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Ireland or Airlann (Erse: Éire), deskrived as the Republic o Ireland (or Republick o Airlann in Ulstèr-Scotch) (Erse: Poblacht na hÉireann), is a kintra in wastren Europe, wi a population o mair nor 4 million. It maks up maist o the iland o Ireland, an haes a mairch wi Northren Ireland, pairt o the Unitit Kinrick. It is a unitar, pairlamentar republic.[8] The legislatur, the Oireachtas, consists o a lawer house, Dáil Éireann, an upper house, Seanad Éireann, and an elected Preses (Uachtarán) that serves as the lairgely ceremonial heid o state, but wi some important pouers an duties. The heid o govrenment is the Taoiseach (Prime Meenister, leeterally 'Chief', a teetle nae uised in Inglis), that is electit bi the Dáil an appointit bi the President; the Taoiseach in turn appynts ither govrenment meenisters.

Ireland[a]
Éire  (Erse)
Anthem: "Amhrán na bhFiann"
"The Sodgers' Sang"
Location o  Ireland  (daurk green) – on the European continent  (green & daurk grey) – in the European Union  (green)
Location o  Ireland  (daurk green)

– on the European continent  (green & daurk grey)
– in the European Union  (green)

Caipital Dublin
53°20.65′N 6°16.05′W / 53.34417°N 6.26750°W / 53.34417; -6.26750
Lairgest ceety capital
Offeecial leids
Naitional leid Erse[1]
Ethnic groups (2016[2])
  • 82.2% White Erse
  • 9.5% Ither White
  • 2.6% Nae stated
  • 1.7% Ither Asie / Asie Erse
  • 1.5% Ither
  • 1.2% Black Erse / Black African
  • 0.7% Erse Traveller
  • 0.4% Cheenese
  • 0.1% Ither Black
Demonym Erse
Govrenment Unitar pairlamentar republic
• Preses
Michael D. Higgins
• Taoiseach
Leo Varadkar
• Tánaiste
Frances Fitzgerald
Legislatur Oireachtas
Seanad
Dáil
Unthirldom frae the Unitit Kinrick
24 Apryle 1916
21 Januar 1919
6 December 1921
6 December 1922
29 December 1937
18 Apryle 1949
• Jyned the EEC
1 Januar 1973
Aurie
• Total
70,273 km2 (27,133 sq mi) (120t)
• Water (%)
2.00
Population
• 2016 census
4,761,865[3] (120t)
• Density
67.7/km2 (175.3/sq mi) (142nt)
GDP (PPP) 2017 estimate
• Total
$344 billion[4] (56t)
• Per capita
$72,529[4] (7t)
GDP (nominal) 2017 estimate
• Tot
$294 billion[4] (42nt)
• Per capita
$62,085[4] (4t)
Gini (2014) negative increase 30.0[5]
medium · 23rd
HDI (2015) Increase 0.923[6]
verra heich · 8th
Currency Euro ()[note 1] (EUR)
Time zone UTC (GMT/WET)
• Summer (DST)
UTC+1 (IST/WEST)
Date format dd/mm/yyyy
Drivin side left
Cawin code +353
ISO 3166 code IE
Internet TLD .ie[b]
  1. ^ Article 4 o the Constitution o Ireland declares that the name o the state is Ireland; Section 2 o the Republic of Ireland Act 1948 declares that Republic of Ireland is "the description of the State".[7]
  2. ^ The .eu domain is an aa uised, as it is shared wi ither European Union member states.

