island kintra in the North Atlantic Ocean

Iceland (Icelandic: Ísland [ˈistlant])[8] is a Nordic island kintra in the North Atlantic, wi a population o 348,580 and an aurie o 103,000 km2 (40,000 sq mi), makkin it the maist sparsely populatit kintra in Europe.[9] The caipital an lairgest ceety is Reykjavík. Reykjavík an the surroondin auries in the soothwast o the kintra are hame tae ower twa-thirds o the population.


Ísland (Icelandic)
Location o Iceland
and largest city
64°08′N 21°56′W / 64.133°N 21.933°W / 64.133; -21.933
Official leid
an naitional leid
Ethnic groups
Kirk o Iceland[2]
GovrenmentUnitar pairlamentar republic
• Preses
Guðni Th. Jóhannesson
Bjarni Benediktsson
9t century
5 Januar 1874
• Kinrick
1 December 1918
• Republic
17 Juin 1944
• Total
102,775[3] km2 (39,682 sq mi) (106t)
• Water (%)
• 2019 estimate
360,390[4] (172nt)
• Density
3.4/km2 (8.8/sq mi) (233rd)
GDP (PPP)2018 estimate
• Total
$19 billion[5] (142nt)
• Per capita
$54,753[5] (16t)
GDP (nominal)2018 estimate
• Tot
$27 billion[5]
• Per capita
$75,700[5] (5t)
Gini (2016)positive decrease 24.1[6]
law · 2nt
HDI (2017)Increase 0.935[7]
verra heich · 6t
CurrencyIcelandic króna (ISK)
Time zoneUTC+0 (WET)
Date formatdd/mm/yyyy
Drivin sidericht
Cawin code+354
ISO 3166 codeIS
  1. ^ "Statistics Iceland: Key figures". Statistics Iceland. 1 Januar 2014. Retrieved 30 Mairch 2014.
  2. ^ "CIA – The World Factbook – Field Listing – Distribution of family income – Gini index". United States government. Archived frae the original on 13 Juin 2007. Retrieved 14 September 2008.
Citys and countys (Sýslur)

Iceland is volcanically an geologically active. The interior conseests o a plateau chairactereesit bi sand an lava fields, muntains, an glaciers, an mony glacial rivers flowe tae the sea throu the lawlands. Iceland is wairmed bi the Gulf Stream an haes a temperate climate, despite a heich latitude juist ootside the Arctic Circle. Its heich latitude an marine influence keep simmers chilly, wi maist o the archipelago haein a tundra climate.

Accordin tae the auncient manuscript Landnámabók, the settlement o Iceland begoud in 874 AD whan the Norse chieftain Ingólfr Arnarson becam the first permanent settler on the island.[10] In the follaein centuries, Norses, an tae a lesser extent ither Scandinavies, emigratit tae Iceland, bringin wi them thirls (i.e., sclaves or serfs) o Gaelic oreegin. The island wis govrened as an independent commonweel unner the Althing, ane o the warld's auldest functionin legislative assemmlies. Follaein a period o ceevil strife, Iceland accedit tae Norse rule in the 13t century. The establishment o the Kalmar Union in 1397 unitit the kinricks o Norawa, Denmark, an Swaden. Iceland sicweys follaed Norawa's integration tae that union an cam unner Dens rule, efter Swaden's secession frae that union in 1523. Awtho the Dens kinrick introduced Lutheranism forcefully in 1550, Iceland remeened a distant semi-colonial territory in that Dens institutions an infrastructurs war conspeecuous bi thair absence. In the wauk o the French Revolution an the Napoleonic Wars, Iceland's struggle for unthirldom teuk form an culminatit in untirldom in 1918 an the foondin o a republic in 1944. Till the 20t century, Iceland relied lairgely on subsistence fishin an agricultur, an wis amang the puirest kintra in Europe. Industrialisation o the fisheries an Marshall Plan aid follaein Warld War II brocht prosperity, an Iceland becam ane o the walthiest an maist developit naitions in the warld. In 1994, it becam a pairt o the European Economic Aurie, that forder diversifee'd the economy intae sectors sic as finance, biotechnology, an manufacturin.

