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This airticle is aboot the kintra in North Americae. For ither uisses, see Mexico (disambiguation).

Mexico (Spaingie: México [ˈmexiko] ( listen); Nahuatl: Mēxihco), offeecially the Unitit Mexican States (Spaingie: Estados Unidos Mexicanos, About this sound listen ),[8][9][10][11] is a federal republic in the soothrenmist portion o North Americae. It is mairchit tae the north bi the Unitit States; tae the sooth an wast bi the Paceefic Ocean; tae the sootheast bi Guatemala, Belize, an the Caribbean Sea; an tae the east bi the Gulf o Mexico.[12] Kiverin awmaist 2,000,000 square kilometres (770,000 sq mi),[11] the naition is the fift lairgest kintra in Americae bi tot aurie an the 13t lairgest independent state in the warld.

Unitit Mexican States
Motto: Nane[1]
Anthem: Himno Nacional Mexicano
(Inglis: "Mexican National Anthem")

Naitional seal:
Seal of the Government of Mexico.svg
Sello de los Estados Unidos Mexicanos  (Spaingie)
Seal o the Unitit Mexican States
Location o Mexico
and largest city
Mexico Ceety
19°26′N 99°08′W / 19.433°N 99.133°W / 19.433; -99.133
Naitional leids Spaingie
Ethnic groups (2010)
Demonym Mexican
Govrenment Federal presidential
constitutional republic[3]
• Preses
Andrés Manuel López Obrador
Martí Batres Guadarrama
Porfirio Muñoz Ledo
Luis María Aguilar Morales
Olga Sánchez Cordero
Legislatur Congress
Chamber o Deputies
Unthirldom frae Spain
• Declared
16 September 1810
• Recognisit
27 September 1821
• Total
1,972,550 km2 (761,610 sq mi) (14th)
• Water (%)
• 2013 estimate
118,395,054[4] (11t)
• Density
57/km2 (147.6/sq mi) (142nt)
GDP (PPP) 2012 estimate
• Total
$1.759 trillion[5] (11t)
• Per capita
$15,312[5] (64t)
GDP (nominal) 2012 estimate
• Tot
$1.177 trillion[5] (14t)
• Per capita
$10,247[5] (66t)
Gini (2010) 47.2[6]
HDI (2012) Increase 0.775[7]
heich · 61st
Currency Peso (MXN)
Time zone UTC−8 tae −6 (See Time in Mexico)
• Summer (DST)
UTC−7 tae −5 (varies)
Drivin side richt
Cawin code +52
ISO 3166 code MX
Internet TLD .mx

Wi an estimatit population o ower 120 million fowk,[13] the kintra is the elevent maist populous state an the maist populous Spaingie-speakin state in the warld, while bein the seicont maist populous naition in Laitin Americae efter Brazil. Mexico is a federation compreesin 31 states an Mexico Ceety, a special federal entity that is an aw the caipital ceety an its maist populous ceety. Ither metropolises in the state include Guadalajara, Monterrey, Puebla, Toluca, an Tijuana.

Mexico haes the 15t lairgest nominal GDP an the 11t lairgest bi purchasin pouer parity. The Mexican economy is strangly airtit tae thae o its 1994 North American Free Tred Greement (NAFTA) pairtners, espeshally the Unitit States.[14][15] In 1994, Mexico becam the first Laitin American member o the Organisation for Economic Co-operation an Development (OECD). It is clessifee'd as an upper-middle income kintra bi the Warld Bank[16] an a newly industrialised kintra bi several analysts.[17][18][19][20] The kintr is conseedert aith a regional pouer an a middle pouer,[21][22][23][24] an is eften identifee'd as an emergin global pouer.[25] Due tae its rich cultur an history, Mexico ranks first in Americae an seivent in the warld for nummer o UNESCO Warld Heritage Steids.[26][27] Mexico is an ecologically megadiverse kintra, rankin fowert in the warld for its biodiversity. Mexico haes mony tourists: in 2016, it wis the aicht maist-veesitit kintra in the warld, wi 35 million internaitional arrivals.[28] Mexico is a member o the Unitit Naitions (UN), the Warld Trade Organisation (WTO), the G8+5, the G20, the Unitin for Consensus group o the UN, an the Paceefic Alliance tred bloc. Bi 2050, Mexico coud potentially acome the warld's fift or seivent lairgest economy.[29][30]

Pre-Columbian Mexico dates tae aboot 8000 BC an is identifee'd as ane o seiven cradles o ceevilisation an wis hame tae mony advanced Mesoamerican ceevilisations sic as the Olmec, Toltec, Teotihuacan, Zapotec, Maya, an Aztec afore first contact wi Europeans. In 1521, the Spaingie Empire conquered an colonised the territory frae its poleetically pouerfu base in Mexico-Tenochtitlan (pairt o Mexico Ceety), that wis admeenistert as the viceryalty o New Spain. Three centuries later, the territory becam a naition state follaein its recogneetion in 1821 efter the colony's Mexican War o Unthirldom. The post-unthirldom period wis tumultuous, chairacterised bi economic inequality an mony intense poleetical chynges. The Mexican–American War (1846–1848) led te a territorial cession o the extant northren territories tae the Unitit States. The Pastry War, the Franco-Mexican War, a ceevil war, twa empires, an the Porfiriato occurred in the 19t century. The Porfiriato wis endit bi the stairt o the Mexican Revolution in 1910, that culminatit wi the promulgation o the 1917 Constitution an the emergence o the kintra's current poleetical seestem as a democratic republic.


