The Unitit States o Americae (Inglis: United States of America), commonly referred tae as the Unitit States (Inglis: United States, U.S.) or Americae (Inglis: America), is a constitutional federal republic componed o 50 states, a federal destrict, five major sel-govrening territories, an various possessions.[fn 1] Forty-aicht o the fifty states an the federal destrict are contiguous an locatit in North Americae atween Canadae an Mexico. The state o Alaska is in the northwast corner o North Americae, bordered bi Canadae tae the east an athort the Bering Strait frae Roushie tae the wast. The state o Hawaii is an airchipelago in the mid-Paceefic Ocean. The U.S. territories are scattered aboot the Paceefic Ocean an the Caribbean Sea. Nine time zones are covered. The geografie, climate an wildlife o the kintra are extremely diverse.
Unitit States o Americae
Inglis: the United States
|Lairgest ceety||New York Ceety|
|Offeecial leids||None at federal level[a]|
|Govrenment||Federal presidential constitutional republic|
|Donald Trump (R)|
|Mike Pence (R)|
|Nancy Pelosi (D)|
|Hoose o Representatives|
from Great Breetain
|Julie 4, 1776|
|September 3, 1783|
|Juin 21, 1788|
|9,826,675 km2 (3,794,100 sq mi)[c] (3rd/4th)|
• Water (%)
• 2013 estimate
|34.2/km2 (88.6/sq mi) (180t)|
|GDP (PPP)||2013 estimate|
|$16.724 trillion (1st)|
• Per capita
|GDP (nominal)||2013 estimate|
|$16.724 trillion (1st)|
• Per capita
heich · 39t (2009)
|HDI (2013)|| 0.937|
verra heich · 3rd
|Currency||Unitit States dollar ($) (USD)|
|Time zone||UTC−5 to −10|
• Summer (DST)
|UTC−4 to −10[e]|
|ISO 3166 code||US|
|Internet TLD||.us .gov .mil .edu|
At 3.8 million squerr miles (9.8 million km2) an wi ower 324 million fowk, the Unitit States is the warld's fowert-lairgest kintra bi tot aurie (an fowerth-lairgest bi laund aurie)[fn 2] an the third-maist populous. It is ane o the warld's maist ethnically diverse an multicultural naitions, an is hame tae the warld's lairgest immigrant population. Urbanisation climbed tae oweer 80% in 2010 an leads tae growin megaregions. The kintra's caipital is Washington, D.C. an its lairgest ceety is New York Ceety; the ither major metropolitan auries, aw wi aroond five million or mair indwallers, are Los Angeles, Chicago, San Francisco, Boston, Dallas, Philadelphia, Houston, Miami, an Atlanta.
Paleo-Indians migrated frae Asie tae the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago. European colonisation began in the 16t century. The Unitit States emerged frae 13 Breetish colonies alang the East Coast. Numerous disputes atween Great Breetain an the colonies in the eftermath o the Seiven Years' War led tae the American Revolution, which began in 1775. On Julie 4, 1776, as the colonies war fichtin Great Breetain in the American Revolutionary War, delegates frae the 13 colonies unanimously adoptit the Declaration o Unthirldom. The war endit in 1783 wi recogneetion o the unthirldom o the Unitit States bi Great Breetain, an wis the first successfu war o unthirldom against a European colonial empire. The current constitution wis adoptit in 1788, efter the Airticles o Confederation, adoptit in 1781, war felt tae hae providit inadequate federal pouers. The first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill o Richts, war ratified in 1791 an designed tae guarantee mony fundamental ceevil liberties.
The Unitit States embarked on a vigorous expansion athort North Americae throuoot the 19t century, displacin American Indian tribes, acquirin new territories, an gradually admittin new states till it spanned the continent in 1848. During the seicont hauf o the 19t century, the American Ceevil War led tae the end o legal slavery in the kintra. Bi the end o that century, the Unitit States extendit intae the Paceefic Ocean, an its economy, driven in lairge pairt bi the Industrial Revolution, began tae soar. The Spaingie–American War an Warld War I confirmed the kintra's status as a global militar pouer. The Unitit States emerged frae Warld War II as a global superpouer, the first kintra tae develop nuclear wappens, the anly kintra tae uise them in warfare, an a permanent member o the Unitit Naitions Security Cooncil. It is a foondin member o the Organisation o American States (OAS) an various ither Pan-American an internaitional organisations. The end o the Cauld War an the dissolution o the Soviet Union in 1991 left the Unitit States as the warld's sole superpouer.