Iceland haes a mercat economy wi relatively law taxes, compared tae ither OECD kintras.[11] It mainteens a Nordic social welfare seestem that provides universal heal care an tertiary eddication for its ceetizens.[12] Iceland ranks heich in economic, poleetical, an social stabeelity an equality. In 2016, it wis rankit as the nint maist developit kintra in the warld bi the Unitit Naitions' Human Development Index, an it ranks first on the Global Peace Index.[7] Iceland runs awmaist completely on renewable energy. Affectit bi the ongaein warldwide financial creesis, the naition's entire bankin seestem seestemically failed in October 2008, leadin tae a severe depression, substantial poleetical unrest, the Icesave dispute, an the institution o caipital controls. Some bankers war jyled.[13] Syne then, the economy haes made a signeeficant recovery, in lairge pairt due tae a surge in tourism.[14][15][16]

Icelandic cultur is foondit upon the naition's Scandinavian heritage. Maist Icelanders are descendants o Norse an Gaelic settlers. Icelandic, a North Germanic leid, is descendit frae Auld Wast Norse an is closely relatit tae Faroese an Wast Norse dialects. The kintra's cultural heritage includes tradeetional Icelandic cuisine, Icelandic leeteratur, an medieval sagas. Iceland haes the smawest population o ony NATO member an is the anerly ane wi na staundin airmy, wi a lichtly airmed coast gaird in chairge o defence.[17]


  1. "Population by country of citizenship, sex and age 1 January 1998–2016". Reykjavík, Iceland: Statistics Iceland. Retrieved 27 Januar 2017.
  2. "Constitution of Iceland". Government of Iceland. Retrieved 14 October 2014. Section VI deals wi releegion an Airticle 62 states "The Evangelical Lutheran Church shall be the State Kirk in Iceland an, as sic, it shall be supportit an pertectit bi the State". In Scots this kirk is commonly cried the Kirk o Iceland.
  3. "Ísland er minna en talið var" (in Icelandic). RÚV. 26 Februar 2015. Retrieved 10 Mairch 2015.
  4. Estimate given for 30 June 2019.
    "The population increased by 1,610 in the second quarter of 2019" (in Inglis). Statistics Iceland. 29 Julie 2019. Retrieved 29 Julie 2019.
  5. a b c d "Iceland". International Monetary Fund.
  6. "Gini coefficient of equivalised disposable income – EU-SILC survey". Eurostat. Retrieved 7 Mairch 2019.
  7. a b "2017 Human Development Report". United Nations Development Programme. 2017. Retrieved 14 September 2018.
  8. Interinstitutional Style Guide of the European Union guidance on Iceland reading "Do not use 'Republic of Iceland'. Although this name is found in some documents, it does not have official status."
  9. "Statistics Iceland". Government. The National Statistical Institute of Iceland. 14 September 2008. Retrieved 14 September 2008.
  10. Tomasson, Richard F. (1980). Iceland, the first new society. U of Minnesota Press. p. 63. ISBN 0-8166-0913-6.
  11. "OECD Tax Database". Archived frae the original on 25 Januar 2010. Retrieved 26 Januar 2010. Unknown parameter |deadurl= ignored (help)
  12. Ólafsson, Stefán (12 Mey 2004). "The Icelandic Welfare State and the Conditions of Children". Archived frae the original on 18 August 2005. Retrieved 22 Apryle 2010. Unknown parameter |deadurl= ignored (help)
  13. Worstall, Tim. "If Iceland Can Jail Bankers For The Crash Then Why Can't America?". Forbes.
  14. Greenstein, Tracey (20 Februar 2013). "Iceland's Stabilized Economy Is A Surprising Success Story". Forbes. Retrieved 11 Apryle 2014.
  15. Mingels, Guido (10 Januar 2014). "Out of the Abyss: Looking for Lessons in Iceland's Recovery". Der Spiegel. Retrieved 11 Apryle 2014.
  16. Bowers, Simon (6 November 2013). "Iceland rises from the ashes of banking collapse". The Guardian. Retrieved 11 Apryle 2014.
  17. The Military Balance 2014. The International Institute of Strategic Studies (IISS). 2014.