Portugal, offeecially the Portuguese Republic (Portuguese: República Portuguesa [ʁɛˈpuβlikɐ puɾtuˈɣezɐ]),[note 1] is a sovereign state locatit maistly on the Iberian Peninsula in soothwastren Europe. It is the wastrenmaist kintra o mainland Europe, mairchit tae the wast an sooth bi the Atlantic Ocean an tae the north an east bi Spain. Its territory an aw includes the Atlantic airchipelagaes o the Azores an Madeira, baith autonomous regions wi thair awn regional govrenments.

Portuguese Republic

República Portuguesa (Portuguese)
Anthem"A Portuguesa"
"The Portuguese Fowk"
Location o  Portugal  (dark green) – on the European continent  (green & dark grey) – in the European Union  (green)
Location o  Portugal  (dark green)

– on the European continent  (green & dark grey)
– in the European Union  (green)

and largest city
38°46′N 9°9′W / 38.767°N 9.150°W / 38.767; -9.150
Offeecial leidsPortuguese
Recognised regional leidsMirandese[a]
Ethnic groups
GovrenmentUnitar semi-presidential republic
• Preses
Marcelo Rebelo de Sousa
José Pedro Aguiar-Branco
Luís Montenegro
LegislaturAssembly o the Republic
24 Juin 1128
• Kinrick
26 Julie 1139
5 October 1143
23 Mey 1179
1 December 1640
• Republic
5 October 1910
25 Apryle 1974
25 Apryle 1976
1 Januar 1986
• Total
92,212 km2 (35,603 sq mi)[1] (111t)
• Water (%)
• 2016 estimate
10,309,573[2] (83rd)
• 2011 census
• Density
115/km2 (297.8/sq mi) (97t)
GDP (PPP)2017 estimate
• Total
$310.651 billion[4] (50t)
• Per capita
$30,193[4] (40t)
GDP (nominal)2017 estimate
• Tot
$202.770 billion[4] (43t)
• Per capita
$19,707[4] (36t)
Gini (2015)positive decrease 34.0[5]
HDI (2015)Increase 0.843[6]
verra heich · 41st
CurrencyEuro[c] () (EUR)
Time zoneUTC−1 (WET (UTC)
• Summer (DST)
Note: Mainland Portugal an Madeira uise WET/WEST, the Azores uise AZOT/AZOST
AntipodesNew Zealand an Paceefic Ocean
Date formatdd/mm/yyyy
Drivin sidericht
Cawin code+351
ISO 3166 codePT
Internet TLD.pt
  1. ^ Mirandese, spoken in some veelages o the municipality o Miranda do Douro, wis offeecially recognised in 1999 (Lei n.° 7/99 de 29 de Janeiro),[7] awarding it an official right-of-use.[8] Portuguese Sign Leid is an aa recognised.
  2. ^ Portuguese Constitution adoptit in 1976 wi several subsequent minor revisions, atween 1982 an 2005.
  3. ^ Afore 2002, the escudo.
Territorial organization

Portugal is the auldest state in the Iberian Peninsula an ane o the auldest in Europe, its territory haein been conteenously settled, invadit an focht ower syne prehistoric times. The Pre-Celts, Celts, Carthaginians an Romans war follaed bi the invasions o the Visigoths an Suebi Germanic fowks. Portugal as a kintra wis established in the Christian Reconquista agin the Moors that haed invadit the Iberian Peninsula in 711 AD. Despite attempts at unthirldom syne its foondin as a kintra in 868,[9] anerly efter the Battle o São Mamede in 1128, whaur Portuguese forces led bi Afonso Henriques defeatit forces led bi his mither, Theresa o Portugal, the Coonty o Portugal affirmed its sovereignty an Afonso Henriques styled hissel Prince o Portugal. He wad later be proclaimed King o Portugal at the Battle o Ourique in 1139 an wis recognised as sic bi neeburin kinricks in 1143.[10]

In the 15t an 16t yeirhunners, Portugal established the first global empire, becomin ane o the warld's major economic, poleetical an militar pouers.[11][12][13] In this period, the day referred tae as the Age o Diskivery, Portuguese explorers pioneered maritime exploration, notably unner ryal patronage o Prince Henry the Navigator an King John II, wi sic notable voyages as Bartolomeu Dias' sailin ayont the Cape o Guid Howp (1488), Vasco da Gama's diskivery o the sea route tae Indie (1497–98) an the European diskivery o Brazil (1500). In this time, Portugal monopolised the spice tred, an the empire expandit wi militar campaigns in Asie. Houiver, events sic as the destruction o Lisbon in a 1755 yirdquauk, the kintra's occupation in the Napoleonic Wars, an the unthirldom o Brazil (1822), left Portugal crippelt frae war an diminished in its warld pouer.[14]

Efter the 1910 revolution deponed the monarchy, the democratic but unstable Portuguese First Republic wis established, later bein supersedit bi the Estado Novo richt-weeng authoritarian regime. Democracy wis restored efter the Carnation Revolution in 1974, endin the Portuguese Colonial War. Shortly efter, unthirldom wis grantit tae awmaist aw its owerseas territories. The haundower o Macau tae Cheenae in 1999 merkit the end o whit can be conseedert the langest-leeved colonial empire.[15] Portugal haes left a profoond cultural an airchitectural influence eathort the globe, a legacy o 300 million Portuguese speakers, an mony Portuguese-based creoles. A member o the Unitit Naitions an the European Union, Portugal wis an aw ane o the foondin members of NATO, the eurozone, the OECD, an the Community o Portuguese Leid Kintras.

