Tunis (Arabic: تونس‎, Tūnis) is the caipital an lairgest ceety o Tunisie an an' a' the Tunis Govrenorate, wi a population o 1,200,000 in 2008 an ower 3,980,500 in the greater Tunis aurie.


Ceety o Tunis
View o Tunis
Central esplanade o the Avenue Habib Bourguiba.
Tunis is located in Tunisia
Coordinates: 36°48′N 10°11′E / 36.800°N 10.183°E / 36.800; 10.183
Kintra Tunisie
 • MayorSeifallah Lasram
 • Ceety212.63 km2 (82.10 sq mi)
 • Ceety1 056 247[1]
 • Density9406.01/km2 (24,361.5/sq mi)
 • Urban
2 294 547
 • Metro
2 643 695
(Tunisian Arabic: تونسي, Tounsi‎‎)
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)

Situatit on a lairge Mediterranean Sea gulf (the Gulf o Tunis), ahint the Lake o Tunis an the port o La Goulette (Halq al Wadi), the ceety extends alang the coastal plain an the hills that surroond it. At the centre o mair modren development (colonial era an efter) lies the auld medina. ayont this section lie the suburbs o Carthage, La Marsa, an Sidi Bou Said.

The medina is foond at the centre o the ceety: a dense agglomeration o alleys an covered passages, full o intense scents an colours, boisterous an active tred, a surfeit o guids on affer rangin frae laither tae plastic, tin tae the finest filigree, tourist souvenirs tae the wirks o tiny crafts shops.

Juist throu the Sea Gate (cried the Bab el Bahr an the Porte de France an aa) begins the modren ceety, or Ville Nouvelle, transversed bi the grand Avenue Habib Bourguiba (aften referred tae bi popular press an traivel guides as "the Tunisian Champs-Élysées"), whaur the colonial-era buildings provide a clear contrast tae smawer, aulder structures. As the caipital ceety o the kintra, Tunis is the centre o Tunisian commercial activity, as well as the focus o poleetical an administrative life in the kintra. The expansion o the Tunisian economy in the last decades is reflectit in the boomin development o the ooter ceety whaur ane can see clearly the social challenges brocht aboot bi rapid modrenisation in Tunisie.

Etymology eedit

Tunis is the transcription o the Arabic name تونس which can be pronoonced as "Tūnus‎", "Tūnas", or "Tūnis". Aw three variations wur mentioned bi the Arab geographer al-Rumi Yaqout in his Mu'jam al-Bûldan (Dictionary o Kintras).

Different explanations exist for the oreegin o the name Tunis. Some scholars relate it tae the Phoenician goddess Tanith ('Tanit or Tanut), as mony auncient ceeties wur named efter patron deities.[2][3] Some Arab scholars proposed that the name derives frae Arabic roots or identified it wi the oreeginal toun o Tarshish.[4] Ithers claim that it oreeginatit frae Tynes, which wis mentioned bi Diodoros an Polybius in the course o descriptions resemblin present-day Al-Kasba; ane o Tunis's suburbs.[4][5]

Anither possibility is that it wis derived frae the Berber verbal ruit ens which means "tae lie doun" or "tae pass the nicht".[6] Gien the variations o the precise meanin ower time an space, the term Tunis can possibly mean "camp at nicht", "camp", or "stop". Thare are forby some mentions in auncient Roman soorces o sic names o nearbi touns as Tuniza (currently El Kala), Thunusuda (currently Sidi Meskine), Thinissut (currently Bouregba Bir), and Thunisa (currently Ras Jebel). As aw o thir Berber villages wur situatit on Roman roads, thay undoubtitly served as a rest-stations or stops.[7]

History eedit

Climate eedit

Umwhile Carthaginian port
Tunis bay

Tunis haes a warm-simmer Mediterranean climate (Koppen climate classification Csa),[8] characterized bi a het an dry saison an a cuil an rainy saison. The local climate is forby affectit somewha bi the latitude o the ceety, the moderatin influence o the Mediterranean an the terrain o the hills.

