Islington /ˈɪzlɪŋtən/ is a destrict in Greater Lunnon, Ingland, an pairt o the London Borough of Islington. It is a mainly residential destrict o Inner Lunnon, extendin frae Islington High Street tae Highbury Fields, encompassin the aurie aroond the busy Upper Street, Essex Road an Southgate Road tae the east.
Islington grew as a sprawlin Middlesex veelage alang the line o the Great North Road, an haes providit the name o the modren burgh. This gae rise tae some confusion, as neebourin destricts mey be said tae be in Islington an aw. This destrict is boondit bi Liverpool Road tae the wast an City Road an Southgate Road tae the sooth-east. Its northmaist pynt is in the aurie o Canonbury. The main north-sooth heich street, Upper Street splits at Highbury Corner tae Holloway Road tae the wast an St. Paul's Road tae the east.
The aurie aroond Angel tube station is kent as Angel. The northren pairt o this aurie (frae the Liverpool Road junction northwairds) is athin the destrict o Islington, while the soothren hauf is in neebourin Finsbury. The aurie belaw Penton Street an east o Pentonville Road is the adjoinin destrict o Pentonville.
Islington wis oreeginally namit bi the Saxons Giseldone (1005), then Gislandune (1062). The name means "Gīsla's hill" frae the Auld Inglis personal name Gīsla an dun ("hill", "doun"). The name later mutatit tae Isledon, which remained in uise well intae the 17t century when the modren fuirm arose. In medieval times, Islington wis juist ane of mony smaw manors thereabouts, alang wi Bernersbury, Neweton Berewe or Hey-bury and Canonesbury (Barnsbury, Highbury and Canonbury – names first recorded in the 13t and 14t centuries).
Some roads on the edge o the aurie, includin Essex Road, wur kent as streets bi the medieval period, possibly indicating a Roman oreegin, but little physical evidence remains. Wha is kent is that the Great North Road frae Aldersgate came intae uise in the 14t century, connectin wi a new turnpike (toll road) up Highgate Hill. This wis alang the line o modren Upper Street, wi a toll gate at The Angel definin the extent o the veelage. The Back Road, the modren Liverpool Road, wis primarily a drovers' road whaur cattle wad be restit afore the feenal leg o thair jurney tae Smithfield. Pens an sheds wur erectit alang this road tae accommodate the ainimals.
The first recordit kirk, St Mary's, wis erectit in the twalt century an wis replacit in the fifteent century. Islington lay on the estates o the Bishop o Lunnon an the Dean an Chapter o St Pauls. Thare wur substantial medieval moatit manor hooses in the aurie, principally at Canonbury an Highbury. In 1548, thare wur 440 communicants leetit an the landwart atmosphere, wi access tae the Ceety an Wastmeenster, made it a popular residence for the rich an eminent. The local inns, housomeivver, harboured mony fugitives an recursants.
The Royal Agricultural Hall wis biggit in 1862 on the Liverpool Road steid o William Dixon's Cattle Layers. The haw wis 75 ft heich an the airched gless ruif spanned 125 ft. It wis biggit for the annual Smithfield Shaw in Dizember o that year but wis popular for ither purposes, includin recitals an the Royal Tournament. It wis the primar exhibition steid for Lunnon till the 20t century an the lairgest biggin o its kynd, hauldin up tae 50,000 fowk. It wis requisitioned for uise bi the Mount Pleasant sortin office durin Warld War II an niver re-opened. The main haw haes nou been incorporatit intae the Business Design Centre.
The hill on which Islington staunds haes lang supplee'd the Ceety o Lunnon wi watter, the first projects drawin watter throu firthen pipes frae the mony springs that lay at its fuit, in Finsbury. Thir includit Sadler's Wells, Lunnon Spa an Clerkenwell.
Bi the 17t century thir tradeetional soorces wur inadequate tae supply the growin population an plans wur laid tae big a watterwey, the New River, tae bring fresh watter frae the soorce o the River Lea, in Hertfordshire tae New River Head, belaw Islington in Finsbury. The river wis opened on 29 September 1613 bi Sir Hugh Myddleton, the constructor o the project. His statue still staunds whaur Upper Street meets Essex Road. The course o the river ran tae the east o Upper Street, an hintle o its course is nou covered an forms a linear pairk throu the aurie.