The Unitit States is a heichly developed kintra, wi the warld's lairgest economy bi nominal GDP. It ranks heichly in several meisurs o socioeconomic performance, includin average wage, human development, per capita GDP, an productivity per person. While the U.S. economy is considered post-industrial, chairacterised bi the dominance o services an knawledge economy, the manufacturin sector remains the seicont-lairgest in the warld. Tho its population is anly 4.3% o the warld tot, the Unitit States accoonts for nearly a quarter o warld GDP an ower a third o global militar spendin, makkin it the warld's foremaist economic an militar pouer. The Unitit States is a prominent poleetical an cultural force internaitionally, an a leader in scienteefic resairch an technological innovations.
Follaein the European colonisation o the Americaes, aw thirteen o Great Breetain's American colonies spleet frae the mither kintra an formit the Unitit States, the warld's first constitutional an democratic federal republic, efter thair declaration o unthirldom in 1776 an the Weir o Unthirldom (1775–1783). Great Breetain made peace wi the rebols an wi the Treaty o Pairis in 1783. For tae mak a stoot colonol govrenment, the Philadelphia Convention wis foondit in 1787 an raitifeet a constitution in 1788, an the farst Unitit States Senate, Hoose o Representatives, an preses tak office in 1789. George Washington wis the first preses.
Differences o opinion an social order atween northren an soothern states in early Unitit States society, pairteecularly regairdin Black sclavery, ultimately led tae the American Ceevil War. Follaein the Union victory in 1865, three amendments war addit tae the U.S. Constitution: the Thirteent Amendment prohibitit sclavery, the Fowerteent Amendment providit ceetizenship tae the nearly fower million African Americans wha haed been sclaves, an the Fifteent Amendment ensured that thay haed the richt tae vote.
The Unitit States remained neutral frae the ootbreak o Warld War I, in 1914, till 1917 whan it jyned the war as an "associatit pouer", alangside the formal Allies o Warld War I, helpin tae turn the tide against the Central Pouers. In 1920, the weemen's richts muivement wan passage o a constitutional amendment grantin weemen's suffrage. The 1920s an 1930s saw the rise o radio for mass communication an the invention o early televeesion. The prosperity o the Roaring Twenties endit wi the Wall Street Crash o 1929 an the onset o the Great Depression. Efter his election as preses in 1932, Franklin D. Roosevelt respondit wi the New Deal, which included the establishment o the Social Security seestem. At first effectively neutral during Warld War II while Germany conquered much o continental Europe, the Unitit States began supplyin material tae the Allies in Mairch 1941 throu the Lend-Lease programme. On December 7, 1941, the Empire o Japan launched a surprise attack on Pearl Harbor, promptin the Unitit States tae jyn the Allies against the Axis pouers. The Unitit States developed the first nuclear wappens an uised them on Japan in the ceeties o Hiroshima an Nagasaki; causin the Japanese tae surrender on September 2, endin Warld War II.
Efter Warld War II the Unitit States an the Soviet Union jockeyed for pouer during whit acame kent as the Cauld War, driven bi an ideological divide atween caipitalism an communism an, accordin tae the schuil o geopolitics, a divide atween the maritime Atlantic an the continental Eurasian camps. American truips focht communist Cheenese an North Korean forces in the Korean War o 1950–53. The Soviet Union's 1957 launch o the first airtifeecial satellite an its 1961 launch o the first manned spaceflicht ineetiatit a "Space Race" in which the Unitit States acame the first naition tae laund a man on the muin in 1969. A proxy war in Sootheast Asie eventually evolved intae full American pairteecipation, as the Vietnam War. At hame in the 1960s, the growin Ceevil Richts Muivement uised nonviolence tae confront segregation an discrimination, wi Martin Luther King Jr. acomin a prominent leader an figurheid.
