Scots leid

Germanic leid

Scots (or "Lallans", a poetic spellins for lawlands, Scots Gaelic: Beurla Ghallta/Albais) is a Wast Germanic leid o the Anglic varietie that's spaken on the Lawlands an Northren Isles o Scotland an en tha stewartrie o Ulster en Ireland (whaur it's kent as "Ulster-Scots", "Scotch", or "Ullans"). En maist airts, hit is spaken anent tha Scots Gaelic an Inglis leids.

(Braid) Scots, Lallans
Native taeUnitit Kinrick, Republic o Ireland
RegionScotland: Scots Lawlands, Northren Isles, Caithness, Arran an Cammeltoun
Ulster (Ireland): Coonties Doun, Antrim, Derry an Donegal
Native speakers
110,000–125,000 (1999–2011)[1]
1.5 million L2 speakers.[2]
In the 2011 census, respondents indicatit that 1.54 million (30%) are able tae speak Scots.[3]
Early forms
Offeecial status
Recognised minority
leid in
Unitit Kinrick (Scotland an Northren Ireland)
Regulatit biScotland: Nane, altho the Dictionar o the Scots Leid carries muckle authoritie n the Scots Govrenment's Partnership for a Better Scotland coalition agreement (2003) promises "support"..
Ireland: Nane, altho the cross-border Boord o Ulstèr-Scotch, established aes aen ootcome o the Guid Friday Greeance, promotes uissage.
Leid codes
ISO 639-2sco
ISO 639-3sco
Linguasphere52-ABA-aa (varieties:
52-ABA-aaa to -aav)
Idioma escocés.png
Auries whaur the Scots leid wis spoken in the 20t centuair[4][5]

Up til tha 15t yeirhunder Scottis (modren furm Scots) wis the name o "Gaelic", the Celtic leid o th' aunshint Scots. Thaim that bruikit Scots cried tha Gaelic Erse (meinin Irish). Tha Gaelic o Scotland is nou maistlì cried Scots Gaelic an is yit spaken bi sum en tha wastren Scots Hielands an ilands. Fer tha maist pairt, Scots cums fae tha Northumbrian kyn o Anglo-Saxon (Auld Inglis), tho wi a litil influenss fae th' Auld Norse bi waa o tha Vikings, tha Dutch an Laich Saxon throoch troke wi (an incummers fae) tha laich kintras, an tha Romance bi waa o kirk an legal Laitin, Anglo-Norman an syn Pairisian French cause o th' Auld Alliance.

Anglian spikkers wer weil staiblisht in sooth-eist Scotland bi tha 7t yeirhunder. In tha 13t yeirhunder Norman launainers an thair reteiners, speakin Northumbrian Middil Inglis, war bade tae cum an sattil bi tha King. Scots kyth'd fer tha first tym en scrieved form en tha mids o tha 14t yeirhunder an didnae differ mukkil fae ither northren Inglis byleids. Th' Anglian leid o Scotland gra an its ain sinsyn. Bi tha lat 15t yeirhunder tha sicht fowk haed o tha differs wi tha leid spaken faurder sooth cam til tha fore an Scots-spikkin Scots begoud tae crie thair leid "Scots". Scots haes lend-wirds fae tha fak thit tha Scots fowk haed contak wi Gaelic spikkers. Thair lend-wirds is fer ordinair anerlì fer geographical an cultural hings, sik as clan an loch. Lyk onì leivin leid, Scots haes chynged ae bittie ower tha yeirs, tho hit haes arguablì stey'd naurer til its Anglo-Saxon springheid than Inglis. Monie Scots wirds hae becum pairt o the Inglis ava: flit, greed, eerie, cuddle, clan, stob.

En Scotland's census o 2011, ae speir on Scots wis speired.

Scrievid ScotsEedit

Monie writers nou evyts apostrofies whaur thay ar thocht tae shaw letters thit's "missin" fae Inglis (the apologeteec apostrophe). Sikna letters niver wer missin en Scots at aw. Fur exemple, en the twalt yeirhunder, Barbour spelt the Scots cognate o taken as 'tane'. Haein been nae k en the wird fer mair nor 700 yeir, shawin the want o't wi aen apostrofie coud be caa'd specious. The modren speelin is for ordinair 'taen'. Vouel nummers is fae Aitken n the foneteecs is en IPA. Maugre the establisht tradeetional speelin conventions descrived ablo, durin the twantiet centuair ae wheen o propones fer speelin reform wis pitten forrit. Commentin on sicweys, John Corbett (2003: 260) writes thit "devisin ae normativ ortografee fer Scots haes been waen o the grattest linguestic hobbies o the past centuair." N writin aneat the affcome o thon en Lallans 57, Caroline Macafee merkit that speelin reform "haes had the effeck o caain doun the kynd-o-a staudartisation that aareadie exeestit" n that "Speelin haes gotten tae be ae free-fer-aw, wi the tradeetional model bemeanit, n nae populair replacement" leadin til mair speelin variation, nae less.


