Massachusetts is the maist populous state in the New Ingland region o the northeastren Unitit States. It is mairchit bi the Atlantic Ocean tae the east, the states o Connecticut an Rhode Island tae the sooth, New Hampshire an Vermont tae the north, an New York tae the wast. The state is named efter the Massachusett tribe, that ance inhabitit the east side o the aurie, an is ane o the original thirteen states. The caipital o Massachusetts is Boston, that is an aw the maist populous ceety in New Ingland. Ower 80% o Massachusetts's population leeves in the Greater Boston metropolitan aurie, a region influential upon American history, academia, an industry.[33] Oreeginally dependent on agricultur, fishin an tred,[34] Massachusetts wis transformed intae a manufacturin centre in the Industrial Revolution.[35] In the 20t century, Massachusetts's economy shiftit frae manufacturin tae services.[36] Modren Massachusetts is a global leader in biotechnology, ingineerin, heicher eddication, finance, an maritime tred.[37]

KintraUnitit States
Afore stateheidProvince o Massachusetts Bay
Admittit tae the Union6 Februar 1788 (6t)
Lairgest metroGreater Boston
 • GovrenorCharlie Baker (R)
 • Lieutenant GovernorKaryn Polito (R)
LegislaturGeneral Court
 • Upper hooseSenate
 • Lawer hooseHoose o Representatives
U.S. senatorsElizabeth Warren (D)
Ed Markey (D)
U.S. Hoose delegation9 Democrats (leet)
 • Tot6,794,422 (2,015 est) [1]
 • Density324/km2 (840/sq mi)
 • Median hooseaud income
$65,401 (2,008)
 • Income rank
 • Offeecial leidInglis[2]
Trad. abbreviationMass.
Latitude41° 14′ N tae 42° 53′ N
Longitude69° 56′ W tae 73° 30′ W
Massachusetts state seembols
Ainimal an Plant insignia
Bird(s)Black-cappit chickadee,[3] wild turkey[4][5]
InsectClock leddy[5][8]
Mammal(s)Richt whaul,[9] Morgan horse,[10] Tabby cat,[11] Boston Terrier[12]
ReptileGarter snake[5][13]
TreeAmerican elm[5][14]
Inanimate insignia
BeverageCranberry juice[5][15]
ColoursBlue, green, cranberry[5][16]
DanceSquare dance[5][17]
FuidCranberry,[18] corn muffin,[5][19] navy bean,[20] Boston cream pie,[21] chocolate chip cookie,[22] Boston cream doughnut[23]
FossilDinosaur Tracks[24]
Poem"Blue Hills of Massachusetts"[5][27]
RockRolling Rock[5][28]
ShellNew Ingland Neptune, Neptunea lyrata decemcostata[5][31]
Ship(s)Schooner Ernestina [5]
Slogan(s)Make It Yours,
The Spirit of America [29]
Sang(s)"All Hail tae Massachusetts"[5]
Route merker(s)
Massachusetts Route Merker
State Quarter
Quarter of Massachusetts
Released in 2000[32]
Leets o Unitit States state seembols

Plymouth wis the steid o the first colony in New Ingland, foondit in 1620 bi the Pilgrims, passengers o the Mayflower. In 1692, the toun o Salem an surroondin auries experienced ane o Americae's maist infamous cases o mass hysteria, the Salem witch trials.[38] In 1777, General Henry Knox foondit the Springfield Armory, that in the Industrial Revolution catalysed numerous important technological advances, includin interchyngeable pairts.[39] In 1786, Shays' Rebellion, a populist revolt led bi disaffectit American Revolutionary War veterans, influenced the Unitit States Constitutional Convention.[40] In the 18t century, the Protestant First Great Awakenin, that soopit the Atlantic World, oreeginatit frae the poupit o Northampton preacher Jonathan Edwards.[41] In the late 18t century, Boston becam kent as the "Cradle of Leeberty"[42] for the agitation thare that led tae the American Revolution.