The state wis creautit as the Erse Free State in 1922 as a result o the Anglo-Erse Treaty. It haed the status o Domeenion till 1937 whan a new constitution wis adoptit, in that the state wis named "Ireland" and effectively becam a republic, wi an electit non-executive preses as heid o state. It wis offeecially declared a republic in 1949, follaein the Republic of Ireland Act 1948. Ireland becam a member o the Unitit Naitions in December 1955. It jynt the European Economic Community (EEC), the predecessor o the European Union, in 1973. The state haed na formal relations wi Northren Ireland for maist o the twentiet century, but in the 1980s an 1990s the Breetish an Erse govrenments wirkit wi the Northren Ireland pairties taewart a resolution tae "the Tribbles". Syne the signin o the Guid Fryday Greement in 1998, the Erse govrenment an Northren Ireland Executive hae co-operatit on a nummer o policy auries unner the North-Sooth Meenisterial Cooncil creautit bi the Greement.

Ireland ranks amang the tap twenty-five walthiest kintras in the warld in terms o GDP per capita,[9] an as the tent maist prosperous kintra in the warld accordin tae The Legatum Prosperity Index 2015.[10] Efter jynin the EEC, Ireland enactit a series o leeberal economic policies that resultit in fest economic growthe. The kintra achieved conseederable prosperity atween the years o 1995 an 2007, that becam kent as the Celtic Teeger period. This wis hautit bi an unprecedentit financial creesis that begoud in 2008, in conjunction wi the concurrent global economic crash.[11][12] Houiver, as the Erse economy wis the festest growin in the EU in 2015,[13] Ireland is again quickly ascendin league cairts comparin walth an prosperity internaitionally. For ensaumple, in 2015, Ireland wis rankit as the jynt saxt (wi Germany) maist developit kintra in the warld bi the Unitit Naitions Human Development Index.[14] It an aw performs weel in several naitional performance metrics, includin freedom o the press, economic freedom an ceevil leeberties. Ireland is a member o the European Union an is a foondin member o the Cooncil o Europe an the OECD. The Erse govrenment haes follaed a policy o militar neutrality throu non-alignment syne immediately prior tae Warld War II an the kintra is consequently nae a member o NATO,[15] awtho it is a member o Pairtnership for Peace.

HistoryEedit

 
Nicht view o Dublin, the caipital o the Republic o Ireland

NotesEedit

  1. Prior tae 2002, Ireland uised the punt (Erse poond) as its circulatit siller. The euro wis introduced as an accoonting siller in 1999.

ReferencesEedit

  1. 1.0 1.1 "Official Languages Act 2003". Office of the Attorney-General. Retrieved 18 February 2012. 
  2. "CSO Census 2016 Chaper 6 - Ethnicity and Irish Travellers" (PDF). Retrieved 28 April 2017. 
  3. "Census 2016 Summary Results - Part 1" (PDF). 6 April 2017. 
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 "Ireland". International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 1 April 2017. 
  5. "Gini coefficient of equivalised disposable income (source: SILC)". Eurostat Data Explorer. Retrieved 4 December 2015. 
  6. "2016 Human Development Report" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 2016. Retrieved 23 March 2017. 
  7. John Coakley (20 August 2009). Politics in the Republic of Ireland. Taylor & Francis. p. 76. ISBN 978-0-415-47672-0. Retrieved 2 May 2011. 
  8. L. Prakke; C. A. J. M. Kortmann; J. C. E. van den Brandhof (2004), Constitutional Law of 15 EU Member States, Deventer: Kluwer, p. 429, ISBN 9013012558, Since 1937 Ireland has been a parliamentary republic, in which ministers appointed by the president depend on the confidence of parliament 
  9. "Country Comparison: GDP – per capita (PPP)". World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 29 August 2011. 
  10. "Legatum Prosperity Index" (PDF). The Legatum Institute. Retrieved 7 June 2016. 
  11. "EU: Causes of Growth differentials in Europe", WAWFA think tank
  12. Nicoll, Ruaridh (16 May 2009). "Ireland: As the Celtic Tiger roars its last". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 30 March 2010. 
  13. "Financial Times". ft.com. FT. Retrieved 7 June 2016. 
  14. "Human Development Report 2015" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. Retrieved 17 February 2016. 
  15. "NATO - Member countries". NATO. NATO. Retrieved 29 December 2014.