Maist consonants is fer ordinair soondit sic n sae as en Inglis bit:

  • c: /k/ or /s/, as en Inglis.
  • ch: /x/,[6] gh an aw. Medial 'cht' micht be /ð/ in Northren dialects. loch, nicht, dochter, dreich, etc. Seemilar til the German "Nacht".
  • ch: waird ineetial or whaur it follaes 'r' /tʃ/. airch, mairch, etc.
  • ck: at the end o a silable[7] n whan intervocaleec[8] efter ae cuttie vouel e.g. bick, geck, muckle, ruck, etc.
  • gn: /n/. In Northren dialects /ɡn/ micht kythe.[9]
  • kn: /n/. In Northren dialects /kn/ or /tn/ micht kythe.[9] knap knee, knowe, etc.
  • ng: is aye /ŋ/.[10]
  • nch: fer ordinair /nʃ/.[11] brainch, dunch, etc.
  • r: /r/ or /ɹ/ is pronoonced in aw positions,[12] i.e. rhoteeclie.
  • s or se: /s/ or /z/.[13]
  • t: micht be ae glottal stap atween vouels or waird final.[9] En Ulster dentalised soondins micht kythe an aw, even fer 'd'.
  • th: /ð/ or /θ/ as is Inglis. En Mid Northren varieties n intervocallic /ð/ micht be soondit /d/.[14] Initial 'th' en thing, think and thank, etc. micht be /h/.[15]
  • wh: fer ordinair /ʍ/, aulder /xʍ/.[6] Northren byleids haes /f/ an aw.[15]
  • wr: /wr/ mair aften /r/ bit micht be /vr/ en Northern byleids.[15] wrack, wrang, write, wrocht, etc.
  • z: /jɪ/ or /ŋ/, micht kythe en som wirds aes ae substitute fer the aulder <ȝ> (yoch). Fer example: brulzie, gaberlunzie n the names Menzies, Finzean, Culzean, Mackenzie etc. (Aes aen affcome o the want o edducation in Scots, Mackenzie is nou generally soondit wi ae /z/ follaein the perceeved soondin o the scrieved form, aes mair controversial is whiles Menzies.)

Seelent lettersEedit

  • The wird final 'd' in nd n ld[16] bit aften soodit in derived forms. Whiles jist 'n' n 'l' or 'n'' n 'l'' e.g. auld n haund etc., aes en the Dens leid.
  • 't' en medial cht ('ch' = /x/) n st n afore final en[17] e.g. fochten, thristle n the 't' in aften etc. an aw., as in Inglis.
  • 't' en wird final ct n pt[17] bit aften soondit en derived forms e.g. respect n accept etc.


Fer ae histereecal luikower see the Phonologeecal histerie o Scots.

The vouel seestem o Scots (in IPA):[18]

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 8a 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 1. Generally merges wi vouels 2, 4 or 8.

2. Merges wi vouels 1 an 8. in central dialects
  an vowel 2 in Northren dialects.
  Also /(j)u/ or /(j)ʌ/ afore /k/ an /x/ dependin on dialect.
3. Vocalisation tae /o/ micht kythe afore /k/.
4. Antrin mergers wi vouel 5.

cuttie /əi/
lang /aɪ/
/i/ /e, i/1 /e/ /o/ /u/ /ø/2 /eː/ /əi/ /oe/ /əi/ /iː/ /ɑː, ɔː/ /ʌu/3 /ju/ /ɪ/ /ɛ/ /ɑ, a/ /ɔ/4 /ʌ/

En Scots, vouel length is fer ordinair condeetiont bi the Scots Vouel Lenth Rule. Wirds that differ jist ae bittie en soondin fae Scots Ingils is fer ordinair spelt aes en Ingils. Ither wirds micht be spelt the same wa bit differ en soondin, fer ensaumple: aunt, swap, want n wash wi /a/, bull, full v. n pull wi /ʌ/, bind, find n wind v., etc. wi /ɪ/.