On September 11, 2001, Al-Qaeda terrorists struck the Warld Trade Center in New York Ceety an the Pentagon near Washington, D.C., killin nearly 3,000 fowk. In response, the Unitit States launched the War on Terror, which included war in Afghanistan an the 2003–11 Iraq War.
Unner Preses Barack Obama, American forces in Iraq war widrawn in lairge nummers in 2009 an 2010, an the war in the region wis declared formally ower in December 2011. The widrawal caused an escalation o sectarian insurgency, leadin tae the rise o the Islamic State o Iraq an the Levant, the successor o al-Qaeda in the region.
Geografie, climate, an environsEedit
The laund aurie o the contiguous Unitit States is 2,959,064 square miles (7,663,940.6 km2). Alaska, separatit frae the contiguous Unitit States bi Canadae, is the lairgest state at 663,268 square miles (1,717,856.2 km2). Hawaii, occupyin an airchipelago in the central Paceefic, soothwast o North Americae, is 10,931 square miles (28,311 km2) in aurie. The populatit territories o Puerto Rico, American Samoa, Guam, Northren Mariana Islands, an U.S. Virgin Islands thegither civer 9,185 square miles (23,789 km2).
The Unitit States, wi its lairge size an geografic variety, includes maist climate teepes. Tae the east o the 100t meridian, the climate ranges frae humid continental in the north tae humid subtropical in the sooth. The Great Plains wast o the 100t meridian are semi-arid. Much o the Wastren moontains hae an alpine climate. The climate is arid in the Great Basin, desert in the Soothwast, Mediterranean in coastal Californie, an oceanic in coastal Oregon an Washington an soothren Alaska. Maist o Alaska is subarctic or polar. Hawaii an the soothren tip o Florida are tropical, as are the populatit territories in the Caribbean an the Paceefic.
The U.S. ecology is megadiverse: aboot 17,000 species o vascular plants occur in the contiguous Unitit States an Alaska, an ower 1,800 species o flouering plants are foond in Hawaii, few o which occur on the mainland. The Unitit States is hame tae 428 mammal species, 784 bird species, 311 reptile species, an 295 amphibian species. Aboot 91,000 insect species hae been describit. The bauld eagle is baith the naitional bird an naitional ainimal o the Unitit States, an is an endurin seembol o the kintra itsel.
The Unitit States is hame tae mony culturs an a wide variety o ethnic groups, tradeetions, an values. Aside frae the Hamespun American, Hamespun Hawaiian, an Hamespun Alaskan populations, nearly aw Americans or thair ancestors settled or emigratit within the past five centuries. Mainstream American cultur is a Wastren cultur lairgely derived frae the tradeetions o European emigrants wi influences frae mony ither soorces, sic as tradeetions brocht bi slaves frae Africae.
Mainstream American cuisine is seemilar tae that in ither Wastren kintras. Chairactereestic dishes sic as aiple pie, fried chicken, pizza, hamburgers, an het dogs derive frae the recipes o various emigrants. French fries, Mexican dishes sic as burritos an tacos, an pasta dishes freely adaptit frae Italian soorces are widely consumed. Americans drink three times as much coffee as tea. Mercatin bi U.S. industries is lairgely responsible for makkin orange juice an milk ubiquitous breakfast beverages.
In leeturatur, Edgar Allen Poe, Emily Dickenson, Mark Twain, William Faulkner, Ernest Hemingway, F. Scott Fitzgerald, Herman Melville, an John Steinbeck are amang the maist well kent Americans, while Jackson Pollock, Georgia O'Keefe, an Andy Warhol are some o the maist well kent American painters.
Hollywood, a northren destrict o Los Angeles, Californie, is ane o the leaders in motion pictur production. Syne the early 20t century, the U.S. film industry haes lairgely been based in an aroond Hollywood, awtho in the 21st century an increasin nummer o films are nae made thare, an film companies hae been subject tae the forces o globalisation.
Muisic in Americae haes been influenced bi African-American cultur, wi Duke Ellington an Louis Armstrong pioneerin the Jazz genre. Elvis Presley an Buddy Holly war leadin airtists in pioneerin popular muisic in the 1950s. Syne then, the Unitit States haes produced mony popular airtists, includin Michael Jackson, Whitney Houston, Madonna, Katy Perry, Taylor Swift, an Beyoncé, amang mony ithers.
