For ither uises, see Moscow (disambiguation).

Moscow is the caipital, the maist populous ceety, an the maist populous federal subject o Roushie. The ceety is a major poleetical, economic, cultural, releegious, financial, educational, an transportation centre o Roushie an the warld, a global ceety. Moscow is the maist populous ceety on the continent o Europe an the seivent lairgest ceety proper in the warld, a megaceety. The population o Moscow (as o 1 Januar 2010) is 10,563,038.

Москва (Russian)
—  Federal ceety  —

Clockwise frae tap richt: Spasskaya Touer o the Moscow Kremlin; MIBC; Reid Squerr, Saunt Basil's Cathedral; Bolshoi Theatre; Moscow State Varsity; an Cathedral o Christ the Saviour.

Banner o Moscow

Coat o airms o Moscow
Anthem: Ma Moscow
Poleetical status
Country Roushie
Federal destrictCentral[1]
Economic regionCentral[2]
EstablishedAfore 1147[3]
Federal ceety DayThe first Seturday an Sunday o September[4]
Govrenment (as of Mairch 2010)
 - Mayor[5]Sergey Sobyanin[5]
 - LegislaturCeety Duma[6]
 - ChairterChairter o Moscow
Aurie [7]
 - Tot1,091 km2 (421 sq mi)
Aurie rank83rd
Population (2010 Census)[8]
 - Tot11,514,330
 - Rank1st
 - Density[9]10,553.92/km2 (27,334.5/sq mi)
 - Urban100%
 - Rural0%
Time zone(s)MSK (UTC+03:00)[10]
ISO 3166-2RU-MOW
License plates77, 99, 97, 177, 199, 197
Offeecial leidsRoushie[11]
Offeecial wabsteid

Moscow is situatit on the Moskva River in the Central Federal Destrict o European Roushie. In the course o its history the ceey haes served as the caipital o a progression o states, frae the medieval Grand Duchy o Moscow an the subsequent Tsardom o Roushie tae the Soviet Union. Moscow is the site o the Moscow Kremlin, an auncient fortress that is the day the residence o the Roushie Preses an o the executive branch o the Govrenment o Roushie. The Kremlin is an' a' ane o several Warld Heritage Sites in the ceety. Baith chambers o the Roushie parliament (the State Duma an the Federation Cooncil) an' a' sit in Moscow.

The ceety is served bi an extensive transit netwirk, which includes fower internaitional airports, nine railwey terminals, an the Moscow Metro, seicont anerlie tae Tokyo in terms o ridership an recognised as ane o the ceety's laundmerks due tae the rich an varied airchitecture o its 182 stations.

Ower time, Moscow haes acquired a nummer o epithets, maist referrin tae its size an preeminent status athin the naition: The Third Rome (Третий Рим), Whitestane (Белокаменная), The First Throne (Первопрестольная), The Fowerty Fowerties (Сорок Сороков).

The demonym for a Moscow resident is Moskvitch.



Population size may be affected by changes on administrative divisions.
Population o Moscow (1350–2009)
Red Square haes lang been ane o the ceety's maist important meetin places

Accordin tae the results o the 2010 Census, the population o Moscow wis 11,503,501;[12] up frae 10,382,754 recordit in the 2002 Census.[8]

At the time o the offeecial 2010 Census, the ethnic makup o the ceety wis:[12]

    • Roushie: 9,930,410 (91.6%)
    • Ukrainian: 154,104 (1.4%)
    • Tatar: 149,043 (1.4%)
    • Armenie: 106,466 (1%)
    • Azeri: 57,123 (0.5%)
    • Jews: 53,145 (0.5%)
    • Belaroushie: 39,225 (0.4%)
    • Georgie: 38,934 (0.4%)
    • Uzbek: 35,595 (0.3%)
    • Tajik: 27,280 (0.2%)
    • Moldovan: 21,699 (0.2%)
    • Mordvin: 17,095 (0.2%)
    • Chechen: 14,524 (0.1%)
    • Chuvash: 14,313 (0.1%)
    • Ossetians: 11,311 (0.1%)
    • Koreans: 9,783 (0.1%)
    • Kazakh: 9,393 (0.1%)
    • Bashkir: 6,609 (0.1%)
    • Cheenese: 3,222 (0.03%)
    • Vietnamese: 2,970 (0.03%)
    • Ithers: 132,848 (1.2%)
  • 668,409 fowk wur registered frae admeenistrative databases, an coud no declare an ethnicity. It is estimatit that the proportion o ethnicities in this group is the same as that o the declared group.[13]