The Regent's Canal passes throu Islington. For hintle o its lenth it travels throu a 886 metre (2,907 ft) tunnel that runs frae Colebrook Row, juist east o the Angel, tae emerge at Muriel Street no far frae Caledonian Road. The subterranean stretch is markit wi a series o pavement plaques sae that canal walkers mey fynd thair wey frae ane entrance tae the ither abuin grund. The aurie o the canal east o the tunnel an north o the City Road wis ance dominatit bi hintle warehoosin an industry surroondin the lairge City Road Basin an Wenlock Basin. Those auld biggins that survive here are nou lairgely residential or smaw creative wirk units. This stretch boasts ane o the few auld canal pubs wi a entrance actually on the tow-path, The Narrowboat.
The canal wis constructit in 1820 tae cairy cargo frae Limehouse intae the canal seestem. Thare is nae tow-path in the tunnel sae bargees haed tae walk thair barges throu, bracit against the ruif. Commercial uise o the canal haes declined syne the 1960s.
Mercat gardens an entertainmentsEedit
In the 17t an 18t centuries the availability o watter made Islington a guid place for growin vegetables tae feed Lunnon. The manor became a popular resort for Lunnoners due tae this landwart aspect, an mony public hooses wur biggit tae serve the needs o baith visitors an travellers on the turnpike. Bi 1716, thare wur 56 ale-hoose keepers in Upper Street, afferin pleasur an tea gardens an aw, an activities sic as archery, skittle alleys an bowlin. Bi the 18t century, muisic an dancin wur affered, thegither wi billiards, firewirk displays an balloon ascents. The King's Head Tavern, nou a Victorian biggin wi a theatre, haes remained on the same steid, opposite the pairish kirk, syne 1543. The foonder o the theatre, Dan Crawford, who dee'd in 2005, disagreed wi the introduction o decimal coinage. For twinty-plus years efter decimalisation (on 15 Februar 1971), the bar continued tae shaw prices an chairge for drinks in pre-decimalisation currency.
Bi the 19t century mony muisic haws an theatres wur established aroond Islington Green. Ane sic wis Collins' Muisic Hall, the remains o which are nou pairtly incorporatit intae a beukshop. The remainder o the Hall haes been redevelopit intae a new theatre, wi its entrance at the bottom o Essex Road. It stuid on the steid o the Landsdowne Tavern, whaur the landlaird haed biggit an entertainment ruim for customers who wantit tae sing (an later for profeesional enterteeners). It wis foondit in 1862 bi Samuel Thomas Collins Vagg an bi 1897 haed acome a 1,800-seat theatre wi 10 bars. The theatre suffered damage in a fire in 1958 an haes no reopened. Atween 92 an 162 acts wur put on each fore-nicht an performers who stairtit thare includit Marie Lloyd, George Robey, Harry Lauder, Harry Tate, George Formby, Vesta Tilley, Tommy Trinder, Gracie Fields, Tommy Handley an Norman Wisdom.
The Islington Literary and Scienteefic Society wis established in 1833 an first met in Mr. Edgeworth's Academy on Upper Street. Its goal wis tae spread knawledge throu lecturs, discussions, an experiments, politics an theologie bein forbidden. A biggin, the Literary and Scienteefic Institution, wis erectit in 1837 in Wellington (later Almeida) Street, designed bi Roumieu an Gough in a stuccoed Grecian style. It includit a librar (conteenin 3,300 volumes in 1839), readin room, museum, laboratory, an lectur theatre seatin 500. The subscription wis twa guineas a year. Efter the librar wis sauld aff in 1872, the biggin wis sauld or leased in 1874 tae the Wellington Club, which occupee'd it till 1886. In 1885 the haw wis uised for concerts, baws, an public meetins. The Salvation Army bocht the biggin in 1890, renamit it the Wellington Castle barracks, an remained thare till 1955. The biggin became a factory an showroom for Beck's Breetish Carnival Novelties for a few years frae 1956, efter which it stuid empty. In 1978 a campaign began wi the goal tae redevelop the biggin as a theatre. A public appeal wis launched in 1981, an a festival o avant-garde theatre an muisic wis held thare an at ither Islington venues in 1982. Wha haes acome the successfu Almeida Theatre wis foondit.
Some early development teuk place tae accommodate the popularity o the nearbi Sadler's Wells, which became a resort in the 16t century, but the 19t century saw the greatest expansion in hoosin, suin tae kiver the whole pairish. In 1801, the population wis 10,212, but bi 1891 this haed increased tae 319,143. This rapid expansion wis pairtly due tae the introduction o horse-drawn omnibuses in 1830. Lairge well-biggit hooses an fashionable squares drew clerks, airtisans an profeesionals tae the destrict. Housomeivver, frae the middle o the 19t century the poor wur bein displacit bi clearances in inner Lunnon tae big the new railwey stations an guids yards. Mony o the displacit settled in Islington, wi the hooses becomin occupee'd bi mony faimilies. This, combined wi the railweys pushin intae ooter Middlesex, reducit Islington's attraction for the "better aff" as it became "unfashionable". The aurie fell intae a lang decline; an bi the mid-20t century, it wis lairgely run-doun an a biwird for urban poverty. The author K M Warwick, born in 1957 in Islington, recaws it as a place scarred bi bomb damage. He said that hauf o Sonderberg Road wis still a bomb-steid; his faimily left for Essex, tae a new life, alang wi mony ither faimilies.
