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Swisserland (German: die Schweiz, French: la Suisse, Italian: Svizzera, Romansh: Svizra, Laitin: Helvetica), kent offeecially the Swiss Confederation (German: Schweizerische Eidgenossenschaft, French: Confédération Suisse, Italian: Confederazione Svizzera an Romansh: Confederaziun Svizra, Laitin: Confoederatio Helvetica), is an Alpine kintra in Central Europe. It is landlockit an haes the neebours Germany tae the North, Fraunce tae the Wast, Italy tae the Sooth an Austrick an Liechtenstein tae the East. Historically it wis a Confederation but syne 1848 it haes been a Federation. It haes a strang economy in finance an baunkin an haes a lang history o bein neutral baith poleetical an meelitar.

Swiss Confederation
  • Schweizerische Eidgenossenschaft  (German)
  • Confédération suisse  (French)
  • Confederazione Svizzera  (Italian)
  • Confederaziun svizra  (Romansh)
  • Confoederatio Helvetica  (Laitin)
Motto: (tradeetional)
"Unus pro omnibus, omnes pro uno" (Laitin)
"Ane for aw, aw for ane"
Anthem: "Swiss Psalm"
Location o  Switzerland  (green) on the European continent  (green & dark grey)
Location o  Switzerland  (green)

on the European continent  (green & dark grey)

Caipital None (de jure)
Bern (de facto)[note 1][1][2]
46°57′N 7°27′E / 46.950°N 7.450°E / 46.950; 7.450
Lairgest ceety Zürich
Offeecial leids German
Demonym Scots: Swiss,
German: Schweizer(in),
French: Suisse(sse),
Italian: svizzero/svizzera, or elvetico/elvetica,
Romansh: Svizzer/Svizra
Govrenment Federal semi-direct democracy unner multi-pairty pairlamentary directorial republic
Walter Thurnherr
Legislatur Federal Assembly
Cooncil o States
Naitional Cooncil
c. 1300[note 2] (tradeetionally 1 August 1291)
24 October 1648
7 August 1815
12 September 1848[note 3][3]
• Total
41,285 km2 (15,940 sq mi) (135t)
• Water (%)
• 2016 estimate
8,401,120[4] (99th)
• 2015 census
• Density
202/km2 (523.2/sq mi) (63rd)
GDP (PPP) 2016 estimate
• Total
$493.126 billion[6] (39t)
• Per capita
$59,150[6] (9t)
GDP (nominal) 2016 estimate
• Tot
$651.770 billion[6] (19th)
• Per capita
$78,179[6] (2nt)
Gini (2015) positive decrease 29.5[7]
law · 19th
HDI (2015) Increase 0.939[8]
verra heich · 2nt
Currency Swiss franc (CHF)
Time zone UTC+1 (CET)
• Summer (DST)
Date format (AD)
Drivin side right
Cawin code +41
Patron saunt St Nicholas o Flüe
ISO 3166 code CH
Internet TLD .ch


  1. De jure "federal ceety"; de facto caipital. Due tae historical federalist sensibilities, Swiss law disna designate a formal caipital; an some federal institutions such as coorts are locatit in ither ceeties.
  2. The oreeginal date o the Rütlischwur wis 1307 (reportit bi Aegidius Tschudi in the 16t century) an is juist ane amang several comparable treaties atween mair or less the same pairties during that period. The date o the Federal Charter o 1291 wis selectit in 1891 for the offeecial celebration o the "Confederacy's 600t anniversary".
  3. A solemn declaration o the Tagsatzung declared the Federal Constitution adoptit on 12 September 1848. A resolution o the Tagsatzung o 14 September 1848 specifee'd that the pouers o the institutions providit for bi the 1815 Federal Treaty would expire at the time o the constitution o the Federal Council, which took place on 16 November 1848.


  1. Georg Kreis: Federal city in German, French and Italian in the online Historical Dictionary of Switzerland, 20 March 2015.
  2. Holenstein, André (2012). "Die Hauptstadt existiert nicht" (PDF) (scientific article). UniPress – Forschung und Wissenschaft an der Universität Bern (in German) (152: Sonderfall Hauptstatdtregion). Berne: Department Communication, University of Berne: 16–19. doi:10.7892/boris.41280 (inactive 2017-03-07). Retrieved 20 December 2015. Als 1848 ein politisch-administratives Zentrum für den neuen Bundesstaat zu bestimmen war, verzichteten die Verfassungsväter darauf, eine Hauptstadt der Schweiz zu bezeichnen und formulierten stattdessen in Artikel 108: «Alles, was sich auf den Sitz der Bundesbehörden bezieht, ist Gegenstand der Bundesgesetzgebung.» Die Bundesstadt ist also nicht mehr und nicht weniger als der Sitz der Bundesbehörden. 
  3. Andreas Kley: Federal constitution in German, French and Italian in the online Historical Dictionary of Switzerland, 3 May 2011.
  4. "Bevölkerungsbestand am Ende des 2. Quartals 2016" [Recent monthly and quarterly figures: provisional data] (XLS) (official statistics) (in German, French, and Italian). Neuchâtel, Switzerland: Swiss Federal Statistical Office (FSO), Swiss Confederation. 6 October 2016. 1155-1500. Retrieved 7 December 2016. 
  5. Jacqueline Kucera, Athena Krummenacher, eds. (22 November 2016). Switzerland's population 2015 (PDF) (official report). Swiss Statistics. Neuchâtel, Switzerland: Swiss Federal Statistical Office (FSO), Swiss Confederation. Retrieved 7 December 2016. 
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 "5. Report for Selected Countries and Subjects: Switzerland". Washington, DC, U.S.: International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 7 December 2016. 
  7. "Gini coefficient of equivalised disposable income – EU-SILC survey" (Eurostat Data Explorer). Brussels, Belgium: European Commission. 15 November 2016. Retrieved 7 December 2016. 
  8. "2016 Human Development Report" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 2016. Retrieved 25 March 2017.