  • The onstrest vouel /ə/ micht be shawn bi onie vouel letter.
  • a (vowel 17): fer ordinair /ɑ/, aften /ɑː/ en sooth wast n Ulster byleids,[19] bit /aː/ en Northren byleids. Maurk final a (vouel 12) en awa, twa an wha micht be /ɑː/, /ɔː/, /aː/ or /eː/ an aw depending on the byleid.[20]
  • au, aw (vouel 12) /ɑː/ or /ɔː/ en Soothren, Central n Ulster byleids bit /aː/ in Northren bileids, wi au fer ordinair in medial poseetions[21][22] n aw in final poseetions.[21] Sometimes a or a' representin L-vocalisation.[23][24] The digraph aa kythes an aw, speciallie in scrieved representations o the (/aː/) soondin in Northren n Insular byleids.[22] The cluster 'auld' micht be /ʌul/ in Ulster an aw, e.g. aw, cauld, braw, faw, snaw, etc.
  • ai (vouel 8) en ineetial n medial poseetions[25] n a(consonant)e [26] (vowel 4). The graphemes ae[25] (vouel 4) n ay (vouel 8) fer ordinair in final poseetions.[25][27] Aw generallie /e(ː)/. Aften /ɛ/ afore /r/. The merger o vouel 8 wi 4 haes resultit in the digraph ai occurrin en some wairds wi vouel 4 n a(consonant)e occurrin in some wairds wi vouel 8, e.g. saip, hale, ane, ance, bane, etc. n waird final brae n day etc. The digraph ae kythes fer vouel 7 an aw en dae, tae v. an shae.[27] En Northren byleids the vouel en the cluster 'ane' is aften /i/[28] n efter /w/ n daurk /l/ the soondin /əi/ micht kythe.[29] En Sooth Scots n monie Central n Ulster varieties ae, ane n ance micht be soondit /jeː/, /jɪn/ n /jɪns/ aften scrieved yae, yin n yince en byleid writin.
  • ea,[30] ei[31] (vouel 3), haes generallie merged wi /i(ː)/ (vouel 2) or /e(ː)/ (vouel 4 or 8) dependin on the by leid. /ɛ/ micht kythe afore /r/. En Northren varieties the soondin micht be /əi/ efter /w/ an /ʍ/ n en the faur north /əi/ micht kythe en aw environments.[32] deid, heid, meat, clear etc.
  • ee[33] (vouels 2 an 11), e(Consonant)e[34] (vouel 2). Whiles ei n i.e. wi ei fer ordinair afore ch (/x/), bit en ae few ither wairds an aw, n ie fer ordinair afore l an v. The soondin is fer ordinair /i(ː)/ bit en Northren varieties micht be /əi/ efter /w/ n /ʍ/.[32] Final vouel 11 (/iː/) micht be /əi/ en Southren byleids.[35] e.g. e, een, speir , steek, here, etc. The digraph ea kythes en ae few wairds lyk sea n tea an aw.
  • e[36] (vouel 16): /ɛ/. bed, het, yett, etc.
  • eu[37][38] (vouel 7 afore /k/ an /x/ see ui): /(j)u/ or /(j)ʌ/ dependin on dialect. Whiles u(consonant)e.[39] Whiles u phonetically an oo efter Staundart Ingils kythes an aw, e.g. beuk, eneuch, keuk, leuk, teuk etc.
  • ew (vouel 14): /ju/. En Northren bileids a ruit final 'ew' micht be /jʌu/. few, new, etc.
  • i[40] (Vouel 15): /ɪ/, but aften varies atween /ɪ/ an /ʌ/ specially efter 'w' an 'wh'.[41] /æ/ kythes en Ulster an aw afore voiceless consonants. big, fit, wid, etc.
  • i(consonant)e, y(consonant)e,[42] ey (vouels 1, 8a an 10): /əi/ or /aɪ/. 'ay' is fer ordinair /e/ bit /əi/ in ay n aye. En Dundee hit is ae kenspeckle /ɛ/.
  • o[43] (vouel 18): /ɔ/ bit aften mergin wi vouel 5 (/o/) aften speelt phoneteeclie oa in byleid speelins lyk boax (box), coarn (corn), Goad (God)joab (job) n oan (on) etc.[44]
  • oa[45] (vouel 5): /o/.
  • oi, oy (vouel 9)
  • ow,[46] owe (ruit final), seendle ou (vouel 13): /ʌu/. Afore 'k' vocalisation til /o/ micht kythe speciallie en wastren n Ulster byleids. bowk, bowe, howe, knowe, cowp, yowe, etc.
  • ou the ordinair leeterar speelin[47] o vouel 6. Whiles u(consonant)e en some wairds: /u/ the foregane aften representit bi oo, ae 19t centuair lend fae Staundairt Ingils.[48] Ruit final /ʌu/ micht kythe en Soothren byleids. cou, broun, hoose, moose etc.
  • u[49] (vouel 19): /ʌ/. but, cut, etc.
  • ui, the ordinair leeterar speelin[50] o vouel 7 (binna afore /k/ an /x/ see eu), the speelin u(consonant)e whiles kythed, speciallie afore nasals,[50] n oo fae the speelin o Staundairt Ingils cognates: /ø/ in conservative byleids. In pairts o Fife, Dundee north Aintrim /e/. In Northren byleids fer ordinair /i/ bit /wi/ efter /ɡ/ n /k/ aften speelt ee in byleid writin, n /u/ an aw afore /r/ en some airts e.g. fuird. Mid Doun n Donegal byleids haes /i/. En central n north Doun byleids merger wi vouel 15 (/ɪ/) occurs whan cuttie n vouel 8 (/eː/) whan lang, aften scrieved ai en byleid writin, e.g. buird, buit, cuit, fluir, guid, schuil, etc. En central byleids uise v. an uiss n. (use) is [jeːz] an [jɪs].

