Rugby union (aften referred tae as rugby, union or fitba) is a variant o rugby fitbaw. Rugby union is aye played wi teams o 15 players, awtho thare's rugby sievens an aw, a swippert gemme wi 7 players on baith teams. The name comes fae the the gemme's foremaist owerseein body, the Rugby Football Union. It is ane o the twa codes o rugby, the ither bein rugby league.
The gemme wis developed frae the rules uised tae play fitbaw at Rugby schuil in Ingland. The main differ frae fitbaw is that in rugby the baw is an oval, no a sphere, an that the players is alloued tae lift the baw up an rin wi it. The players is alloued tae fling the baw fae player tae player, but no forrit: the baw maun gang sideweys or back whan flung.
It is a popular gemme parteecularly in Nou Zealand, Fiji, Tonga, Samoa, Wales, Ingland, Ireland, Scotland, Fraunce, Australie, Argentina an Sooth Africae. Rugby union is winnin mair parteecipants in Italie, efter its acceptance intae the Sax Nations, an Japan, mauger thair failt ettle tae haud the 2011 Rugby Warld Cup that gaed tae New Zealand.
The International Rugby Board (IRB), foondit in 1886, governs the gemme an sets furth the gemme's laws an aw. Thare's 95 full members an 8 associate member kintras the nou. Frae IRB feegures, rugby is gettin played in mair nor 100 kintras ower five continents by men an weemen o aw eilds. The IRB haes owerins ower the Rugby Warld Cup, the Weemen's Rugby Warld Cup, Rugby Warld Cup Sievens, IRB Sievens Warld Series, Nether 21 Warld Cup, Unner 19 Warld Cup, an the Super Pouers Cup. It will haud votes for tae wirk oot whaur thir events is tae be be hauden.
The gemme lasts for 80 meenits (twa haufs o 40 meenits) an is guided by a referee that twa touch judges gies a haund tae. Ilks team alternately attacks the opposition dale or fends thair ain. Thir dales is merkit at baith ends o the pitch by twa muckle (10 m or mair) stobs set 5.6 m apairt, an connectit by a cross-bauk 3 m abuin the grund; the hail formin the shape o a letter H. A team can score by kickin the baw atween the stobs an ower the cross-bauk, but the baw can anerly be kickit frae the grund: aither frae a place kick efter the awaird o a penalty or frae a drap kick in open play. A successfu kick at the dale is wirth three pynts. The area ahint ilka set o dale stobs is cawed the in goal are an the attackin team can score by grundin the baw here: cryed a "try" an wirth five pynts. Efter scorin a try, the attackin team is gien a free kick at the dale (cryed a conversion) for an extra twa pynts.
A rugby union pairk consists o a maximum gemme area o 144x70m on a girse surface. Lines are pentit on tae the field at regular intervals; deid baw line, try line, 22 metre line (afore the metric system was introduced, this wis the 25-yard line), 10 metre line (braiken line) an haufwiy. This is mirrored oan the other side o the pairk. Lines are 5 metres awa fae the try line an side line an 15 metres awa fae the side line. The length fae try line tae try line is aye 100 metres; the ane varying distances oan a rugby pairk are the wadth o the pairk, an the distance fae try line to deid baw line.
1.2 metre padded flags are placed neist the pairk for indication on the haufwiy line, 22, try line an deid baw line. The try line an deid baw line flags are pit on the intersection wi the touch line an are considered oot if hit gin a player cerryin the baw, or the baw itsel.
A rugby union coar consists o 15 players, eicht furrits nummered 1 tae 8, an sieven backs, nummered 9 tae 15. Depending oan the competition, thare may be up tae sieven replacements (substitutes or reserves). Professional rugby can hae sieven reserves, wi a player bein allouit tae be substituted ance, hin thiy are a front rower an are replacing an injured front rower. Anither exception tae this rule is the "bluid bin" whaur a player wi a visible hagger can lea' the gemme for 10 meenits an then retour tae continue efter gettin treatment. A player sent tae the bluid bin may be replaced gin anither player during treatment; if the bluidit player retours tae the gemme athin 10 meenits, it is no coontit as a substitution.
The main role o the furrits is tae git an haud possession o the baw. They tak pairt in set pieces of the scrum an the line-oot. Aye, furrits are mair muckle than the backs, which maks them mair savendie bit mair langsome. Furrits hae a role in takkin the baw furrit an aw, but aye dae sae gin drivin intae the opposing forwards.
The role o the backs is tae muive the gemme furrit gin runnin or kickin the baw. The scrum-hauf will git possession o the baw fae the furrits an aye feed it tae the fly hauf (no.10) wha then controls how the attacking coar will gang. The backline will aye score its tries gin focussing on the tactical placement o players, makkin holes in the opposition defence line. A guid backine will mak the opposition commit muckle mony players at strategic points allowing for space tae open up for the mair fast, outside backs (wingers an fullback).
The foalyin picter locates the various positions in the 15-man coar. Aw members o the stairting 15 weir sarks nummered fae 1 tae 15 an keyed tae their positions. The foremaist eicht players, kent as furrits or the pack, play in the scrum. The ither sieven players play as the backs.
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