Portugal is a developit kintra wi a heicch-income advanced economy, a developed mercat, an heich leevin staundarts.[16][17][18] It is ranked heichly in terms o LGBTI richts (6t in Europe),[19] press freedom (14t), social progress (20t) an prosperity (25t). Wi its poleetical stability an law crime rates, it is rankit as the maist peacefu kintra in the EU an the 3rd in the warld.[20] Addeetionally, it is a sustainable state,[21] mainteenin a unitar semi-presidential republic, a strang rule o law, an the lawest levels o corruption in soothren Europe. Portugal ranks abuin the OECD average in mathematics, science, an readin, haein been the kintra wi the maist expressive positive evolution ootthrou PISA's studies.[22] Awtho a Catholic-majority kintra for maist o its history, modren Portugal is a secular state wi ane o the warld's heichest rates o moral freedom. It wis the first kintra tae abolish life impreesonment[23] an ane o the earliest tae abolish caipital punishment. Practices sic as abortion, same-sex marriage an adoption, medically assisted insemination for single weemen an lesbian couples,[24] an altruistic surrogacy[25] hae been legalised. In 2001, Portugal becam the first kintra in the warld tae decriminalise the possession an consumption o aw illeecit drogs, focusin on treatment an hairm reduction, wi signeeficant public heal gains.[26]


  1. In recognised minority leids o Portugal:


  1. (in Portuguese) Público. "Portugal tem 92.212 quilómetros quadrados, por enquanto...". Retrieved 2 July 2012. Archived 5 October 2012 at the Wayback Machine
  2. "Statistics Portugal". Ine.pt. Retrieved 2 August 2017.
  3. [1]
  4. a b c d "Portugal". International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 8 Mey 2017.
  5. "Gini coefficient of equivalised disposable income – EU-SILC survey". Luxembourg: Eurostat. 15 Juin 2017. Retrieved 24 Juin 2017.
  6. "2016 Human Development Report". United Nations Development Programme. 2016. Retrieved 25 Mairch 2017.
  7. "Reconhecimento oficial de direitos linguísticos da comunidade mirandesa (Official recognition of linguistic rights of the Mirandese community)". Centro de Linguística da Universidade de Lisboa. Archived frae the original on 18 Mairch 2002. Retrieved 2 December 2015.
  8. The Euromosaic study, Mirandese in Portugal, europa.eu – European Commission wabsteid. Retrieved Januar 2007. Airtin updatit December 2015
  9. Mattoso, José (2002). Obras Completas de José Mattoso - Portugal Medieval: Novas intepretações; Vol. 8. Círculo de Leitores.
  10. Brian Jenkins, Spyros A. Sofos, Nation and identity in contemporary Europe, p. 145, Routledge, 1996, ISBN 0-415-12313-5
  11. Melvin Eugene Page, Penny M. Sonnenburg, p. 481
  12. "First global empire". Guinnessworldrecords.com. Retrieved 18 Apryle 2014.
  13. "What was the Portuguese Empire?". Empires.findthedata.org. Archived frae the original on 2 Februar 2014. Retrieved 18 Apryle 2014.
  14. "The World Factbook". cia.gov. Archived frae the original on 19 Mey 2020. Retrieved 14 September 2015.
  15. "ASIANOW – Macau's handover to China ends Portuguese era – December 17, 1999". cnn.com. Archived frae the original on 19 Julie 2016. Retrieved 14 September 2015.
  16. "Wayback Machine" (PDF). 8 Apryle 2014. Archived frae the original (PDF) on 8 Apryle 2014. Unknown parameter |dead-url= ignored (help); Cite uises generic title (help)
  17. "SOCIAL PROGRESS INDEX 2015 : EXECUTIVE SUMMARY" (PDF). 2.deloitte.com. Retrieved 2 August 2017.
  18. "Quality of Life Index by Country Each Year". Numbeo.com. Retrieved 2 August 2017.
  19. "Country Ranking | Rainbow Europe". rainbow-europe.org. Archived frae the original on 14 Mey 2015. Retrieved 7 December 2017.
  20. Humanity, Vision of. "Global Peace Index – Vision of Humanity". Vision of Humanity (in Inglis). Retrieved 7 December 2017.
  21. "Fragile States Index 2017". Fund for Peace. Retrieved 14 Mey 2017.
  22. Carriço, Marlene. "PISA. Alunos portugueses acima da média da OCDE pela primeira vez em 15 anos". Observador (in Portuguese). Retrieved 7 December 2017.
  23. "Project". www.lifeimprisonment.eu (in Italian). Retrieved 7 December 2017.
  24. "Mulheres sozinhas já engravidam em Portugal". Jornal Expresso (in Portuguese). Archived frae the original on 7 December 2017. Retrieved 7 December 2017.
  25. Group, Global Media (14 November 2017). "Ordem Dos Médicos - Avó vai gerar o neto. Aprovado pedido de gestação de substituição". DN (in Portuguese). Retrieved 7 December 2017.
  26. Ferreira, Susana (5 December 2017). "Portugal's radical drugs policy is working. Why hasn't the world copied it?". The Guardian (in Inglis). ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 7 December 2017.