Some graimmar featursEedit

The definit airtikilEedit

The is bruikit afore the names o saisons, days o the week, monie nouns, illnesses, tredds, occupations, sciences n acadeemic subjeks. It's aften bruikit in stead o the indefinit airtikil n instad o a possesseev pronoun n aw: the hairst, the Wadensday, awa til the kirk, the nou, the dei, the haingles, the Laitin, The deuk ett the bit breid, the wife etc.


Nouns fer ordinair eiks –(e)s fer the plural bit some irraigulair plurals kith: ee/een, cauf/caur, horse/horse, cou/kye, shae/shuin. Nouns o meisur an quantitie byds the same en the plural fower fit, twa mile, five pund, three hunnerwecht. Raigular plurals incluid laifs, leafs, shelfs n wifes, etc.


Dimeenuteeves wi –ie, burnie (wee burn), feardie/feartie, gamie, kiltie, postie, wifie, rhodie, an wi ock, bittock, playock, sourock n Northren –ag, bairnag (wee bairn), Cheordag, -ockie, hooseockie, wifeockie, baith is influenced bi the Scots Gaelic dimeenuteeve -ag.

Modal verbsEedit

The modal verbs mey, ocht tae, an sall isna aften bruikit in Scots n this is histereec, bit is whiles still foond in anglifie'd leeterair Scots. Can, shid, n will/wul is the prefer'd Scots maks. Scots employs doobel modal maks He'll no can cum the day, A micht cud cum the morn, A uised tae cud dae hit, but no nou.

Praisent tense o verbsEedit

The praisent tense o verbs ends en –s en aw persons n nummers cept whan a singil personal pronoun is nex til the verb, Thay say he's ower wee, Thaim that says he's ower wee, Thir lassies says he's ower wee etc. Thay'r cummin an aw bit Five o thaim's cummin, The lassies? Thay'v went bit Ma brakes haes went. Thaim that cums first is ser'd first. The trees growes green en the simmer.

Wis micht can tak the steid o war, but na widdershins: Ye were/wis thaur.

Past tense o verbsEedit

The raigulair past form o the verb is –(i)t or –(e)d, gaun bi the aforegaun consonant or vouel hurtit, skelpit, Mendit, kent/kenned, cleant/cleaned, skreived, telt/tauld, dee'd. Some verbs haes kenspeakle maks greet/grat/grutten, fesh/fuish/fuishen, lauch/leuch/lauchen, gae/gaed/gane, gie/gied/gien, pit/pat/pitten, git/gat/gotten.

Wird orderEedit

Scots aften haes tha wird order He turnt oot tha licht an na He turnt tha licht oot an Gie me hit an na Gie hit til me.