American fitbaa is the maist popular sport in the Unitit States. The National Football League (NFL) haes the heichest average attendance o ony sports league in the warld, an the Super Bowl is watched bi millions globally. Basebaw haes been regairdit as the U.S. naitional sport syne the late 19t century, wi Major League Baseball (MLB) bein the tap league. Basketbaw an ice hockey are the kintra's next twa leadin professional team sports, wi the tap leagues bein the National Basketball Association (NBA) an the National Hockey League (NHL).
Aight Olympic Gemmes hae taken place in the Unitit States. As o 2014, the Unitit States haes wan 2,400 medals at the Simmer Olympic Gemmes, mair nor ony ither kintra, an 281 in the Winter Olympic Gemmes, the seicont maist behind Norawa.
States o the Unitit StatesEedit
- The five major territories are American Samoa, Guam, the Northren Mariana Islands, Puerto Rico, an the Unitit States Virgin Islands. Thare are eleven smawer island auries withoot permanent populations: Baker Island, Howland Island, Jarvis Island, Johnston Atoll, Kingman Reef, Midway Atoll, an Palmyra Atoll. U.S. sovereignty ower Bajo Nuevo Bank, Navassa Island, Serranilla Bank, an Wake Island is disputit.
- The follaein twa primary soorces (non-mirrored) represent the range (min./max.) o tot aurie for Cheenae an the Unitit States.
Baith soorces exclude Taiwan frae the aurie o Cheenae.
- The Encyclopædia Britannica lets Cheenae as warld's third-lairgest kintra (efter Roushie an Canadae) wi a tot aurie o 9,572,900 sq km, an the Unitit States as fowert-lairgest at 9,526,468 sq km. The figur for the Unitit States is less nor in the CIA Factbook acause it excludes coastal an territorial watters.
- The CIA World Factbook leets the Unitit States as the third-lairgest kintra (efter Roushie an Canadae) wi tot aurie o 9,833,517 sq km, an Cheenae as fowert-lairgest at 9,596,960 sq km. This figur for the Unitit States is greater nor in the Encyclopædia Britannica acause it includes coastal an territorial watters.
- 36 U.S.C. § 302 National motto
- Simonson, 2010
- Dept. of Treasury, 2011
- "United States". The World Factbook. CIA. September 30, 2009. Retrieved January 5, 2010 (area given in square kilometers). Check date values in:
- "U.S. POPClock Projection". U.S. Census Bureau. (figure updated automatically).
- "World Economic Outlook Database: United States". International Monetary Fund. November 2013. Retrieved November 5, 2013.
- "Income, Poverty and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2011". Newsroom. United States Census Bureau. September 12, 2012. Retrieved January 23, 2013.
- "Human Development Report 2013" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. March 14, 2013. Retrieved March 14, 2013.
- Feder, Jody (January 25, 2007). "English as the Official Language of the United States: Legal Background and Analysis of Legislation in the 110th Congress" (PDF). Ilw.com (Congressional Research Service). Retrieved June 19, 2007.
- "Ecological Footprint Atlas 2010" (PDF). Global Footprint Network. Retrieved July 11, 2011.
- U.S. State Department, Common Core Document to U.N. Committee on Human Rights, December 30, 2011, Item 22, 27, 80.— an U.S. General Accounting Office Report, U.S. Insular Areas: application of the U.S. Constitution, November 1997, p. 1, 6, 39n. Both viewed April 6, 2016.
- "Wildlife Library". National Wildlife Federation. Retrieved December 23, 2014.
- "State and other areas", U.S. Census Bureau, MAF/TIGER database as of August 2010, excluding the U.S. Minor Outlying Islands. viewed October 22, 2014.
- "China". Encyclopaedia Britannica. Retrieved January 31, 2010.
- "United States". Encyclopaedia Britannica. Retrieved January 31, 2010.
- "United States". CIA. Retrieved June 10, 2016.
- "China". CIA. Retrieved June 10, 2016.
