Inglis leid

Wast Germanic leid fae Ingland

Inglis (Inglis: English) is a Wast Germanic leid that arose in the Anglo-Saxon kinricks o England an spread intae whit wis tae become sooth-east Scotland unner the influence o the Anglian medieval kinrick o Northumbrie. Follaein the economic, poleetical, military, scienteefic, cultural, an colonial influence o Great Breetain an the Unitit Kinrick frae the 18t century, via the Breetish Empire, an o the Unitit States syne the mid-20t century,[3][4][5][6] it haes been widely dispersed aroond the warld, become the leadin leid o internaitional discourse, an haes acquired uise as lingua franca in mony regions.[7][8] It is widely learnit as a seicont leid an uised as an offeecial leid o the European Union an mony Commonwealth kintras, as well as in mony warld organisations. It is the third maist natively spoken leid in the warld, efter Mandarin Cheenese an Spaingie.[9]

RegionOreeginally Ingland
nou warldwide
Native speakers
360–400 million (2006)[1]
L2 speakers: 400 million;
as a foreign leid: 600–700 million[1]
Early forms
Manually coded Inglis
(multiple seestems)
Offeecial status
Offeecial leid in
Leid codes
ISO 639-1en
ISO 639-2eng
ISO 639-3eng
  Kintras o the warld whaur Inglis is a majority native leid
  Kintras whaur Inglis is offeecial but nae a majority native leid
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Historically, Inglis originatit frae the fusion o leids an dialects, noo collectively kent as Auld Inglis, whilk wur brocht tae the eastren coast o Great Breetain bi Germanic (Anglo-Saxon) settlers beginnin in the 5t century – wi the wird "Inglis" bein derived frae the name o the Angles.[10] A significant nummer o Inglis wirds are constructit based on roots frae Latin, acause Latin in some form wis the lingua franca o the Christian Kirk an o European intellectual life.[11] The leid wis faur influenced bi the Auld Norse leid wi Viking invasions in the 8t an 9t centuries.

The Norman conquest o Ingland in the 11t century gae rise tae hivy borrowins frae Norman-French, an vocabulary an spelling conventions began tae gie the superficial appearance o a close relationship wi Romance leids[12][13] tae whit haed nou become Middle Inglis. The Great Vowel Shift that began in the sooth o Ingland in the 15t century is ane o the historical events markin the separation o Middle an Modern Inglis.

Awin tae the significant assimilation o various European leids throughoot historie, modren Inglis is aften seen as haein a gey muckle vocabulary. The Oxford Inglis Dictionary leets ower 250,000 distinct wirds, an daes nae include mony technical or slang terms, or wirds that belang tae multiple wird classes.[14][15]



The name "Inglis" comes frae the pairt o Germany an Denmark cried "Angeln". The spellin Inglis is a leeterar archaism frae aulder Scots that enthusiasts is gey fond o. It wis sount [ɪŋ'lɪs] (cf. Scottis), wi time the is wis cuttit tae s an the modren ootcome wis [ɪŋ'(ə)lz] that can be seen in the faimly name wi the mair mensefu modren spellin Ingles. Maist fowk the nou says ['ɪŋlɪʃ], English, tho some fowk scrieves Inglish fir fear that fowk micht soond the foregaun wrang. Mony fowk soonds Inglis ['ɪŋglɪs] efter the English soond-tae-letter spellin.


EN (ISO 639-1)

Modern Inglis, sumtimes descrived as the first global lingua franca,[16][17] is the dominant leid or in some instances even the required internaitional leid o communications, science, information technology, business, aviation, entertainment, radio an diplomacy.[18] Its spread ayont the Breetish Isles began wi the growthe o the Breetish Empire, an bi the late 19t century its reach wis truly global. Follaein the Breetish colonisation o North Americae, it acame the dominant leid in the Unitit States an in Canadae. The growin economic an cultural influence o the US an its status as a global superpouer syne Warld War II hae significantly acceleratit the leid's spread across the planet.[17]

A wirkin kennin o Inglis haes become a requirement in a number o fields, occupations an professions sic as medicine an computin; as a consequence ower a billion fowk speak Inglis tae at least a basic level (see Inglis leid learnin an teachin). It is ane o sax offeecial les o the Unitit Nations.

Ane impact o the growthe o Inglis haes been tae reduce native linguistic diversity in mony pairts o the warld, an its influence continues tae play an important role in leid attrition.[19] Conversely the naitural internal variety o Inglis alang wi creoles an pidgins hae the potential tae produce new distinct leids frae Inglis ower time.[20]


  1. a b Crystal 2006, pp. 424–426.
  2. Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Standard English". Glottolog. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology.
  3. Ammon, pp. 2245–2247.
  4. Schneider, p. 1.
  5. Mazrui, p. 21.
  6. Howatt, pp. 127–133.
  7. Crystal, pp. 87–89.
  8. Wardhaugh, p. 60.
  9. "Summary by language size". Ethnologue: Languages of the World. Retrieved 10 Februar 2015.
  10. "English — Definition from the Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary". 25 Apryle 2007. Retrieved 2 Januar 2010.
  11. "Old English language — Latin influence". Archived frae the original on 31 August 2011. Retrieved 2 Januar 2010.
  12. "Words on the brain: from 1 million years ago?". History of language. Retrieved 5 September 2010.
  13. Albert C. Baugh & Thomas Cable (1978). "Latin Influences on Old English". An excerpt from Foreign Influences on Old English. Archived frae the original on 27 November 2010. Retrieved 5 September 2010.
  14. "How many words are there in the English Language?". Archived frae the original on 30 November 2011.
  15. Vista Worldwide Lanugage Statistics
  16. "Global English: gift or curse?". Archived frae the original on 5 Februar 2016. Retrieved 4 Apryle 2005.
  17. a b Graddol, David (1997). "The Future of English?" (PDF). The British Council. Archived frae the original (PDF) on 28 Juin 2014. Retrieved 15 Apryle 2007.
  18. "The triumph o Inglish". The Economist. 20 December 2001. Retrieved 26 Mairch 2007.(subscription needit)
  19. Crystal, David (2002). Language Death. Cambridge University Press. doi:10.2277/0521012716. ISBN 0-521-01271-6.
  20. Cheshire, Jenny (1991). English Around The World: Sociolinguistic Perspectives. Cambridge University Press. doi:10.2277/0521395658. ISBN 0-521-39565-8.