Climate data for Tunis
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record heich °C (°F) 25.2
Average heich °C (°F) 15.7
Daily mean °C (°F) 11.5
Average law °C (°F) 8.2
Record law °C (°F) −1.7
Average precipitation mm (inches) 59.3
Average precipitation days 9 8 8 6 4 2 1 1 4 7 7 8 65
Mean monthly sunshine oors 145.7 165.3 198.4 225.0 282.1 309.0 356.5 328.6 258.0 217.0 174.0 148.8 2,808.4
Source #1: Warld Meteorological Organization,[9] Hong Kong Observatory for data of avg. precipitation days and sunshine hours[10]
Source #2: NOAA (extremes)[11]

Politics eedit

Capital eedit

Kasbah Square comprisin the finance meenistry an the prime meenistry o Tunisie

Tunis haes been the caipital o Tunisie syne 1159. Unner Airticles 43 an 24 o the Constitution o 1959,[12] Tunis an its suburbs host the naitional institutions: the Presidential Palace, which is kent as Carthage Palace, residence o the Preses o the Tunisian Republic, the Chamber o Deputies an the Chamber o Councillors an parliament, the Constitutional Cooncil an the main judicial institutions, the Bardo Naitional Museum an various ither govrenment depairtments an public bodies.

Municipality eedit

Institutions eedit

Ceety Hall

The Ceety Cooncil is componed o 60 members includin 20 assistants electit bi the cooncil efter takin office.

The Ceety Cooncil meets fower times a year but mey meet bi special request o the mayor. The cooncil's regulatory responsibilities include the municipal budget, biggin development, an actions tae be unnertaken unner the Naitional Development Plan.[13] It forby provides advice on aw projects tae be implementit bi the state, the govrenorate or a public body.

Unlik ither mayors in Tunisie, the mayor o Tunis is appointit bi decree o the Preses o the Republic frae amang the members o the Ceety Cooncil. Abbes Mohsen is the current Mayor o Tunis, an haes been in office syne 2000 when he succeedit Mohamed Ali Bouleymane. He wis re-electit an confirmed in his post efter the municipal elections o 2005.[14]

In addition tae the municipal institutions, each o the fifteen destricts haes a municipal cooncil meetin each month in the presence o electit offeecials an representatives o the admeenistrations, tae address the issues o the day.

Budget eedit

The 2008 budget adoptit bi the Ceety Cooncil is structured as follaes: 61.61 million dinars for the operation an 32,516 million dinars for investment.[15] It reflects the improved financial situation o the municipality, the year 2007 wis a year registerin a surplus in resoorces that alloued the dounset o debts o the municipality an the strengthenin o its credibility wi respect its suppliers an public an private pairtners.

Revenues are generatit bi the proceeds o taxes on biggins an vacant lots, fees for the rental of municipal property, income frae the operation o the public, advertisin, an that the fact that the municipality haes caipital shares in some companies. On the expenditure side, proveesion is made for the consolidation o hygiene an cleanliness, the state o the environment an urban design, infrastructure maintenance, rehabilitation an renovation o facilities, an strengthenin the logistics an means o wirk an transport.[15]

Administrative deevisions eedit

Cairt o the arrondissements o Tunis

The ceety o Tunis, whose size haes increased significantly durin the seicont hauf o the 20t century, nou extends ower several govrenorates in the Tunis Govrenorate wi the surroondin auries extendin ower pairts o the govrenorates o Ben Arous, Ariana an Manouba.

The municipality o Tunis is dividit intae 15 municipal destricts:[16] Thir include El Bab Bhar, Bab Souika, Cité El Khadra, Jelloud Jebel El Kabaria, El Menzah, El Ouardia, Ettahrir, Ezzouhour, Hraïria, Medina, El Omrane, El Omrane Heicher Séjoumi, Sidi El-Bashir an Sidi Hassine.