The entire Commonweel o Massachusetts haes played a pouerfu commercial an cultural role in the history o the Unitit States. Afore the American Ceevil War, Massachusetts wis a centre for the abolitionist, temperance,[43] an transcendentalist[44] movements.[45] In the late 19t century, the sports o basketbaw an volleybaw war inventit in the wastren Massachusetts ceeties o Springfield an Holyoke, respectively.[46][47] In 2004, Massachusetts becam the first U.S. state tae legally recognise same-sex mairiage as a result o the deceesion in Goodridge v. Department o Public Health bi the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Coort.[48] Mony prominent American poleetical dynasties hae hailed frae the state, includin the Adams an Kennedy faimilies. Harvard Varsity in Cambridge is the auldest institution o heicher learnin in the Unitit States,[49] wi the lairgest financial endoument o ony varsity,[50] an Harvard Law School haes eddicatit a contemporaneous majority o Juistices o the Supreme Coort o the Unitit States.[51] Kendall Square in Cambridge haes been cried "the maist innovative squerr mile on the planet", in reference to the heich concentration o entrepreneurial stairt-ups an quality o innovation that hae emerged in the vicinity o the squerr syne 2010.[52][53] Baith Harvard Varsity an the Massachusetts Institute o Technology, an aw in Cambridge, hae been ranked amang the maist heichly regairdit academic institutions in the warld.[54] Massachusetts' public schuil students place amang the tap naitions in the warld in academic performance,[55] an the state haes been ranked as ane o the tap states in the naition for ceetizens tae leeve, as weel as ane o the maist expensive.[56]