The offeecial population o Moscow is taken frae those hauldin "permanent residency." Accordin tae Roushie's Federal Migration Service, Moscow an aw contains 1,800,000 offeecial "guests" who hae temporary residency on the basis o visas or ither documentation. The nummer o unoffeecial guests, those athoot proper documentation, is estimatit tae be an additional 1,000,000 fowk.[14]

Admeenistrative diveesions an govrenmentEedit

View frae the Seiven Sisters in Kudrinskaya Square. The mayor's heichrise office (the umwhile Comecon heidquarters) is tae the left, the Roushie govrenment biggin tae the richt


Moscow is the seat o pouer for the Roushie Federation. At the centre o the ceety, in Central Admeenistrative Okrug, is the Moscow Kremlin, which hooses the hame o the Preses o Roushie as well as mony o the facilities for the naitional govrenment. This includes numerous military heidquarters an the heidquarters o the Moscow Military Destrict. Moscow, lik wi ony naitional caipital, is an aw the host o aw the foreign embassies an diplomats representin a multitude o naitions in Roushie. Moscow is designatit as ane o anerlie twa Federal ceeties o Roushie (the ither ane bein Saunt Petersburg). Amang the 83 federal subjects o Roushie, Moscow represents the maist populatit ane an the smawest ane in terms o aurie. Lastly, Moscow is locatit athin the central economic region, ane o twal regions athin Russia wi seemilar economic goals.

Admeenistrative diveesionsEedit

Administrative okrugs o Moscow: 1. Ceety o Zelenograd 2. Northren 3. North-Eastren 4. North-Westren 5. Central 6. Eastren 7. Soothren 8. Sooth-Eastern 9. Sooth-Wastren 10. Western

The entire ceety o Moscow is heidit bi ane mayor (Sergey Sobyanin). The ceety o Moscow is dividit intae 12 admeenistrative okrugs an 146 destricts.

The Roushie caipital's specific toun-plannin development began tae shaw as early as the 12t century, when the ceety wis foondit. The central pairt o Moscow grew bi consolidatin wi suburbs in line wi the medieval principles o urban development, when strang fortress waws wad gradually gird alang the circle streets o adjacent new settlements. The first circular defence waws set the trajectory o Moscow's rings, layin the grundwirk for futur toun-plannin o the Roushie caipital.

The follaein fortifications servit as the ceety's circular defence bundaries at some pynt in history: the Kremlin waws, Zemlyanoy Gorod (earthwirk toun), the Kamer-Kollezhsky Rampart, the Garden Ring, an the smaw railwey ring. The Moscow Automobile Ring Road (MKAD) haes been Moscow's bundary syne 1960. An aw in the form o a circle are the main Moscow subway line, the Ring Line, an the sae-cried Third Automobile Ring, which wis completit in 2005. Hence, the characteristic radial-circle plannin continues tae define Moscow's further development. Housomeivver, contemporary Moscow haes an aw engulft a nummer o territories ootside the MKAD, sic as Solntsevo, Butovo, an the toun o Zelenograd.

Aw admeenistrative okrugs an destricts hae thair awn coats o airms an flags as well as the heid offeecials.

In addition tae the destricts, thare are Territorial Units wi Special Status. Thir uisually include auries wi sma or nae permanent populations, sic as the case wi the All-Russia Exhibition Center, the Botanical Garden, lairge pairks, an industrial zones. In recent years, some territories hae been mergit wi different destricts. Thare are nae ethnic-specific regions in Moscow, as in the Cheenatouns that exist in some North American an East Asie ceeties. Awtho destricts are no designated bi income, as wi maist ceeties, those auries that are closer tae the ceety center, metro stations or green zones are considered mair prestigious.[15]

Moscow an aw hosts some o the govrenment bodies o Moscow Oblast, awtho the ceety itsel is admeenistratively separate frae the oblast.[16]

Internaitional relationsEedit

Twin touns — Sister ceetiesEedit

Moscow is twinned wi the follaein ceeties:


  1. Президент Российской Федерации. Указ №849 от 13 мая 2000 г. «О полномочном представителе Президента Российской Федерации в федеральном округе». Вступил в силу 13 мая 2000 г. Опубликован: "Собрание законодательства РФ", №20, ст. 2112, 15 мая 2000 г. (Preses o the Roushie Federation. Decree #849 of May 13, 2000 On the Plenipotentiary Representative o the Preses o the Roushie Federation in a Federal Destrict. Effective as of May 13, 2000.).
  2. Госстандарт Российской Федерации. №ОК 024-95 27 декабря 1995 г. «Общероссийский классификатор экономических регионов. 2. Экономические районы», в ред. Изменения №5/2001 ОКЭР. (Gosstandart of the Russian Federation. #OK 024-95 December 27, 1995 Russian Classification of Economic Regions. 2. Economic Regions, as amended by the Amendment #5/2001 OKER. ).
  3. Comins-Richmond, Walter. "The History of Moscow". Occidental College. Retrieved 2006-07-03.
  4. "Holidays and significant dates of Moscow". Moscow City Government. Retrieved 29 September 2010.
  5. 5.0 5.1 "The Moscow City Mayor". Government of Moscow. Retrieved 18 March 2010.
  6. "The Moscow Statute". Moscow City Duma. Moscow City Government. 28 June 1995. Retrieved 29 September 2010. The supreme and exclusive legislative (representative) body of the state power in Moscow is the Moscow City Duma.
  7. Ministry of Economic Development of the Russian Federation. Federal Registration, Cadastre&Cartograhy Service. Russia Landuse National Report 2008, p.187-188 (in Roushie)
  8. 8.0 8.1 Roushie Federal State Stateestics Service (21 May 2004). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population o Roushie, Its Federal Destricts, Federal Subjects, Destricts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Admeenistrative Centres, an Rural Localities wi Population o Ower 3,000] (XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [Aw-Roushie Population Census o 2002] (in Roushie).
  9. The density value wis calculatit bi dividin the population reported bi the 2010 Census bi the aurie shawn in the "Aurie" field. Please note that this value mey nae be accurate as the aurie specified in the infobox is nae necessarily reportit for the same year as the population.
  10. Правительство Российской Федерации. Федеральный закон №107-ФЗ от 3 июня 2011 г. «Об исчислении времени», в ред. Федерального закона №271-ФЗ от 03 июля 2016 г. «О внесении изменений в Федеральный закон "Об исчислении времени"». Вступил в силу по истечении шестидесяти дней после дня официального опубликования (6 августа 2011 г.). Опубликован: "Российская газета", №120, 6 июня 2011 г. (Govrenment o the Roushie Federation. Federal Law #107-FZ of Juin 31, 2011 On Calculatin Time, as amended by the Federal Law #271-FZ of Julie 03, 2016 On Amendin Federal Law "On Calculatin Time". Effective as of efter saxty days follaein the day o the offeecial publication.).
  11. Offeecial on the whole territory o Roushie accordin tae Article 68.1 o the Constitution o Roushie.
  12. 12.0 12.1 "Плотность населения Российской Федерации по субъектам Российской Федерации". Rosstat. 2010. Retrieved 30 September 2010.
  14. ""Российская газета" о мигрантах в Москве". Retrieved 2010-12-22.
  15. "Цены на Квартиры в Москве по Административным Районам и Станциям Метро". (in Russian). Retrieved 27 September 2010.CS1 maint: unrecognised leid (link)
  16. Accordin tae Airticle 24 o the Chairter o Moscow Oblast, the govrenment bodies o the oblast are locatit in the ceety o Moscow an throughout the territory of Moscow Oblast. Housomeivver, Moscow is no offeecially namit tae be the admeenistrative center o the oblast.
  17. "Twin Towns". Retrieved 2009-10-29.
  18. "Sister Cities of Manila". 2008–2009 City Government of Manila. Retrieved 2009-07-02. External link in |publisher= (help)
  19. "Prague Partner Cities" (in Czech). 2009 Magistrát hl. m. Prahy. Retrieved 2009-07-02. External link in |publisher= (help)
  20. Moscow and Rejkjavik sister cities. . Retrieved on 2008-03-11
  21. "Twinning Cities: International Relations" (PDF). Municipality of Tirana. Retrieved 2009-06-23.
  22. Twinning Cities: International Relations. Municipality of Tirana. Retrieved on 2008-01-25.
  23. "Cooperation Internationale" (in French). © 2003–2009 City of Tunis Portal. Retrieved 2009-07-31.
  24. "Miasta partnerskie Warszawy". Biuro Promocji Miasta. 2005-05-04. Archived frae the oreeginal on 2007-10-11. Retrieved 2008-08-29.