The Vietnam War (Vietnamese: Chiến tranh Việt Nam, in Vietnam an aa kent as the American War, Vietnamese: Chiến tranh Mỹ, Kháng chiến chống Mỹ), an aa kent as the Seicont Indocheenae War, wis a Cauld War-era proxy war that occurred in Vietnam, Laos, an Cambodia frae December 1956[A 1] tae the faw o Saigon on 30 Aprile 1975. This war follaed the First Indocheenae War an wis foucht atween North Vietnam—supportit bi Cheenae an ither communist allies—an the govrenment o Sooth Vietnam—supportit bi the Unitit States an ither anti-communist kintras. The Viet Cong (an aa kent as the Naitional Liberation Front, or NLF), a lichtly airmed Sooth Vietnamese communist common front directit bi the North, foucht a guerrilla war against anti-communist forces in the region. The Fowk's Airmy o Vietnam (a.k.a. the North Vietnamese Airmy) engaged in a mair conventional war, at times committin lairge units intae battle. U.S. an Sooth Vietnamese forces relied on air superiority an owerwhelmin firepouer tae conduct search an destroy operations, involvin grund forces, artillery, an airstrikes.
(Chiến tranh Việt Nam)
|Pairt o the Indocheenae Wars an the Cauld War|
Clockwise, frae tap left: US combat operations in Ia Drang, ARVN Rangers defendin Saigon during the 1968 Tet Offensive, twa Douglas A-4C Skyhawks enroute for airstrikes against North Vietnam efter the Gulf o Tonkin incident, ARVN recaptur Quảng Trị during the 1972 Easter Offensive, ceevilians fleein the 1972 Battle o Quảng Trị, burial o 300 victims o the 1968 Huế Massacre.
|Commanders an leaders|
Ngô Đình Diệm |
Nguyễn Văn Thiệu
Nguyen Cao Ky
Cao Văn Viên
Ngô Quang Trưởng
John F. Kennedy
Lyndon B. Johnson
Chae Myung Shin
Ho Chi Minh|
Võ Nguyên Giáp
Van Tien Dung
Le Trong Tan
Phạm Văn Đồng
Hoang Van Thai
Tran Van Tra
Nguyen Van Linh
Nguyễn Hữu Thọ
|Casualties an losses|
Tot woondit: ~1,490,000+[citation needit]
Tot woondit: ~608,200
* indicates approximations
** This figure includes aw o the dead frae the Laotian an Cambodian ceevil wars.
- Due tae the early presence o American truips in Vietnam the stairt date o the Vietnam War is a matter o debate. In 1998 efter a heich level review bi the Department o Defense (DoD) an through the efforts o Richard B. Fitzgibbon's faimily the stairt date o the Vietnam War accordin tae the US govrenment wis offeecially chynged tae 1 November 1955. U.S. govrenment reports currently cite 1 November 1955 as the commencement date o the "Vietnam Conflict", acause this wis the day when the U.S. Militar Assistance Advisory Group (MAAG) in Indocheenae (deployed tae Sootheast Asie unner preses Truman) wis reorganized intae kintra-specific units an MAAG Vietnam wis established. Ither stairt dates include when Hanoi authorized Viet Cong forces in Sooth Vietnam tae begin a law-level insurgency in December 1956, whauras some view 26 September 1959 when the first battle occurred atween the Communist an Sooth Vietnamese army, as the stairt date.
- The figurs o 58,220 an 303,644 for U.S. daiths an woondit come frae the Department o Defense Statistical Information Analysis Diveesion (SIAD), Defense Manpower Data Center, as well as frae a Depairtment o Veterans fact sheet datit Mey 2010 the CRS (Congressional Research Service) Report for Congress, American War an Militar Operations Casualties: Leets an Statistics, datit 26 Februar 2010, an the beuk Crucible Vietnam: Memoir o an Infantry Lieutenant. Some ither soorces gie different figures (e.g. the 2005/2006 documentary Heart of Darkness: The Vietnam War Chronicles 1945–1975 citit elsewhaur in this airticle gies a figure o 58,159 U.S. daiths, an the 2007 beuk Vietnam Sons gies a figur o 58,226)
- "ALLIES OF THE REPUBLIC OF VIETNAM". Retrieved 24 September 2011.
- Larsen, Stanley R. and Collins, James L. Jr. Vietnam Studies: Allied Participation in Vietnam. Washington, D.C.: Department of the Army, 1985. p. 167. Spain sent a medical team to Co Gong Province in 1965.
- The Cuban Military Under Castro, 1989. Page 76
- Cuba in the World, 1979. Page 66
- "Foreign Affairs in the 1960s and 1970s". Library of Congress. 1992.
Throughout the 1960s and 1970s, Bulgaria gave official military support to many national liberation causes, most notably in the Democratic Republic of Vietnam, (North Vietnam)...
- Vietnamese special force attack USA B.52 den. nam hoai vu. 8 May 1970. Retrieved 29 April 2013.[verification needit]
- Le Gro, p. 28.
