Massachusetts is the maist populous state in the New Ingland region o the northeastren Unitit States. It is mairchit bi the Atlantic Ocean tae the east, the states o Connecticut an Rhode Island tae the sooth, New Hampshire an Vermont tae the north, an New York tae the wast. The state is named efter the Massachusett tribe, that ance inhabitit the east side o the aurie, an is ane o the original thirteen states. The caipital o Massachusetts is Boston, that is an aw the maist populous ceety in New Ingland. Ower 80% o Massachusetts's population leeves in the Greater Boston metropolitan aurie, a region influential upon American history, academia, an industry.[33] Oreeginally dependent on agricultur, fishin an tred,[34] Massachusetts wis transformed intae a manufacturin centre in the Industrial Revolution.[35] In the 20t century, Massachusetts's economy shiftit frae manufacturin tae services.[36] Modren Massachusetts is a global leader in biotechnology, ingineerin, heicher eddication, finance, an maritime tred.[37]

KintraUnitit States
Afore stateheidProvince o Massachusetts Bay
Admittit tae the Union6 Februar 1788 (6t)
Lairgest metroGreater Boston
 • GovrenorCharlie Baker (R)
 • Lieutenant GovernorKaryn Polito (R)
LegislaturGeneral Court
 • Upper hooseSenate
 • Lawer hooseHoose o Representatives
U.S. senatorsElizabeth Warren (D)
Ed Markey (D)
U.S. Hoose delegation9 Democrats (leet)
 • Total6,794,422 (2,015 est) [1]
 • Density324/km2 (840/sq mi)
 • Median hooseaud income
$65401 (2008)
 • Income rank
 • Offeecial leidInglis[2]
Trad. abbreviationMass.
Latitude41° 14′ N tae 42° 53′ N
Longitude69° 56′ W tae 73° 30′ W
Massachusetts state seembols
Ainimal an Plant insignia
Bird(s)Black-cappit chickadee,[3] wild turkey[4][5]
InsectClock leddy[5][8]
Mammal(s)Richt whaul,[9] Morgan horse,[10] Tabby cat,[11] Boston Terrier[12]
ReptileGarter snake[5][13]
TreeAmerican elm[5][14]
Inanimate insignia
BeverageCranberry juice[5][15]
ColoursBlue, green, cranberry[5][16]
DanceSquare dance[5][17]
FuidCranberry,[18] corn muffin,[5][19] navy bean,[20] Boston cream pie,[21] chocolate chip cookie,[22] Boston cream doughnut[23]
FossilDinosaur Tracks[24]
Poem"Blue Hills of Massachusetts"[5][27]
RockRolling Rock[5][28]
ShellNew Ingland Neptune, Neptunea lyrata decemcostata[5][31]
Ship(s)Schooner Ernestina [5]
Slogan(s)Make It Yours,
The Spirit of America [29]
Sang(s)"All Hail tae Massachusetts"[5]
Route merker(s)
Massachusetts Route Merker
State Quarter
Quarter of Massachusetts
Released in 2000[32]
Leets o Unitit States state seembols

Plymouth wis the steid o the first colony in New Ingland, foondit in 1620 bi the Pilgrims, passengers o the Mayflower. In 1692, the toun o Salem an surroondin auries experienced ane o Americae's maist infamous cases o mass hysteria, the Salem witch trials.[38] In 1777, General Henry Knox foondit the Springfield Armory, that in the Industrial Revolution catalysed numerous important technological advances, includin interchyngeable pairts.[39] In 1786, Shays' Rebellion, a populist revolt led bi disaffectit American Revolutionary War veterans, influenced the Unitit States Constitutional Convention.[40] In the 18t century, the Protestant First Great Awakenin, that soopit the Atlantic World, oreeginatit frae the poupit o Northampton preacher Jonathan Edwards.[41] In the late 18t century, Boston becam kent as the "Cradle of Leeberty"[42] for the agitation thare that led tae the American Revolution.