  1. "Table 1. Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for the United States, Regions, States, and Puerto Rico: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2015" (CSV). U.S. Census Bureau. December 23, 2015. Retrieved January 24, 2016.
  2. Schwarz, Hunter (August 12, 2014). "States where English is the official language". The Washington Post. Retrieved December 29, 2014.
  3. "Black-Capped Chickadee:Massachusetts State Bird". Retrieved April 17, 2015.
  4. "Wild Turkey:Massachusetts State Game Bird". Retrieved April 17, 2015.
  5. 5.00 5.01 5.02 5.03 5.04 5.05 5.06 5.07 5.08 5.09 5.10 5.11 5.12 5.13 5.14 5.15 5.16 5.17 "Massachusetts Facts". Secretary of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. Retrieved April 21, 2015.
  6. "Cod: Massachusetts State Fish". Retrieved April 18, 2015.
  7. "Mayflower: Massachusetts State Flower". Retrieved April 18, 2015.
  8. "Ladybug: Massachusetts State Insect". Retrieved April 18, 2015.
  9. "Right Whale: Massachusetts State Marine Mammal". Retrieved April 18, 2015.
  10. "Morgan Horse: Massachusetts State Horse". Retrieved April 18, 2015.
  11. "Tabby Cat: Massachusetts State Cat". Retrieved April 18, 2015.
  12. "Boston Terrier: Massachusetts State Dog". Retrieved April 18, 2015.
  13. "Garter Snake: Massachusetts State Reptile". Retrieved April 18, 2015.
  14. "American Elm: Massachusetts State Tree". Retrieved April 18, 2015.
  15. "Cranberry Juice: Massachusetts State Beverage". Retrieved April 18, 2015.
  16. "Blue – Green – Cranberry: Massachusetts State Colors". Retrieved April 18, 2015.
  17. "Square Dance: Massachusetts State Folk Dance". Retrieved April 18, 2015.
  18. "Cranberry: Massachusetts State Berry". Retrieved April 18, 2015.
  19. "Corn Muffin: Massachusetts State Muffin". Retrieved April 20, 2015.
  20. "Baked Navy Bean: Massachusetts State Bean". Retrieved April 20, 2015.
  21. "Boston Creme Pie: Massachusetts State Dessert". Retrieved April 20, 2015.
  22. "Chocolate Chip Cookie: Massachusetts State Cookie". Retrieved April 20, 2015.
  23. "Boston Cream Donut: Massachusetts State Donut". Retrieved April 18, 2015.
  24. "Dinosaur Tracks: Massachusetts State Fossil". Retrieved April 20, 2015.
  25. "Rhodonite: Massachusetts State Gem". Retrieved April 20, 2015.
  26. "Babingtonite: Massachusetts State Mineral". Retrieved April 20, 2015.
  27. "Blue Hills of Massachusetts: Massachusetts State Poem". Retrieved April 20, 2015.
  28. "Rolling Rock: Massachusetts State Glacial Rock". Retrieved April 20, 2015.
  29. "State Slogans". Retrieved April 21, 2015.
  30. Levenson, Michael (August 9, 2006). "Can you guess the state sport of Massachusetts?". Boston Globe. Retrieved February 14, 2012.
  31. "New England Neptune: Massachusetts State Shell". Retrieved April 23, 2015.
  32. "The Official Massachusetts State Quarter". Retrieved April 21, 2015.
  33. Douglas, Craig. "Greater Boston gains population, remains 10th-largest region in U.S". Retrieved April 21, 2015.
  34. "Maritime Commerce". National Park Service. Retrieved April 21, 2015.
  35. "History of Lowell, Massachusetts". City of Lowell. Archived frae the oreeginal on April 5, 2010. Retrieved April 21, 2015. Unknown parameter |dead-url= ignored (help)
  36. "Staying Power: The Future of Manufacturing in Massachusetts" (PDF). The Center for Urban and Regional Policy School of Social Science, Urban Affairs, and Public Policy Northeastern University. Retrieved April 21, 2015.
  37. "Housing and Economic Development:Key Industries". Retrieved April 21, 2015.
  38. "The 1692 Salem Witch Trials". Salem Witch Trials Museum. Retrieved April 21, 2015.
  39. "Springfield Armory: Technology in Transition" (PDF). National Park Service United States Department of the Interior. Retrieved April 21, 2015.
  40. "Shays' Rebellion". Retrieved April 21, 2015.
  41. "The First Great Awakening – Jonathan Edwards". Archived frae the oreeginal on April 22, 2015. Retrieved April 21, 2015. Unknown parameter |dead-url= ignored (help)
  42. "Faneuil Hall". Retrieved April 21, 2015.
  43. "The Temperance Issue in the Election of 1840: Massachusetts". Retrieved April 21, 2015.
  44. Packer, Barbara (2007). The Transcendentalists. University of Georgia Press; First edition (April 25, 2007). ISBN 978-0820329581.
  45. "Images of the Antislavery Movement in Massachusetts". Retrieved April 21, 2015.
  46. "Springfield College: The Birthplace of Basketball". Archived frae the oreeginal on Mey 4, 2015. Retrieved Apryle 21, 2015. Unknown parameter |deadurl= ignored (help)
  47. "The International Volleyball Hall of Fame". Retrieved April 21, 2015.
  48. "Massachusetts court strikes down ban on same-sex marriage". Reuters. November 18, 2003. Retrieved April 21, 2015.
  49. "History of Harvard University". Harvard University. Retrieved April 21, 2015.
  50. Tamar Lewin (January 28, 2015). "Harvard's Endowment Remains Biggest of All". The New York Times. Retrieved March 6, 2015.
  51. Richard Wolf (March 16, 2016). "Meet Merrick Garland, Obama's Supreme Court nominee". USA Today. Retrieved March 16, 2016.
  52. "Kendall Square Initiative". MIT. Retrieved December 1, 2016.
  53. Lelund Cheung. "When a neighborhood is crowned the most innovative square mile in the world, how do you keep it that way?". Boston Globe. Retrieved December 3, 2016.
  54. [1] Times Higher Education. Accessed December 3, 2016.
  55. [2] Accessed 27 Januar 2017.
  56. "Best States Overall Ranking". U.S. News & World Report. Retrieved December 29, 2017.

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