Demography eedit

Muslims in Tunis attend the mosque in 1899.
A souk shopkeeper
Year Municipality Metropolitan aurie
1891 114,121
1901 146,276
1911 162,479
1921 171,676 192,994
1926 185,996 210,240
1931 202,405 235,230
1936 219,578 258,113
1946 364,593 449,820
1956 410,000 561,117
1966 468,997 679,603
1975 550,404 873,515
Sources : Paul Sebag, Tunis. Histoire d'une ville, éd. L’Harmattan, 1998
Auld man in Tunis

In the years follaein unthirldom, the population o the metropolitan aurie continues tae grow: the increase o 21.1% frae 1956 tae 1966 an bi 28.5% frae 1966 tae 1975 (55.6% atween 1956 an 1975).[17] This steady growthe is accompanied bi chynges which affect the naitur o the dounset o the caipital. Decolonization led tae the exodus o some minorities whose nummers are dwindlin ivery year. The gaps creatit bi thair departure are abundantly filled bi Tunisians who are emigratin tae Tunis frae ither pairts o the kintra.

At the beginnin o the 21st century, the metropolitan aurie o Tunis exceeds 2,000,000 indwallers. Efter unthirldom, the Tunisian govrenment implementit a plan tae cope wi population growthe o the ceety an kintra, a seestem o faimily plannin, tae attempt tae lawer the rate o population growthe. Housomeivver, atween 1994 an 2004, the population o the govrenorate o Tunis grew mair nor 1.03% per annum. It represents, in the 2004 census, 9.9% o the tot population o Tunisie.[18] As in the rest o Tunisie, literacy in the region o Tunis haes evolved rapidly durin the seicont hauf o the 20t century an reaches a level slichtly heicher than the naitional average. Housomeivver eddication is anerlie exceedit bi the neighbouring govrenorate o Ariana which haes mony institutions o eddication.

Sport eedit

At the beginnin o the 20t century a nummer o sports institutions wur establisht in Tunis, parteecularly in schuil an college settings. In 1905 the Muslim Association o Tunisie brocht thegither students frae Lycée Alaoui an Sadiki College tae organize geemnastics. A regional geemnastics competeetion wis held in Tunis in 1912 wi the participation o thoosans o French geemnasts. Fitbaa made its appearance in the caipital on 15 September 1904, follaed bi the formal creation o the kintra’s first league, the Racing Club Tunis, on 11 Mey 1905. It teuk some time tae run properly but suin organized meetins atween the teams in schools. The first teuk place on 9 Juin 1907, atween teams frae Lycée Alaoui an Lycée Carnot (1–1).

But fitbaa is no the anerlie discipline tae emerge. Atween 1928 an 1955 the ceety competit for nine editions o the Grand Prix o Tunis, whaur notable drivers sic as Marcel Lehoux, Achille Varzi, Tazio Nuvolari an Rudolf Caracciola teuk pairt. The Grand Prix o Tunis haes re-emerged syne 2000.[19] The ceety haes forby held the Mediterranean Gemmes twice, in 1967 an 2001, an the internaitional tennis tournament, the Tunis Open, which is includit in the ATP Challenger Series. The 2005 Warld Championship final for men in team handbaw wis played in Tunis, on 6 Februar. In tot the govrenorate o Tunis registered 24,095 licences for various clubs in the municipal aurie in 2007.[20]

Club Stadium Foondation Championships
o Fitbaa
o volleybaw
o handbaw
o basketbaw
Club Africain Stade El Menzah 1920 12 7 8 1
Espérance Sportive de Tunis Stade El Menzah 1919 20 15 24 3
Stade Tunisien Stade Chedli Zouiten 1948 4 0 0 0
7 November Radès Stadium
Tunisie naitional fitbaa team playin

The Esperance Sportive de Tunis (EST), Club Africain (CA), an Stade Tunisien are the major sports clubs in the ceety. A seembolic cless difference is present atween the EST's an the CA's supporters, despite thair playin at the same stadium. The EST is supportit bi the wealthy bourgeois an middle classes, while the CA, a poorer club, is supportit bi the masses an wirkin cless generally.[21] The first true sports facilities wur managed unner the French protectorate, as illustratit bi the development o the Ksar Said racecourse an construction o the Stade Chedli Zouiten in the neighborhuid o Belvedere, which haed lang been the main stadium in the caipital afore bein supplantit bi the Olympic stadium, Stade El Menzah, whaur EST an CA play thair fitbaa the day. The Olympic stadium an veelage urie wis biggit tae accommodate the Mediterranean Gemmes in 1967. A 60,000-seat stadium wis forby biggit in Radès for the Mediterranean Gemmes in 2001 at an estimatit cost o 170 million dinars, wi nearly hauf o the loans financed bi Sooth Korean businessmen. The Olympic veelage wis financed bi an investment estimatit at 50 million dinars.[22] In 2008, the govrenment annoonced the stairt o construction o a lairge sports complex that will include several sports academies, a 20,000-seat stadium, an a soummin centre. Kent as Tunis Sports Ceety, it will expand aroond the lake o Tunis, on the road tae La Marsa.[23]