Antrin verbs is aften uised progressive He wis thinkin he wad tell her, He wis wantin tae tell her.

Verbs o motion micht be drappit afore aen adverb or adverb phrases o motion Ah'm awa til ma bed, That's me awa hame, Ah'll intil tha hoose an see him.

Partecipils gaes til tha end o tha clause mair aften than in Inglis whaur chynge o state is impleid (pairtéculair in Ulster): He's awfu auld gettin, Ah hae ma siller chynged.

Ordinal nummersEedit

Ordinal nummers ends wi –t seicont, fowert, fift, saxt etc. first, Thrid/third.


Adverbs fer ordinair taks the same mak aes the verb ruit or adjecteeve specialie efter verbs. Haein ae real guid day. She's gey fauchelt.
Adverbs is shaped wi –s, -lies, lins, gate(s) an wey(s) – whyls, mebbes, brawlies, geylies, aiblins, airselins, hauflins, hidlins, maistlins, awgates, ilkagate, oniegate, ilkawey, onywey(s), endweys, fit weys.

Subordinate clausesEedit

Verbless subordinate clauses is brocht en wi, n pittin ower surpreese or skunner She haed tae walk the hale length o the road n her sieven month pregnant, He telt me tae rin n me wi ma sair leg.


Negation is pitten ower bi bruikin the adverb na, en the North Eist nae, as in Ah'm na cummin, or bi bruikin the suffix –na (soondin lippens oan byleid), aes in "A dinnae ken", Thay canna cum n We coudna hae telt him. The uiss wi na is fer ordinair taen foreby –na wi contractabil auxiliair verbs lyk –ll fer will, or en ay nae speirins wi onie auxiliair He'll na cum n Did he na cum?

Reelateeve pronoonEedit

The reelateeve pronoon is that ('at is anither mak borraed fae the Norse bit hit can cum aboot bi contraction) fer aw persons n nummers, bit micht be drappit Thaur's na monie fowk (that) byds en that glen. The anglifie'd maks wha, wham, whase, n the auld-farrant whilk is j ist leeterair pensfuness; whilk is alanerlie bruikit eftir ae statement He said he'd tint hit, whilk wis na whit we wantit tae hear. The possesseeve cums aboot bi eikin 's or bi bruikin aen appropriate pronoon The wifie that's hoose gat burnt, the wumman that her dochter gat mairit; the men that thair boat wis tint.

The thrid adjecteeve/adverb yon/yonder, thon/thonder pynts oot sommit that's faur fae the speaker n the leestener, D'ye see yon/thon hoose ower yonder/thonder? The plurals o this n that is thae n thir. Northren byleids taks this n that fer the plural ava.

Hamelt leidsEedit

Scots haes monie hamelt leids, or byleids. Thir include;