The entire Commonweel o Massachusetts haes played a pouerfu commercial an cultural role in the history o the Unitit States. Afore the American Ceevil War, Massachusetts wis a centre for the abolitionist, temperance,[43] an transcendentalist[44] movements.[45] In the late 19t century, the sports o basketbaw an volleybaw war inventit in the wastren Massachusetts ceeties o Springfield an Holyoke, respectively.[46][47] In 2004, Massachusetts becam the first U.S. state tae legally recognise same-sex mairiage as a result o the deceesion in Goodridge v. Department o Public Health bi the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Coort.[48] Mony prominent American poleetical dynasties hae hailed frae the state, includin the Adams an Kennedy faimilies. Harvard Varsity in Cambridge is the auldest institution o heicher learnin in the Unitit States,[49] wi the lairgest financial endoument o ony varsity,[50] an Harvard Law School haes eddicatit a contemporaneous majority o Juistices o the Supreme Coort o the Unitit States.[51] Kendall Square in Cambridge haes been cried "the maist innovative squerr mile on the planet", in reference to the heich concentration o entrepreneurial stairt-ups an quality o innovation that hae emerged in the vicinity o the squerr syne 2010.[52][53] Baith Harvard Varsity an the Massachusetts Institute o Technology, an aw in Cambridge, hae been ranked amang the maist heichly regairdit academic institutions in the warld.[54] Massachusetts' public schuil students place amang the tap naitions in the warld in academic performance,[55] an the state haes been ranked as ane o the tap states in the naition for ceetizens tae leeve, as weel as ane o the maist expensive.[56]