Internaitional relations eedit

Twin touns — Sister ceeties eedit

Tunis is twinned wi:[24]


References eedit

  1. a b Recensement de 2014 (Institut national de la statistique) Archived 2014-10-29 at the Wayback Machine
  2. Room, Adrian (2006). Placenames of the World: Origins and Meanings of the Names for 6,600 Countries, Cities, Territories, Natural Features, and Historic Sites. McFarland. p. 385. ISBN 0786422483.
  3. Taylor, Isaac (2008). Names and Their Histories: A Handbook of Historical Geography and Topographical Nomenclature. BiblioBazaar, LLC. p. 281. ISBN 0559296681.
  4. a b Houtsma, Martijn Theodoor (1987). E.J. Brill's First Encyclopaedia of Islam, 1913-1936. Brill. p. 838. ISBN 9004082654.
  5. Livy, John Yardley, Dexter Hoyos (2006). Hannibal's War: Books Twenty-one to Thirty. Oxford University Press. p. 705. ISBN 0192831593.CS1 maint: uises authors parameter (link)
  6. Rossi, Peter M.; White, Wayne Edward (1980). Articles on the Middle East, 1947-1971: A Cumulation of the Bibliographies from the Middle East Journal. Pierian Press, University of Michigan. p. 132.
  7. Paul Sebag, Tunis. Histoire d’une ville, éd. L’Harmattan, 1998, p. 54
  8. http://koeppen-geiger.vu-wien.ac.at/pics/kottek_et_al_2006.gif
  9. "Weather Information for Tunis-Carthage". WMO. Archived frae the original on 19 November 2020. Retrieved 21 Januar 2010.
  10. "Climatological Information for Tunis, Tunisia". Hong Kong Observatory. Archived frae the original on 23 October 2019. Retrieved 4 Mey 2013.
  11. "TUNIS-CARTHAGE Climate Normals 1961-1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 6 November 2012.
  12. (in French) Constitution de la République tunisienne (Jurisite Tunisie)
  13. (in French) Conseil municipal (Municipalité de Tunis) Archived 2010-07-25 at the Wayback Machine
  14. (in French) Maire de Tunis (Municipalité de Tunis) Archived 2010-06-16 at the Wayback Machine
  15. a b (in French) Budget de la municipalité de Tunis pour l’année 2008 (Municipalité de Tunis) Archived 2009-04-16 at the Wayback Machine
  16. (in French) Plan d’ensemble (Municipalité de Tunis) Archived 2009-01-06 at the Wayback Machine.
  17. Paul Sebag, op. cit., p. 608
  18. (in French) Population, répartition proportionnelle et taux d’accroissement par gouvernorat (Institut national de la statistique) Archived 2013-12-07 at the Wayback Machine
  19. (in French) « Grand Prix historique de Tunis : un rendez-vous magique », Turbo, M6, 23 novembre 2007 Archived 2009-02-24 at the Wayback Machine
  20. (in French) Statistiques du sport en Tunisie (Ministère de la jeunesse, des sports et de l’éducation physique) Archived 2008-12-16 at the Wayback Machine
  21. Franck Moroy, Football et politique. Le derby tunisois Espérance sportive de Tunis - Club Africain, éd. Institut d’études politiques, Aix-en-Provence, 1997
  22. (in French) Abdelaziz Barrouhi, Combien ça coûte ? , Jeune Afrique Archived 2008-12-07 at Archive.today
  23. "Modélisation de la future Tunis Sports City (Mosaïque FM)". Archived frae the original on 19 Mey 2008. Retrieved 24 Januar 2011.
  24. a b c d e f g h i "Cooperation Internationale" (in French). © 2003-2009 City of Tunis Portal. Archived frae the original on 8 Mey 2008. Retrieved 31 Julie 2009.