Shanghai (Cheenese: ; pinyin: Shànghǎi; Shanghainese: Zånhae [z̥ɑ̃̀hé]; Mandarin: [ʂɑ́ŋxài]) is the maist populous ceety in Cheenae an the lairgest ceety proper in the warld. A global ceety, Shanghai exerts influence ower commerce, finance, cultur, airt, fashion, research an entertainment. The ceety is locatit at the middle portion o the Cheenese coast, an sits at the mouth o the Yangtze River.


Municipality o Shanghai • 上海市
Clockwise frae top: A view o the Pudong skyline; Yuyuan Garden, China Pavilion alang wi the Expo Axis, neon signs on Nanjing Road, an The Bund
Clockwise frae top: A view o the Pudong skyline; Yuyuan Garden, China Pavilion alang wi the Expo Axis, neon signs on Nanjing Road, an The Bund
Location o Shanghai Municipality athin Cheenae
Location o Shanghai Municipality athin Cheenae
Coordinates: 31°12′N 121°30′E / 31.200°N 121.500°E / 31.200; 121.500Coordinates: 31°12′N 121°30′E / 31.200°N 121.500°E / 31.200; 121.500
KintraFowkrepublic o Cheenae
Settled5t–7t century
 - Toun

 - Coonty1292
 - Municipality7 Julie 1927
 - Coonty-level
 - Tounship-

16 destricts, 1 coonty
210 touns an subdestricts
 • TeepMunicipality
 • CPC Ctte SecretaryHan Zheng
 • MayorYang Xiong
 • Congress ChairmanYin Yicui
 • Conference ChairmanWu Zhiming
 • Municipality6340.5 km2 (2,448.1 sq mi)
 • Water697 km2 (269 sq mi)
Elevation4 m (13 ft)
 • Municipality24,256,800
 • Rank1st in Cheenae
 • Density3,800/km2 (9,900/sq mi)
 • Metro
Time zoneUTC+8 (Cheenae Staundart Time)
Postal code
Area code(s)21
 - TotCNY2.356 trillion
US$383.55 billion (11t)
 - Per capitaCNY97,555
US$15,880 (3rd)
 - GrowthIncrease 7%
HDI (2010)0.814[8] (2nt) – very heich
Licence plate prefixes沪A, B, D, E, F, G, H, J, K
沪C (outer suburbs)
Ceety flouerYulan magnolia

Ance a fishin an textiles toun, Shanghai grew tae importance in the 19t century due tae its favourable port location an as ane o the ceeties opened tae foreign trade bi the 1842 Treaty o Nanking.[9] The ceety flourished as a centre o commerce atween east an wast, an became a multinaitional hub o finance an business bi the 1930s.[10] Efter 1990, the economic reforms introduced bi Deng Xiaoping resultit in intense re-development an financin in Shanghai, an in 2005 Shanghai became the warld's lairgest cargo port.[11]

The ceety is a tourist destination renouned for its historical landmarks such as the Bund an City God Temple, an its modern an iver-expandin Pudong skyline includin the Oriental Pearl Tower. Today, Shanghai is the lairgest centre o commerce an finance in mainland Cheenae, an haes been described as the "showpiece" o the warld's fastest-growin major economy.[12][13]

Etymology an NamesEedit

The twa Cheenese characters in the ceety's name are (shàng) 'abuin' an (hǎi) 'sea' which thegither literally mean 'Upper Sea'. The earliest occurrence o this name dates frae the Song Dynasty (11t century), at which time there wis awready a river confluence an a toun wi this name in the aurie. There are disputes as tae exactly hou the name shoud be interpretit, but offeecial local histories hae consistently said that it signifies 'The upper reaches o the sea'. Due tae the changin coastline, Cheenese historians hae concludit that in the Tang Dynasty Shanghai wis literally on the sea, hence the oreegin o the name.[14] Anither readin an aa suggests the sense o "go ontae the sea," which is consistent wi the seaport status o the ceety. A mair poetic name for Shanghai switches the order o the twa characters, Hǎishàng (), an is aften uised for terms relatit tae Shanghainese airt an cultur.

Shanghai is commonly abbreviatit in Cheenese as (simp: /trad: ). This character appears on aw motor vehicle license plates issued in the municipality today. This is derived frae Hu Du (simp: /trad: ), the name o an ancient fishin village that ance stood at the confluence o Suzhou Creek an the Huangpu River back in the Tang Dynasty.[14] The character Hu is aften combined wi that for Song, as in Wusong Kou, Wu Song River, an Songjiang tae form the nickname Song Hu. For example, the Japanese attack on Shanghai in August 1937 is commonly cawed the Song Hu Battle. Anither early name for Shanghai wis Hua Ting, nou juist the name o a fower star hotel in the ceety.[14] Ane ither commonly uised nickname Shēn () is derived frae the name o Chunshen Jun (), a nobleman an locally revered hero o the Chu Kinrick in the 3rd century BC whose territory includit the Shanghai aurie. Sports teams an newspapers in Shanghai aften use the character Shēn () in their names. Shanghai is an aa commonly cawed Shēnchéng (, "Ceety o Shēn").

Twin touns an sister ceetiesEedit

Shanghai haes ceety pairtnerships wi the follaein ceeties an regions:[15]


  1. "Doing Business in China - Survey". Ministry Of Commerce - People's Republic Of China. Retrieved 5 August 2013.
  2. "Land Area". Basic Facts. Shanghai Municipal Government. Retrieved 19 Julie 2011.
  3. "Water Resources". Basic Facts. Shanghai Municipal Government. Retrieved 19 Julie 2011.
  4. "Topographic Features". Basic Facts. Shanghai Municipal Government. Retrieved 19 Julie 2011.
  5. 2014年上海市国民经济和社会发展统计公报 [Shanghai Economic and Social Development Statistical Bulletin 2014] (in Chinese). Shanghai Bureau of Statistics. 28 Februar 2015. Archived frae the original on 9 Mairch 2015. Retrieved 1 Mey 2015.CS1 maint: unrecognised leid (link)
  6. "OECD Urban Policy Reviews: China 2015". OECD. Retrieved 1 Mey 2015.
  7. "上海人均GDP超北京全国最高". Dongfang Daily (in Chinese). 20 Januar 2012. Archived frae the original on 23 Januar 2012. Retrieved 23 Julie 2015.CS1 maint: unrecognised leid (link)
  8. 《2013中国人类发展报告》 (PDF) (in Cheenese). United Nations Development Programme China. 2013. Retrieved 5 Januar 2014.
  9. Mackerras, Colin (2001). The New Cambridge Handbook of Contemporary China. Cambridge University Press. p. 242. ISBN 0521786746.
  10. "A Glimpse at 1930s Shanghai". Yoran Beisher. 24 September 2003. Archived frae the original on 21 November 2008. Retrieved 20 Mairch 2008.
  11. "Shanghai now the world's largest cargo port". Asia Times Online. 7 Januar 2006. Archived frae the original on 9 October 2018. Retrieved 20 Mairch 2008.
  12. "Shanghai: China's capitalist showpiece". BBC News. 21 Mey 2008. Retrieved 7 August 2008.
  13. "Of Shanghai... and Suzhou". The Hindu Business Line. 27 Januar 2003. Retrieved 20 Mairch 2008.
  14. a b c Danielson, Eric N., Shanghai and the Yangzi Delta, 2004, pp.8–9.
  15. Archived 2011-05-18 at the Wayback Machine