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Thailand (Thai: ประเทศไทย), umwhile Siam (Thai: สยาม), an offeecially the Kinrick o Thailand, is an independent kintra that lies in the hert o Sootheast Asie. It is bordered tae the north bi Burma an Laos, tae the aest bi Laos an Cambodie, tae the sooth bi the Gulf o Thailand an Malaysie, an tae the wast bi the Andaman Sea an the soothren extremity o Burma. Its maritime boondaries include Vietnam in the Gulf o Thailand tae the sootheast an Indonesie an Indie in the Andaman Sea tae the soothwast.

Kinrick o Thailand

ราชอาณาจักรไทย
Ratcha Anachak Thai
Motto: 
(unofficial) ชาติ ศาสนา พระมหากษัตริย์ (Thai)
Chat, Satsana, Phra Maha Kasat
"Naition, Releegions, Keeng"
AnthemPhleng Chat Thai
Thai Naitional Anthem (instrumental)

Ryal anthemSansoen Phra Barami
Thai Ryal Anthem (instrumental)
Location o Thailand
CaipitalBangkok
13°45′N 100°29′E / 13.750°N 100.483°E / 13.750; 100.483
Lairgest ceetycapital
Offeecial leidsThai[1]
Official scriptThai alphabet
Ethnic groups
(2009[5])
Demonym(s)Thai
GovrenmentUnitary pairlamentary constitutional monarchy
• Keeng
Rama X
Prayut Chan-o-cha
LegislaturNaitional Assembly
Senate
Hoose o Representatives
Formation
1238–1448
1351–1767
1768–1782
6 Aprile 1782
24 Juin 1932
Aurie
• Total
513,120 km2 (198,120 sq mi) (51st)
• Water (%)
0.4 (2,230 km2)
Population
• 2011 estimate
66,720,153[6] (20t)
• 2010 census
65,479,453[7]
• Density
132.1/km2 (342.1/sq mi) (88t)
GDP (PPP)2013 estimate
• Total
$701.554 billion[8]
• Per capita
$10,849[8]
GDP (nominal)2013 estimate
• Tot
$424.985 billion[8]
• Per capita
$6,572[8]
Gini (2010)39.4[9]
medium
HDIIncrease 0.690[10]
medium · 103rd
CurrencyBaht (฿) (THB)
Time zoneUTC+7
Drivin sideleft
Cawin code+66
ISO 3166 codeTH
Internet TLD

EtymologyEedit

The kintra's offeecial name wis Siam (Thai: สยาม RTGSSayam, IPA: [sàjǎːm]) until Juin 23, 1939,[11] when it wis chynged tae Thailand. It wis then renamed Siam frae 1945 tae Mey 11, 1949, efter which it wis again renamed Thailand. An aa spelled Sayam, Syâm or Syâma, it haes been identified wi the Sanskrit Śyâma (श्याम, meanin "daurk" or "brown"). The names Shan an A-hom seem tae be variants o the same wird, an Śyâma is possibly no its oreegin but a learned an artificial distortion.[12]

The wird Thai (ไทย) is no, as commonly believed derived frae the wird Tai (ไท) meanin "freedom" in the Thai leid; it is, housomeivver, the name o an ethnic group frae the central plains (the Thai fowk). A famous Thai scholar argued that Tai (ไท) simply means "fowk" or "human being" syne his investigation shows that in some rural auries the wird "Tai" wis uised instead o the uisual Thai wird "khon" (คน) for fowk.[13] The Thai uise the phrase "land o the free" tae express pride in the fact that Thailand is the ae kintra in Sootheast Asie niver colonized bi an ootside pouer.

While the Thai fowk will aften refer tae thair kintra uisin the polite form Prathet Thai (Thai: ประเทศไทย), thay maist commonly uise the mair colloquial wird Mueang Thai (Thai: เมืองไทย) or simply Thai (Thai: ไทย); the wird mueang (Thai: เมือง) meanin naition but maist commonly uised tae refer tae a ceety or toun. Ratcha Anachak Thai (Thai: ราชอาณาจักรไทย) means "Kinrick o Thailand".

Etymologically, its components are: -Ratcha- (frae Sanskrit raja, meanin "keeng, royal, realm") ; -ana- (frae Pāli āṇā, "authority, command, pouer", itself frae Sanskrit ājñā, same meanin) -chak (frae Sanskrit cakra or cakraṃ meanin "wheel", a seembol o pouer an rule). The Thai Naitional Anthem (Thai: เพลงชาติ) refers tae the Thai naition as: prathet-thai (Thai: ประเทศไทย). The first line o the naitional anthem is: prathet thai ruam lueat nuea chat chuea thai (Thai: ประเทศไทยรวมเลือดเนื้อชาติเชื้อไทย) an wis translatit in 1939 bi Colonel Luang Saranuprabhandi as: “Thailand is the unity o Thai blood an body.”

Administrative divisionsEedit

Thailand is dividit intae 76 provinces (จังหวัด, changwat), which are gathered intae 5 groups o provinces bi location. Thare are an aa 2 special governed destricts: the caipital Bangkok (Krung Thep Maha Nakhon) an Pattaya, o which Bangkok is at provincial level an sicweys aften coontit as a 77t province.