Warld War II caused hintle damage tae Islington's hoosin stock, wi 3,200 dwellins destroyed. Afore the war a nummer o 1930s council hoosin blocks haed been addit tae the stock. Efter the war, pairtly as a result o bomb steid redevelopment, the cooncil hoosin buim got intae its stride, reachin its peak in the 1960s: several extensive estates wur constructit, bi baith the Metropolitan Borough of Islington an the London County Council. Clearance o the wirst terracit hoosin wis unnertaken, but Islington continued tae be vera densely populatit, wi a heich level o owercroudin.
Frae the 1960s, the remainin Georgian terraces wur rediscovered bi middle-cless faimilies. Mony o the hooses wur rehabilitatit, an the aurie became newly fashionable. This displacement o the poor bi the aspirational haes acome kent as gentrification. Amang the new residents wur a nummer o figurs who became central in the New Labour muivement, includin Tony Blair afore his victory in the 1997 general election. Accordin tae The Guardian, "Islington is widely regardit as the spiritual hame o Breetain's left-wing intelligentsia." The Granita Pact atween Gordon Brown an Tony Blair is said tae hae been made at a nou defunct restaurant on Upper Street.
The destrict haes mony cooncil blocks, an the local authority haes begun tae replace some o them.
The completion o the Victoria line an redevelopment o Angel tube station creatit the conditions for developers tae renovate mony o the early Victorian an Georgian townhooses. Thay biggit new developments an aw. Islington remains a destrict wi diverse indwallers, wi its private hooses an apairtments no far frae social hoosin in immediately neebourin Islington destricts sic as Finsbury an Clerkenwell tae the sooth, Bloomsbury an King's Cross tae the wast, an Highbury tae the north wast, an the Hackney destricts o De Beauvoir an Old Street tae the north east an aw.
Upper Street is the main shoppin street o central Islington, an cairies the A1 road.
Islington High StreetEedit
Islington High Street is the umwhile High Street o the veelage o Islington. The earliest reference tae Islington High Street is its appearance on a 1590 cairt o the aurie. At this time, nine inns (includin the famous Angel, which haes subsequently gien its name tae the aurie), as well as hoosin an a public pond wur shawn linin the street. Then as nou, Islington wis an is unuisual in that the veelage kirk, St Mary's, daes no staund on the heich street but is some wey aff on Upper Street.
In 1716 Islington High Street came unner the control o the newly formed Islington Turnpike Trust. The Trust grew rapidly, an suin haed control o maist major roads in the aurie, biggin a nummer o major road arteries throu the expandin residential auries, includin Caledonian Road, Euston Road, City Road an New North Road.
The Peacock Inn at 11 Islington High Street dates frae 1564, awtho the current façade dates frae 1857. It featurt in Tom Brown's Schooldays as the inn at which Tom stays prior tae travellin tae Rugby School. It closed in 1962, awtho the biggin still staunds.
Angel tube station on Islington High Street haes the langest escalator on the London Underground seestem, at 318 steps. In 2006 a Norse man made heidlines efter skiin doun the escalator at the station.
The aurie is well servit bi bus routes, wi a major bus interchynge locatit near Angel tube station. Red route an residents' pairkin restrictions apply throuoot the aurie.
- De Beauvoir Town
- King's Cross
- St Luke's
- For eddication in the aurie, see the London Borough of Islington an Ceety o Lunnon airticles.
Govrenment an infrastructurEedit
The Civil Aviation Authority haes its heid office in the CAA House in Islington.
English Heritage leet three Grade II* leetit biggins athin Central Islington (an mony mair in surroondin destricts):
- The Union Chapel
- 3 Terrett's Place (a 18t-century hoose on Upper Street)
- St Paul's Church, St Paul's Road (designed bi Sir Charles Barry, nou the St Paul's Steiner Project)
Grade II (selectit):
The aurie is aiblins maist notable for its Georgian tounhooses, shops an pubs. Mony whole terraces are leetit includin hintle o Liverpool Road (ane side o which is in Barnsbury) an Islington High Street/Upper Street. Ither multiply leetit streets include Arlington Square, Camden Passage, Compton Terrace, Colebrooke Row, Cross Street, Duncan Terrace, Essex Road, Gibson Square an Milner Square.
