The horse (Equus ferus caballus) is ane o twa extant subspecies o Equus ferus. It is an odd-taed ungulate mammal belangin tae the taxonomic faimily Equidae. Accordin tae scienteefic consensus, the horse haes evolved ower the past 45 tae 55 million years frae a smaw multi-taed craitur, Eohippus, intae the lairge, single-taed ainimal o the day. Humans begoud tae domesticate horse aroond 4000 BC, an thair domestication is believed tae hae been widespread bi 3000 BC. Horse in the subspecies caballus are domesticatit, awtho some domesticatit populations leeve in the wild as feral horse. Thir feral populations are nae true wild horse, as this term is uised tae descrive horse that hae niver been domesticatit, such as the endangered Przewalski's horse, a separate subspecies, an the anerly remeenin true wild horse. Thare is an extensive, specialised vocabulary uised tae descrive equine-relatit concepts, coverin everything frae anatomy tae life stages, size, colours, merkins, breeds, locomotion, an behaviour.
Horse anatomy enables them tae mak uise o speed tae escape predators an thay have a well-developit sense o balance an a strang fecht-or-flicht response. Relatit tae this need tae flee frae predators in the wild is an unuisual trait: horse are able tae sleep baith staundin up an leein down. Female horse, cried meirs, cairy thair young for approximately 11 months, an a young horse, cried a foal, can staund an run shortly follaeing birth. Maist domesticatit horses begin trainin unner saidle or in harnish atween the ages o twa an fower. Thay reach full adult development bi age five, an hae an average lifespan o atween 25 an 30 years.
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