- Adams, J.Q.; Strother-Adams, Pearlie (2001). Dealing with Diversity. Chicago: Kendall/Hunt. ISBN 0-7872-8145-X.
- Maugh II, Thomas H. (July 12, 2012). "Who was first? New info on North America's earliest residents". Los Angeles Times. Los Angeles County, California: Los Angeles Times. Retrieved February 25, 2015.
"What is the earliest evidence of the peopling of North and South America?". Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History. June 2004. Archived frae the oreeginal on November 28, 2007. Retrieved June 19, 2007.
Kudeba, Nicolas (February 28, 2014). "Chapter 1 – The First Big Steppe – Aboriginal Canadian History". The History of Canada Podcast. Archived frae the oreeginal on March 1, 2014. Unknown parameter
Guy Gugliotta (February 2013). "When Did Humans Come to the Americas?". Smithsonian Magazine. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved June 25, 2015.
- Greene, Jack P.; Pole, J.R., eds. (2008). A Companion to the American Revolution. pp. 352–361.
Bender, Thomas (2006). A Nation Among Nations: America's Place in World History. New York: Hill & Wang. p. 61. ISBN 978-0-8090-7235-4.
"Overview of the Early National Period". Digital History. University of Houston. 2014. Retrieved February 25, 2015.
- Carlisle, Rodney P.; Golson, J. Geoffrey (2007). Manifest Destiny and the Expansion of America. Turning Points in History Series. ABC-CLIO. p. 238. ISBN 978-1-85109-833-0.
- "The Civil War and emancipation 1861–1865". Africans in America. Boston, Massachusetts: WGBH Educational Foundation. 1999. Archived frae the oreeginal on October 12, 1999.
- Britannica Educational Publishing (2009). Wallenfeldt, Jeffrey H. (ed.). The American Civil War and Reconstruction: People, Politics, and Power. America at War. Rosen Publishing Group. p. 264. ISBN 978-1-61530-045-7.
- White, Donald W. (1996). "1: The Frontiers". The American Century. Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-05721-0. Retrieved March 26, 2013.
- "Work in the Late 19th Century". Library of Congress. Retrieved January 16, 2015.
- Tony Judt; Denis Lacorne (June 4, 2005). With Us Or Against Us: Studies in Global Anti-Americanism. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 61. ISBN 978-1-4039-8085-4.
Richard J. Samuels (December 21, 2005). Encyclopedia of United States National Security. SAGE Publications. p. 666. ISBN 978-1-4522-6535-3.
Paul R. Pillar (January 1, 2001). Terrorism and U.S. Foreign Policy. Brookings Institution Press. p. 57. ISBN 0-8157-0004-0.
Gabe T. Wang (January 1, 2006). China and the Taiwan Issue: Impending War at Taiwan Strait. University Press of America. p. 179. ISBN 978-0-7618-3434-2.
Understanding the "Victory Disease," From the Little Bighorn to Mogadishu and Beyond. DIANE Publishing. p. 1. ISBN 978-1-4289-1052-2.
Akis Kalaitzidis; Gregory W. Streich (2011). U.S. Foreign Policy: A Documentary and Reference Guide. ABC-CLIO. p. 313. ISBN 978-0-313-38375-5.
- "Average annual wages, 2013 USD PPPs and 2013 constant prices". OECD. Retrieved April 30, 2016.
- "U.S. Workers World's Most Productive". CBS News. February 11, 2009. Retrieved April 23, 2013.
- "Manufacturing, value added (current US$)". World Bank Open Data. World Bank. Retrieved 11 February 2017.
- "U.S. and World Population Clock". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved July 11, 2016.
- "World Economic Outlook Database, April 2015".
- "Trends in world military expenditure, 2013". Stockholm International Peace Research Institute. April 2014. Retrieved April 14, 2014.
- Cohen, 2004: History and the Hyperpower
BBC, April 2008: Country Profile: United States of America
"Geographical trends of research output". Research Trends. Retrieved March 16, 2014.
"The top 20 countries for scientific output". Open Access Week. Retrieved March 16, 2014.
"Granted patents". European Patent Office. Retrieved March 16, 2014.