Ither Grade II leetit structurs include:
- The Almeida Theatre.
- The Angel Baptist Church, Cross Street.
- The Angel public hoose (the oreeginal ane, nou a Co-op bank – no the newer Wetherspoon's), Islington High Street.
- The Business Design Centre (pairt o which is the umwhile Royal Agricultural Hall), Upper Street.
- The Camden Head public hoose, Camden Passage.
- The Hope and Anchor public hoose, Upper Street.
- Ironmonger Row Baths.
- Islington Town Hall.
- M Manze's Pie and Eel Shop, Chapel Market.
- Mecca Bingo Hall (nou closed), Essex Road (ance the Carlton Cinema). This is due tae acome a kirk in the near futur.
- The Old Queen's Head public hoose, Essex Road.
- St John's Church, Duncan Terrace.
- St Mary's Church, Upper Street (rebuilt efter Warld War 2 – anerly the spire remains frae the oreeginal).
- South Library, Essex Road.
- The York public hoose.
- Emirates Stadium
- London Art House
See an awEedit
- ↑ a b c "Islington: Growth", A History of the County of Middlesex: Volume 8: Islington and Stoke Newington parishes (1985), pp. 9–19. Retrieved 13 March 2007
- ↑ 'Islington: Communications', A History of the County of Middlesex: Volume 8: Islington and Stoke Newington parishes (1985), pp. 3–8. Retrieved 9 March 2007
- ↑ John Richardson, Islington Past, Revised Edition, Historical Publications Limited, 2000;pp 59–60.
- ↑ A Vision of Britain – Islington. Retrieved 26 April 2007
- ↑ The Story of the New River (Thames Water) Archived 2008-02-11 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved 12 December 2007
- ↑ Alan Faulkner "The Regent's Canal: London's Hidden Waterway" (2005) ISBN 1-870002-59-8
- ↑ Dunton, Larkin (1896). The World and Its People. Silver, Burdett. p. 29.
- ↑ David Clark, "Accusations of anti-Semitic chic are poisonous intellectual thuggery"; The Guardian, 6 March 2006, Retrieved 9 March 2007
- ↑ Happold, Tom and Maguire, Kevin. "Revealed: Brown and Blair's pact", The Guardian, 6 June 2003. Retrieved 25 December 2005.
- ↑ Croot, Patricia (1985). "Islington Growth". A History of the County of Middlesex. British History Online. 8: 9–19. Retrieved 11 Mey 2007. Cite has empty unkent parameter:
- ↑ Croot, Patricia (1985). "Islington Communications". A History of the County of Middlesex. British History Online. 8: 3–8. Retrieved 11 Mey 2007. Cite has empty unkent parameter:
- ↑ www.londonremembers.com
- ↑ "Places of Note". London Borough of Islington. Archived frae the original on 10 November 2004. Retrieved 11 Mey 2007. Cite has empty unkent parameter:
- ↑ "London Underground Statistics". Tube Prune. 21 Apryle 2003. Retrieved 11 Mey 2007. Cite has empty unkent parameter:
- ↑ "Tube Ski Stunt Blasted by Police". BBC. 28 Mairch 2007. Retrieved 12 Mey 2007. Cite has empty unkent parameter:
- ↑ "London Head Office Archived 2011-06-03 at the Wayback Machine." Civil Aviation Authority. Retrieved 9 September 2010.
- ↑ Images of England Archived 2009-08-13 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved 10 March 2007
- ↑ Islington Gazette (9 Julie 2008). "Bingo hall gets all-clear to become church". Retrieved 17 Julie 2008.[deid airtin]
- A History of the County of Middlesex: Volume 8 (Note that even this largely refers tae the auld parish, considerably lairger than the modren destrict)
- Daniel Lysons (1792), "Islington", Environs of London, 3: County of Middlesex, London: T. Cadell
- John Timbs (1867), "Islington", Curiosities of London (2nd ed.), London: J.C. Hotten, OCLC 12878129
London/Islington travel guide frae Wikivoyage
|Wikimedia Commons haes media relatit tae Islington.|
- Islington Council
- Islington Archaeology & History Society Archived 2013-09-13 at the Wayback Machine
- Islington Literary & Historical Strolls Archived 2006-10-08 at the Wayback Machine
- The Islington Society
- St Mary's Church
- Freightliner's Farm
- London Landscape TV episode (5 mins) about Islington Archived 2011-07-13 at the Wayback Machine