Each province is dividit intae destricts an the destricts are further dividit intae sub-destricts (tambons). As o 2010 thare are 878 destricts (อำเภอ, amphoe) an the 50 destricts o Bangkok (เขต, khet). Some pairts o the provinces borderin Bangkok are an aa referred tae as Greater Bangkok (ปริมณฑล, pari monthon). Thir provinces include Nonthaburi, Pathum Thani, Samut Prakan, Nakhon Pathom an Samut Sakhon. The name o each province's caipital ceety (เมือง, mueang) is the same as that o the province. For example, the caipital o Chiang Mai province (changwat Chiang Mai) is Mueang Chiang Mai or Chiang Mai. The 76 provinces are as follaes:

 
Cairt o Thailand

CentralEedit

  1. Ang Thong
  2. Bangkok (Krung Thep Maha Nakhon), Special Governed Destrict o
  3. Chai Nat
  4. Kamphaeng Phet
  5. Lopburi
  6. Nakhon Nayok
  7. Nakhon Pathom
  8. Nakhon Sawan
  9. Nonthaburi
  10. Pathum Thani
  11. Phetchabun
  12. Phichit
  13. Phitsanulok
  14. Phra Nakhon Si Ayutthaya
  15. Samut Prakan
  16. Samut Sakhon
  17. Samut Songkhram
  18. Saraburi
  19. Sing Buri
  20. Sukhothai
  21. Suphan Buri
  22. Uthai Thani

EastEedit

  1. Chachoengsao
  2. Chanthaburi
  3. Chonburi
  4. Prachinburi
  5. Rayong
  6. Sa Kaeo
  7. Trat

NorthEedit

  1. Chiang Mai
  2. Chiang Rai
  3. Lampang
  4. Lamphun
  5. Mae Hong Son
  6. Nan
  7. Phayao
  8. Phrae
  9. Uttaradit

Northeast (Isan)Eedit

Main airticle: Isan
  1. Amnat Charoen
  2. Buri Ram
  3. Chaiyaphum
  4. Kalasin
  5. Khon Kaen
  6. Loei
  7. Maha Sarakham
  8. Mukdahan
  9. Nakhon Phanom
  10. Nakhon Ratchasima
  11. Nong Bua Lamphu
  12. Nong Khai
  13. Roi Et
  14. Sakon Nakhon
  15. Si Sa Ket
  16. Surin
  17. Ubon Ratchathani
     
    Phra Borommathat Nakhon Si Thammarat Thailand
  18. Udon Thani
  19. Yasothon

SoothEedit

  1. Chumphon
  2. Krabi
  3. Nakhon Si Thammarat
  4. Narathiwat
  5. Pattani
  6. Phang Nga
  7. Phatthalung
  8. Phuket
  9. Ranong
  10. Satun
  11. Songkhla
  12. Surat Thani
  13. Trang
  14. Yala

WastEedit

  1. Kanchanaburi
  2. Phetchaburi
  3. Prachuap Khiri Khan
  4. Ratchaburi
  5. Tak
Lairgest Metropolitan Auries o Thailand

 
Bangkok
 
Pattaya Beach

 
Nakhon Ratchasima

Rank Metropolitan aurie Population

 
Chiang Mai

 
Hatyai

1 Bangkok 11,971,000
2 Pattaya-Chon Buri 1,183,604
3 Chiang Mai 960,906
4 Hat Yai-Songkhla 801,747
5 Nakhon Ratchasima 439,546

ReferencesEedit

  1. Thailand, CIA World Factbook.
  2. McCargo, Duncan; Hongladarom, Krisadawan (2004), "Contesting Isan-ness: Discourses of politics and identity in Northeast Thailand", Asian Ethnicity, Taylor & Francis, 5 (2): 219, ISSN 1463-1369 
  3. David Levinson (1998), Ethnic Groups Worldwide: A Ready Reference Handbook, Oryx Pres, p. 287, ISBN 1573560197 
  4. Paul, Lewis M.; Simons, Gary F.; Fennig, Charles D. (2013), Ethnologue: Languages of the World, SIL International, ISBN 978-1-55671-216-6 
  5. Barbara A. West (2009), Encyclopedia of the Peoples of Asia and Oceania, Facts on File, p. 794, ISBN 1438119135 
  6. ประกาศสานักทะเบียนกลาง กรมการปกครอง เรื่อง จานวนราษฎรทั่วราชอาณาจักร แยกเป็นกรุงเทพมหานครและจังหวัดต่าง ๆ ตามหลักฐานการทะเบียนราษฎร ณ วันที่ 31 ธันวาคม 2553. Web.archive.org (2011-07-16). Retrieved 20 May 2012.
  7. (in Thai) National Statistics Office, "100th anniversary of population censuses in Thailand: Population and housing census 2010: 11th census of Thailand". popcensus.nso.go.th.
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 "Thailand". International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 18 April 2013. 
  9. "Gini Index". World Bank. Retrieved 2 March 2011. 
  10. "Human Development Report 2011 – Human development statistical annex" (PDF). HDRO (Human Development Report Office) United Nations Development Programme. pp. 127–130. Retrieved 2 November 2011. 
  11. Thailand (Siam) History, CSMngt-Thai.
  12. Eliot, Charles (1921). The Project Gutenberg EBook of Hinduism and Buddhism, An Historical Sketch, Vol. 3 (of 3) [EBook #16847]. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul Ltd. pp. Ch. xxxvii 1; citing in turn Footnote 189: The name is foond on Champan inscriptions o 1050 A.D. an accordin tae Gerini appears in Ptolemy's Samarade = Sâmaraṭṭha. See Gerini, Ptolemy, p. 170. But Samarade is locatit near Bangkok an there can hardly hae been Tais there in Ptolemy's time; and Footnote 190: So too in Central Asia Kustana appears tae be a learned distortion o the name Khotan, made tae give it a meanin in Sanskrit. 
  13. จิตร ภูมิศักดิ์ 1976: "ความเป็นมาของคำสยาม ไทย ลาวและขอม และลักษณะทางสังคม ของชื่อชนชาติ" (Jid Phumisak 1976: "Coming Into Existence for the Siamese Words for Thai, Laotian and Khmer and Societal Characteristics for Nation-names")

Freemit airtinsEedit

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