  1. "El lema de una nación". 2009-06-17. Retrieved 2013-07-17. 
  2. "Población de 3 años y más en entidades federativas seleccionadas y su distribución porcentual según condición de autoadscripción étnica para cada entidad federativa, sexo y condición de habla indígena". Censo de Población y Vivienda 2010 — Cuestionario ampliado (in Spanish). INEGI. 2011. Retrieved 2012-05-22. 
  3. "Political Constitution of the United Mexican States, title 2, article 40" (PDF). MX: SCJN. Retrieved August 14, 2010. 
  4. "México, Proyecciones de Población". Consejo Nacional de Población (CONAPO). Retrieved 2013-09-09. 
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 "Mexico". International Monetary Fund. Retrieved April 18, 2013. 
  6. "Gini Index". World Bank. Retrieved 2012-05-23. 
  7. "2013 Human Development Report Statistics" (PDF). Human Development Report 2013. United Nations Development Programme. 14 March 2013. Retrieved 16 March 2013. 
  8. Romo, Rafael (November 23, 2012). "After nearly 200 years, Mexico may make the name official". CNN. 
  9. "About Mexico". Embajada de Mexico en Estados Unidos (Mexican Embassy in the United States). December 3, 2012. Archived frae the oreeginal on December 2, 2013. Retrieved July 17, 2013. 
  10. "Official name of the country". Presidency of Mexico. March 31, 2005. Retrieved March 26, 2010. 
  11. 11.0 11.1 Mexico entry at The World Factbook
  12. Merriam-Webster's Geographical Dictionary, 3rd ed., Springfield, Massachusetts, United States, Merriam-Webster; p. 733
  13. "INEGI 2010 Census Statistics". Archived frae the oreeginal on January 8, 2011. Retrieved November 25, 2010. 
  14. "Mexico (05/09)". US Department of State. June 25, 2012. Retrieved July 17, 2013. 
  15. "CRS Report for Congress" (PDF). Congressional Research Service. November 4, 2008. Retrieved July 17, 2013. 
  16. "Country and Lending Groups". World Bank. Archived frae the oreeginal on March 18, 2011. Retrieved March 5, 2011. Uppermiddle Income defined as a per capita income between $3,976 – $12,275 
  17. Paweł Bożyk (2006). "Newly Industrialized Countries". Globalization and the Transformation of Foreign Economic Policy. Ashgate Publishing. p. 164. ISBN 978-0-7546-4638-9. 
  18. Mauro F. Guillén (2003). "Multinationals, Ideology, and Organized Labor". The Limits of Convergence. Princeton University Press. p. 126 (table 5.1). ISBN 978-0-691-11633-4. 
  19. David Waugh (2000). "Manufacturing industries (chapter 19), World development (chapter 22)". Geography, An Integrated Approach (3rd ed.). Nelson Thornes. pp. 563, 576–579, 633, and 640. ISBN 978-0-17-444706-1. 
  20. N. Gregory Mankiw (2007). Principles of Economics (4th ed.). Mason, Ohio: Thomson/South-Western. ISBN 978-0-324-22472-6. 
  21. James Scott; Matthias vom Hau; David Hulme. "Beyond the BICs: Strategies of influence". The University of Manchester. Retrieved April 11, 2012. 
  22. "How to compare regional powers: analytical concepts and research topics" (PDF). British International Studies Association. Archived frae the oreeginal (PDF) on November 30, 2012. Retrieved April 11, 2012. 
  23. "Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan" (PDF). Retrieved May 7, 2012. 
  24. "Oxford Analytica". Archived frae the oreeginal on April 24, 2007. Retrieved July 17, 2013. 
  25. "G8: Despite Differences, Mexico Comfortable as Emerging Power". June 5, 2007. Archived frae the oreeginal on August 16, 2008. Retrieved May 30, 2010. 
  26. "UNESCO World Heritage Centre — World Heritage List". UNESCO. Retrieved May 25, 2012. 
  27. "Mexico's World Heritage Sites Photographic Exhibition at UN Headquarters". Retrieved May 30, 2010. 
  28. "México ya es 8° destino turístico en el mundo". El Financiero. Retrieved May 11, 2017. 
  29. "Mexico 2050: The World's Fifth Largest Economy". :. March 17, 2010. Retrieved July 12, 2013. 
  30. "World in 2050 – The BRICs and beyond: prospects, challenges and opportunities" (PDF). PwC Economics. Archived frae the oreeginal (PDF) on February 22, 2013. Retrieved July 17, 2013.