- "Vietnam War : US Troop Strength". Historycentral.com. Retrieved 17 October 2009.[deid airtin]
- "Facts about the Vietnam Veterans Memorial Collection". nps.gov. (citin The first American grund combat truips landit in Sooth Vietnam during Mairch 1965, specifically the U.S. Third Marine Regiment, Third Marine Diveesion, deployed tae Vietnam frae Okinawa tae defend the Da Nang, Vietnam, airfield. During the hicht o U.S. militar involvement, 31 December 1968, the breakdoun o allied forces wur as follows: 536,100 U.S. militar personnel, wi 30,610 U.S. militar havin been killed tae date; 65,000 Free Warld Forces personnel; 820,000 Sooth Vietnam Airmed Forces (SVNAF) wi 88,343 havin been killed tae date. At the war's end, thare wur approximately 2,200 U.S. missin in action (MIA) an prisoner o war (POW). Soorce: Harry G. Summers, Jr. Vietnam War Almanac, Facts on File Publishing, 1985.)
- Vietnam Marines 1965–73. Osprey Publishing. 8 March 1965. Retrieved 29 April 2011.
- Vietnam War After Action Reports, BACM Research, 2009, page 430
- Spencer Tucker, Encyclopedia of the Vietnam War: A Political, Social, and Military History, ABC-CLIO, 1998, p 770. "At war's end in 1975, the PAVN numbered nearly 1 million troops, despite the loss..."
- Reuters (16 May 1989). "China admits 320,000 troops fought in Vietnam". Toledo Blade. Retrieved 24 December 2013.
- Lewy 1978, pp. 450–3.
- Thayer 1985, chap. 12.
- Aaron Ulrich (editor); Edward FeuerHerd (producer and director) (2005 & 2006). Heart of Darkness: The Vietnam War Chronicles 1945–1975 (Box set, Color, Dolby, DVD-Video, Full Screen, NTSC, Dolby, Vision Software)
|url=(help) (Documentary). Koch Vision. Event occurs at 321 minutes. ISBN 1-4172-2920-9. Check date values in:
- Rummel, R.J (1997), "Table 6.1A. Vietnam Democide : Estimates, Sources, and Calculations" (GIF), Freedom, Democracy, Peace; Power, Democide, and War, University of Hawaii System External link in
- America's Wars (Report). Department of Veterans Affairs. 26 February 2010. Unknown parameter
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- Anne Leland; Mari–Jana "M-J" Oboroceanu (26 February 2010). American War and Military Operations: Casualties: Lists and Statistics (PDF) (Report). Congressional Research Service.
- Lawrence 2009, pp. 65, 107, 154, 217.
- Kueter, Dale. Vietnam Sons: For Some, the War Never Ended. AuthorHouse (21 March 2007). ISBN 978-1425969318
- "Australian casualties in the Vietnam War, 1962–72 | Australian War Memorial". Awm.gov.au. Retrieved 2013-06-29.
- "Overview of the war in Vietnam | VietnamWar.govt.nz, New Zealand and the Vietnam War". Vietnamwar.govt.nz. 1965-07-16. Retrieved 2013-06-29.
- The Encyclopedia of the Vietnam War: A Political, Social, and Military History By Spencer C. Tucker "http://books.google.com/?id=qh5lffww-KsC"
- Wiesner, Louis A. (1988). Victims and Survivors Displaced Persons and Other War Victims in Viet-Nam. New York: Greenwood Press. p.310
- Associated Press, 3 April 1995, "Vietnam Says 1.1 Million Died Fighting For North."
- Soames, John. A History of the World, Routledge, 2005.
- Dunnigan, James & Nofi, Albert: Dirty Little Secrets of the Vietnam War: Military Information You're Not Supposed to Know. St. Martin's Press, 2000, p. 284. ISBN 0-312-25282-X.
- Shenon, Philip (23 April 1995). "20 Years After Victory, Vietnamese Communists Ponder How to Celebrate". The New York Times. Retrieved 24 February 2011. The Vietnamese government officially claimed a rough estimate of 2 million civilian deaths, but it did not divide these deaths between North and South Vietnam.
- Heuveline, Patrick (2001). "The Demographic Analysis of Mortality in Cambodia." In Forced Migration and Mortality, eds. Holly E. Reed and Charles B. Keely. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.
- Sliwinski 1995.
- Banister, Judith, and Paige Johnson (1993). "After the Nightmare: The Population of Cambodia." In Genocide and Democracy in Cambodia: The Khmer Rouge, the United Nations and the International Community, ed. Ben Kiernan. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Southeast Asia Studies.
- Factasy. "The Vietnam War or Second Indochina War". PRLog. Retrieved 2013-06-29.
- DoD 1998
- Lawrence 2009, p. 20.
- Olson & Roberts 1991, p. 67.[citation nae foond]
- Origins of the Insurgency in South Vietnam, 1954–1960, The Pentagon Papers (Gravel Edition), Volume 1, Chapter 5, (Boston: Beacon Press, 1971), Section 3, pp. 314–346; International Relations Department, Mount Holyoke College.
- "Vietnam War". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 5 March 2008.
Meanwhile, the United States, its military demoralized and its civilian electorate deeply divided, began a process of coming to terms with defeat in its longest and most controversial war