2007. Retrieved 19 June 2007. Cite journal requires
|journal=(help)CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- "Chinatown — Official website". Chinatown Lunnon. Archived frae the oreeginal on 19 May 2011. Retrieved 27 April 2008. Unknown parameter
- "One Queen, Two Birthdays". Royal Government. Archived frae the oreeginal on 20 June 2008. Retrieved 27 September 2008.
- "London in Literature,". Bryn Mawr College. Archived frae the oreeginal on 19 May 2011. Retrieved 6 June 2008. Unknown parameter
- "Working Title Films". Universal Studios. Archived frae the oreeginal on 19 May 2011. Retrieved 27 April 2008. Unknown parameter
- "Organisation". National Portrait Gallery. Retrieved 18 November 2013.
- London's top 40 artists. BBC. 6 April 2006. ISBN 978-0-89820-135-2. Retrieved 9 September 2008.
- "Punk". Allmusic. Retrieved 19 February 2010.
- "History of music in London". The Lunnon Music Scene. Archived frae the oreeginal on 19 May 2011. Retrieved 2 August 2009. Unknown parameter
- Walker, Tim (28 July 2008). "Mumford & Sons, The Luminaire, London". The Independent (Lunnon). Retrieved 13 October 2012.
- Warren, Emma (9 December 2011). "From the Dug Out and dreads tae DMZ and dubstep: 10 classic club nights". Guardian Music Blog. Lunnon. Retrieved 13 October 2012.
- "Kensington Gardens". The Royal Parks. 2008. Archived frae the oreeginal on 19 May 2011. Retrieved 26 April 2008. Unknown parameter
- "Madame Tussauds — Official website". Madame Tussauds. Archived frae the oreeginal on 19 May 2011. Retrieved 6 June 2008. Unknown parameter
- "Madame Tussauds — Tourist Information". Tourist Information UK. Archived frae the oreeginal on 19 May 2011. Retrieved 26 April 2008. Unknown parameter
- Mills, A., Dictionary o Lunnon Place Names, (2001)
- "Green Park". The Royal Parks. 2008. Archived frae the oreeginal on 1 February 2010. Retrieved 26 April 2008. Unknown parameter
- "Greenwich Park". The Royal Parks. 2008. Archived frae the oreeginal on 19 May 2011. Retrieved 26 April 2008. Unknown parameter
- "Bushy Park". The Royal Parks. 2008. Archived frae the oreeginal on 19 May 2011. Retrieved 26 April 2008. Unknown parameter
- "Richmond Park". The Royal Parks. 2008. Archived frae the oreeginal on 19 May 2011. Retrieved 26 April 2008. Unknown parameter
- Richmond Borough Council
- "Kew, History & Heritage" (PDF). Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Retrieved 24 January 2013.
- "City of London Corporation Hampstead Heath". City o Lunnon Corporation. Archived frae the oreeginal on 19 May 2011. Retrieved 19 February 2010. Unknown parameter
- "Epping Forest You & Your Dog" (PDF). brochure. ceety o Lunnon. Retrieved 13 March 2010.
- Ramblers. "Corporation of London Open Spaces". Ramblers.org.uk. Retrieved 12 December 2011.
- "Green spaces". City o Lunnon. Retrieved 27 July 2012.
- "Kenwood House". English Heritage. Archived frae the oreeginal on 19 May 2011. Retrieved 26 April 2008. Unknown parameter
- "Epping Forest". cityofLunnon.gov.uk.
- Phil Marson. "Inner London Ramblers - Walk Ideas". innerLunnonramblers.org.uk.
- "Wandle Trail - Map". Sustrans.
- Ideas for Lunnon walks frae the Inner Lunnon Walking Group
- 125 years of Wimbledon: frae birth of lawn tennis tae modren marvels CNN. Retrieved 28 September 2011
- "Lord's". Cricinfo. Retrieved 22 August 2009.
- "London 1908". International Olympic Committee. Archived frae the oreeginal on 19 May 2011. Retrieved 5 February 2011. Unknown parameter
- "London 1948". International Olympic Committee. Archived frae the oreeginal on 19 May 2011. Retrieved 5 February 2011. Unknown parameter
- "England — Introduction". Commonwealth Games Federation. Archived frae the oreeginal on 19 May 2011. Retrieved 3 November 2008. Unknown parameter
- "London Defeats Doha tae host 2017 International Athletics Championships". Gamesbids.com. Retrieved 13 December 2011.
- "TheFA.com — Premier League". The FA.com. The Football Association. 17 January 2004. Archived frae the oreeginal on 27 October 2004. Retrieved 29 April 2008.
- "Wembley Stadium History — Official Website". Wembley National Stadium Limited. Archived frae the oreeginal on 3 April 2008. Retrieved 29 April 2008.
- "Wembley Stadium — Presspack — Facts and Figures". Wembley National Stadium Limitit. Archived frae the oreeginal on 16 May 2008. Retrieved 6 June 2008. Cite journal requires
- "Premiership Rugby: Clubs". Premier Rugby. Archived frae the oreeginal on 19 May 2011. Retrieved 5 August 2010. Unknown parameter
- "RFU apply for two additional concerts at Twickenham Stadium in 2007" (Press release). Twickenham Rugby Stadium. 3 October 2006. Archived frae the oreeginal on 25 June 2008.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- "Wimbledon — official website". The aw England Tennis an Croquet Club (AELTC). Archived frae the oreeginal on 23 April 2008. Retrieved 29 April 2008.
- Clarey, Christopher (7 May 2008). "Traditional Final: It's Nadal and Federer". The New York Times. Retrieved 17 July 2008.
Federer said[:] 'I love playing wi him, especially here at Wimbledon, the most prestigious tournament we have.'
- Will Kaufman & Heidi Slettedahl Macpherson, ed. (2005). "Tennis". Britain an the Americas. 1 : Culture, Politics, an History. ABC-CLIO. p. 958. ISBN 1-85109-431-8.
this first tennis championship, whilk later evolved intae the Wimbledon Tournament ... continues as the warld's maist prestigious event.
- Burke, Monte (30 May 2012). "What Is The Most Prestigious Grand Slam Tennis Tournament?". Forbes. New York. Retrieved 25 June 2013.
- "About Lord's—the home of cricket — official website". MCC. 2008. Archived frae the oreeginal on 19 May 2011. Retrieved 29 April 2008. Unknown parameter
- "The Brit Oval — Official Website". Surrey CCC. 2008. Archived frae the oreeginal on 19 May 2011. Retrieved 29 April 2008. Unknown parameter
- "Flora London Marathon 2008". Lunnon Marathon Ltd. Archived frae the oreeginal on 26 April 2008. Retrieved 29 April 2008.
- "The Oxford and Cambridge Boat Race — Official Website". The Oxford an Cambridge Boat Race. Archived frae the oreeginal on 19 May 2011. Retrieved 29 April 2008. Unknown parameter
|Wikimedia Commons haes media relatit tae Lunnon.|