See forebyEedit


  1. 7% o the population (100,000–115,000) report uising Scots at home in the 2011 census; 10,000 speakers in Ireland are reportit bi Ethnologue
  2. Scots leid at Ethnologue (17th ed., 2013)
  3. Scotland's Census 2011 - Scots language skills
  4. Grant, William (1931) Scottish National Dictionary
  5. Gregg R.J. (1972) The Scotch-Irish Dialect Boundaries in Ulster in Wakelin M.F., Patterns in the Folk Speech of The British Isles, London
  6. a b Johnston, Paul (1997) Regional Variation in Jones, Charles (ed.) The Edinburgh History of the Scots Language, Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh. p.499
  7. SND: C
  8. SND: K
  9. a b c Johnston, Paul (1997) Regional Variation in Jones, Charles (ed.) The Edinburgh History of the Scots Language, Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh. p.501
  10. Johnston, Paul (1997) Regional Variation in Jones, Charles (ed.) The Edinburgh History of the Scots Language, Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh. p.510
  11. Johnston, Paul (1997) Regional Variation in Jones, Charles (ed.) The Edinburgh History of the Scots Language, Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh. p.500
  12. Johnston, Paul (1997) Regional Variation in Jones, Charles (ed.) The Edinburgh History of the Scots Language, Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh. p.510-511
  13. SND: S
  14. Johnston, Paul (1997) Regional Variation in Jones, Charles (ed.) The Edinburgh History of the Scots Language, Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh. p.506
  15. a b c Johnston, Paul (1997) Regional Variation in Jones, Charles (ed.) The Edinburgh History of the Scots Language, Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh. p.507
  16. Johnston, Paul (1997) Regional Variation in Jones, Charles (ed.) The Edinburgh History of the Scots Language, Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh. p.502-503
  17. a b Johnston, Paul (1997) Regional Variation in Jones, Charles (ed.) The Edinburgh History of the Scots Language, Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh. p.509
  18. Aitken A.J. ‘How to Pronounce Older Scots’ in ‘Bards and Makars’. Glasgow Varsity Press 1977
  19. SND:A 1
  20. SND:A 2 (1)
  21. a b SND:A 4
  22. a b SND:U 2 (1)
  23. SND:A 2 (2)
  24. SND W 6
  25. a b c SND:A 5
  26. SND:A 3
  27. a b SND:E 3
  28. Grant, William; Dixon, James Main (1921) Manual of Modern Scots. Cambridge, University Press. p.44
  29. Johnston, Paul (1997) Regional Variation in Jones, Charles (ed.) The Edinburgh History of the Scots Language, Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh. p.461
  30. SND:E 3 (2)
  31. SND:E 3 (4)
  32. a b Johnston, Paul (1997) Regional Variation in Jones, Charles (ed.) The Edinburgh History of the Scots Language, Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh. p.455
  33. SND:E 3 (3)
  34. SND:E 1 (2)
  35. Johnston, Paul (1997) Regional Variation in Jones, Charles (ed.) The Edinburgh History of the Scots Language, Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh. p.456
  36. SND:E 1 (3)
  37. SND:E 3 (5)
  38. SND:U 2 (2)
  39. SND:U 2 (4)
  40. SND:I
  41. SND:U 4 (2)(ii)
  42. SND:I 3
  43. SND:O
  44. SND:O 3 (1)
  45. SND:O 3
  46. SND:O 3 (4)(ii)
  47. SND: U 3 (4)(i)
  48. SND:O 5 (1)
  49. SND:U 4 (2)
  50. a b SND:U 2 (4)(i)
  • Aitken, A.J. (1977) How to Pronounce Older Scots in Bards and Makars. Glasgow, Glasgow University Press.
  • Aitken, A. J. (1987) The Nuttis Schell: Essays on the Scots Language. Aberdeen, Aberdeen University Press. ISBN 0-08-034530-1
  • Caldwell, S.J.G. (1974) The Pronoun in Early Scots. Helsinki, Société Néophilique.
  • Corbett, John; McClure, Derrick; Stuart-Smith, Jane (Editors)(2003) The Edinburgh Companion to Scots. Edinburgh, Edinburgh University Press. ISBN 0-7486-1596-2
  • Eagle, Andy (2005) Wir Ain Leid. Scots-Online. Available in full at
  • Jones, Charles (1997) The Edinburgh History of the Scots Language. Edinburgh, University of Edinburgh Press. ISBN 0-7486-0754-4
  • Jones, Charles (1995) A Language Suppressed: The pronunciation of the Scots language in the 18th century. Edinburgh, John Donald. ISBN 0-85976-427-3
  • Kingsmore, Rona K. (1995) Ulster Scots Speech: A Sociolinguistic Study. University of Alabama Press. ISBN 0-8173-0711-7
  • McClure, J. Derrick (1997) Why Scots Matters. Edinburgh, Saltire Society. ISBN 0-85411-071-2
  • McKay, Girvan (2007) The Scots Tongue (La skota lingvo), Polyglot Publications, Tullamore, Ireland.
  • Niven, Liz; Jackson, Robin (Eds.) (1998) The Scots Language: its place in education. Watergaw Publications. ISBN 0-9529978-5-1
  • Robertson, T.A.; Graham, J.J. (1991) Grammar and Use of the Shetland Dialect. Lerwick, The Shetland Times Ltd.
  • Ross, David; Smith, Gavin D. (Editors)(1999) Scots-English, English-Scots Practical Dictionary. New York, Hippocrene Books. ISBN 0-7818-0779-4
  • Scottish Language Dictionaries (1985) Concise Scots Dictionary . Edinburgh, Edinburgh University Press. ISBN 1-902930-01-0
  • Scottish Language Dictionaries (1990) Scots Thesaurus. Edinburgh, Edinburgh University Press. ISBN 1-902930-03-7
  • Warrack, Alexander (Editor)(1911) Chambers Scots Dictionary. Chambers.
  • Yound, C.P.L. (2004) Scots Grammar. Scotsgate. Available in full at

Fremmit airtinsEedit