References eedit

  1. "Table 1. Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for the United States, Regions, States, and Puerto Rico: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2015" (CSV). U.S. Census Bureau. 23 December 2015. Retrieved 24 Januar 2016.
  2. Schwarz, Hunter (12 August 2014). "States where English is the official language". The Washington Post. Retrieved 29 December 2014.
  3. "Black-Capped Chickadee:Massachusetts State Bird". Retrieved 17 Apryle 2015.
  4. "Wild Turkey:Massachusetts State Game Bird". Retrieved 17 Apryle 2015.
  5. a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r "Massachusetts Facts". Secretary of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. Retrieved 21 Apryle 2015.
  6. "Cod: Massachusetts State Fish". Retrieved 18 Apryle 2015.
  7. "Mayflower: Massachusetts State Flower". Retrieved 18 Apryle 2015.
  8. "Ladybug: Massachusetts State Insect". Retrieved 18 Apryle 2015.
  9. "Right Whale: Massachusetts State Marine Mammal". Retrieved 18 Apryle 2015.
  10. "Morgan Horse: Massachusetts State Horse". Retrieved 18 Apryle 2015.
  11. "Tabby Cat: Massachusetts State Cat". Retrieved 18 Apryle 2015.
  12. "Boston Terrier: Massachusetts State Dog". Retrieved 18 Apryle 2015.
  13. "Garter Snake: Massachusetts State Reptile". Retrieved 18 Apryle 2015.
  14. "American Elm: Massachusetts State Tree". Retrieved 18 Apryle 2015.
  15. "Cranberry Juice: Massachusetts State Beverage". Retrieved 18 Apryle 2015.
  16. "Blue – Green – Cranberry: Massachusetts State Colors". Retrieved 18 Apryle 2015.
  17. "Square Dance: Massachusetts State Folk Dance". Retrieved 18 Apryle 2015.
  18. "Cranberry: Massachusetts State Berry". Retrieved 18 Apryle 2015.
  19. "Corn Muffin: Massachusetts State Muffin". Retrieved 20 Apryle 2015.
  20. "Baked Navy Bean: Massachusetts State Bean". Retrieved 20 Apryle 2015.
  21. "Boston Creme Pie: Massachusetts State Dessert". Retrieved 20 Apryle 2015.
  22. "Chocolate Chip Cookie: Massachusetts State Cookie". Retrieved 20 Apryle 2015.
  23. "Boston Cream Donut: Massachusetts State Donut". Retrieved 18 Apryle 2015.
  24. "Dinosaur Tracks: Massachusetts State Fossil". Retrieved 20 Apryle 2015.
  25. "Rhodonite: Massachusetts State Gem". Retrieved 20 Apryle 2015.
  26. "Babingtonite: Massachusetts State Mineral". Retrieved 20 Apryle 2015.
  27. "Blue Hills of Massachusetts: Massachusetts State Poem". Retrieved 20 Apryle 2015.
  28. "Rolling Rock: Massachusetts State Glacial Rock". Retrieved 20 Apryle 2015.
  29. "State Slogans". Retrieved 21 Apryle 2015.
  30. Levenson, Michael (9 August 2006). "Can you guess the state sport of Massachusetts?". Boston Globe. Retrieved 14 Februar 2012.
  31. "New England Neptune: Massachusetts State Shell". Retrieved 23 Apryle 2015.
  32. "The Official Massachusetts State Quarter". Archived frae the original on 27 Apryle 2015. Retrieved 21 Apryle 2015.
  33. Douglas, Craig. "Greater Boston gains population, remains 10th-largest region in U.S". Retrieved 21 Apryle 2015.
  34. "Maritime Commerce". National Park Service. Retrieved 21 Apryle 2015.
  35. "History of Lowell, Massachusetts". City of Lowell. Archived frae the original on 5 Apryle 2010. Retrieved 21 Apryle 2015. Unknown parameter |dead-url= ignored (help)
  36. "Staying Power: The Future of Manufacturing in Massachusetts" (PDF). The Center for Urban and Regional Policy School of Social Science, Urban Affairs, and Public Policy Northeastern University. Archived frae the original (PDF) on 4 Mairch 2016. Retrieved 21 Apryle 2015.
  37. "Housing and Economic Development:Key Industries". Archived frae the original on 22 Apryle 2015. Retrieved 21 Apryle 2015.
  38. "The 1692 Salem Witch Trials". Salem Witch Trials Museum. Retrieved 21 Apryle 2015.
  39. "Springfield Armory: Technology in Transition" (PDF). National Park Service United States Department of the Interior. Retrieved 21 Apryle 2015.
  40. "Shays' Rebellion". Retrieved 21 Apryle 2015.
  41. "The First Great Awakening – Jonathan Edwards". Archived frae the original on 22 Apryle 2015. Retrieved 21 Apryle 2015. Unknown parameter |dead-url= ignored (help)
  42. "Faneuil Hall". Retrieved 21 Apryle 2015.
  43. "The Temperance Issue in the Election of 1840: Massachusetts". Retrieved 21 Apryle 2015.
  44. Packer, Barbara (2007). The Transcendentalists. University of Georgia Press; First edition (April 25, 2007). ISBN 978-0820329581.
  45. "Images of the Antislavery Movement in Massachusetts". Retrieved 21 Apryle 2015.
  46. "Springfield College: The Birthplace of Basketball". Archived frae the original on Mey 4, 2015. Retrieved Apryle 21, 2015. Unknown parameter |deadurl= ignored (help)
  47. "The International Volleyball Hall of Fame". Retrieved 21 Apryle 2015.
  48. "Massachusetts court strikes down ban on same-sex marriage". Reuters. 18 November 2003. Retrieved 21 Apryle 2015.
  49. "History of Harvard University". Harvard University. Retrieved 21 Apryle 2015.
  50. Tamar Lewin (28 Januar 2015). "Harvard's Endowment Remains Biggest of All". The New York Times. Retrieved 6 Mairch 2015.
  51. Richard Wolf (16 Mairch 2016). "Meet Merrick Garland, Obama's Supreme Court nominee". USA Today. Retrieved 16 Mairch 2016.
  52. "Kendall Square Initiative". MIT. Retrieved 1 December 2016.
  53. Lelund Cheung. "When a neighborhood is crowned the most innovative square mile in the world, how do you keep it that way?". Boston Globe. Archived frae the original on 2 December 2016. Retrieved 3 December 2016.
  54. [1] Times Higher Education. Accessed December 3, 2016.
  55. [2] Accessed 27 Januar 2017.
  56. "Best States Overall Ranking". U.S. News & World Report. Retrieved 29 December 2017.

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