- Stuart Murray (2004). Atlas of American Military History. Infobase Publishing. p. 76. ISBN 978-1-4381-3025-5. Retrieved October 25, 2015.
Harold T. Lewis (January 1, 2001). Christian Social Witness. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 53. ISBN 978-1-56101-188-9.
- "1860 Census" (PDF). U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved June 10, 2007. Page 7 leets a tot sclave population o 3,953,760.
- Voris, Jacqueline Van (1996). Carrie Chapman Catt: A Public Life. Women and Peace Series. New York City: Feminist Press at CUNY. p. vii. ISBN 1-55861-139-8.
Carrie Chapmann Catt led an army of voteless women in 1919 to pressure Congress to pass the constitutional amendment giving them the right to vote and convinced state legislatures to ratify it in 1920. ... Catt was one of the best-known women in the United States in the first half of the twentieth century and was on all lists of famous American women.
- Winchester pp. 410–411
- Axinn, June; Stern, Mark J. (2007). Social Welfare: A History of the American Response to Need (7th ed.). Boston: Allyn & Bacon. ISBN 978-0-205-52215-6.
- Yamasaki, Mitch. "Pearl Harbor and America's Entry into World War II: A Documentary History" (PDF). World War II Internment in Hawaii. Archived frae the oreeginal (PDF) on December 13, 2014. Retrieved January 14, 2015.
- "Why did Japan surrender in World War II? | The Japan Times". The Japan Times (in Inglis). Retrieved 2017-02-08.
- Pacific War Research Society (2006). Japan's Longest Day. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 4-7700-2887-3.
- Wagg, Stephen; Andrews, David (September 10, 2012). East Plays West: Sport and the Cold War. Routledge. p. 11. ISBN 978-1-134-24167-5.
- Collins, Michael (1988). Liftoff: The Story of America's Adventure in Space. New York: Grove Press.
- Howell, Buddy Wayne (2006). The Rhetoric of Presidential Summit Diplomacy: Ronald Reagan and the U.S.-Soviet Summits, 1985–1988. Texas A&M University. p. 352. ISBN 978-0-549-41658-6. Retrieved October 25, 2015.
- Kissinger, Henry (2011). Diplomacy. Simon & Schuster. pp. 781–784. ISBN 978-1-4391-2631-8. Retrieved October 25, 2015.
Mann, James (2009). The Rebellion of Ronald Reagan: A History of the End of the Cold War. Penguin. p. 432. ISBN 978-1-4406-8639-9.
- Hayes, 2009
- US History.org, 2013
- Flashback 9/11: As It Happened. Fox News. September 9, 2011. Retrieved March 6, 2013.
"America remembers Sept. 11 attacks 11 years later". CBS News. Associated Press. September 11, 2012. Retrieved March 6, 2013.
"Day of Terror Video Archive". CNN. 2005. Retrieved March 6, 2013.
- Walsh, Kenneth T. (December 9, 2008). "The 'War on Terror' Is Critical to President George W. Bush's Legacy". U.S. News & World Report. Retrieved March 6, 2013.
Atkins, Stephen E. (2011). The 9/11 Encyclopedia: Second Edition. ABC-CLIO. p. 872. ISBN 978-1-59884-921-9. Retrieved October 25, 2015.
- Wong, Edward (February 15, 2008). "Overview: The Iraq War". The New York Times. Retrieved March 7, 2013.
Johnson, James Turner (2005). The War to Oust Saddam Hussein: Just War and the New Face of Conflict. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 159. ISBN 978-0-7425-4956-2. Retrieved October 25, 2015.
Durando, Jessica; Green, Shannon Rae (December 21, 2011). "Timeline: Key moments in the Iraq War". USA Today. Associated Press. Retrieved March 7, 2013.
- Shanker, Thom; Schmidt, Michael S.; Worth, Robert F. (December 15, 2011). "In Baghdad, Panetta Leads Uneasy Closure to Conflict". The New York Times.
- "The JRTN Movement and Iraq's Next Insurgency | Combating Terrorism Center at West Point". United States Military Academy. Retrieved January 26, 2017.
- "Al-Qaeda's Resurgence in Iraq: A Threat to U.S. Interests". U.S Department of State. January 26, 2017. Retrieved November 26, 2010.
- "2010 Census Area" (PDF). census.gov. U.S. Census Bureau. p. 41. Retrieved January 18, 2015.
- Boyden, Jennifer. "Climate Regions of the United States". Travel Tips. USA Today. Retrieved December 24, 2014.
- "World Map of Köppen−Geiger Climate Classification" (PDF). Retrieved August 19, 2015.
- Morin, Nancy. "Vascular Plants of the United States" (PDF). Plants. National Biological Service. Archived frae the oreeginal (PDF) on July 24, 2013. Retrieved October 27, 2008.
- Osborn, Liz. "Number of Native Species in United States". Current Results Nexus. Retrieved January 15, 2015.
- "Numbers of Insects (Species and Individuals)". Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved January 20, 2009.
- Lawrence, E.A. (1990). "Symbol of a Nation: The Bald Eagle in American Culture". The Journal of American Culture. 13 (1): 63–69. doi:10.1111/j.1542-734X.1990.1301_63.x.
- Thompson, William; Hickey, Joseph (2005). Society in Focus. Boston: Pearson. ISBN 0-205-41365-X.
- Fiorina, Morris P.; Peterson, Paul E. (2000). The New American Democracy. London: Longman, p. 97. ISBN 0-321-07058-5.
- Holloway, Joseph E. (2005). Africanisms in American Culture, 2d ed. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, pp. 18–38. ISBN 0-253-34479-4. Johnson, Fern L. (1999). Speaking Culturally: Language Diversity in the United States. Thousand Oaks, Calif., London, and New Delhi: Sage, p. 116. ISBN 0-8039-5912-5.
- Klapthor, James N. (August 23, 2003). "What, When, and Where Americans Eat in 2003". Newswise/Institute of Food Technologists. Retrieved June 19, 2007.
- H, D. "The coffee insurgency". The Economist. Retrieved January 15, 2015.
- Smith, 2004, pp. 131–132
- Levenstein, 2003, pp. 154–55
- "Nigeria surpasses Hollywood as world's second largest film producer" (Press release). United Nations. May 5, 2009. Retrieved February 17, 2013.
- "John Landis Rails Against Studios: 'They're Not in the Movie Business Anymore'". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved January 24, 2015. Italic or bold markup not allowed in:
- Krane, David K. (October 30, 2002). "Professional Football Widens Its Lead Over Baseball as Nation's Favorite Sport". Harris Interactive. Archived frae the oreeginal on July 9, 2010. Retrieved September 14, 2007. Unknown parameter
|deadurl=ignored (help) MacCambridge, Michael (2004). America's Game: The Epic Story of How Pro Football Captured a Nation. New York: Random House. ISBN 0-375-50454-0.
- Chase, Chris (February 7, 2014). "The 10 most fascinating facts about the all-time Winter Olympics medal standings". USA Today. Retrieved February 28, 2014. Loumena, Dan (February 6, 2014). "With Sochi Olympics approaching, a history of Winter Olympic medals". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved February 28, 2014.
- Simonson, Peter (2010). Refiguring Mass Communication: A History. Urbana: University of Illinois Press. ISBN 978-0-252-07705-0.
He held high the Declaration of Independence, the Constitution, and the nation's unofficial motto, e pluribus unum, even as he was recoiling from the party system in which he had long participated., Book
- "History of "In God We Trust"". U.S. Department of the Treasury. March 8, 2011. Retrieved February 23, 2013.
- Nick Hayes (November 6, 2009). "Looking back 20 years: Who deserves credit for ending the Cold War?". MinnPost. Retrieved March 11, 2013.
- "59e. The End of the Cold War". U.S. History.org. Independence Hall Association. Retrieved March 10, 2013.
- Smith, Andrew F. (2004). The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America. New York: Oxford University Press, pp. 131–32. ISBN 0-19-515437-1.
- Levenstein, Harvey (2003). Revolution at the Table: The Transformation of the American Diet. University of California Press, Berkeley, Los Angeles. ISBN 0-520-23439-1.
|Wikimedia Commons haes media relatit tae United States.|