state in Wastren Asie

Jordan (/ˈdʒɔrdən/), offeecially the Hashemite Kinrick o Jordan, an forby kent as the JK (short for The Jordanian Kinrick), is a kinrick on the East Bank o the River Jordan in Wastren Asie. It haes mairches wi Saudi Arabie sooth-eastlins, Iraq eastlins, Sirie norlins an Israel an Palestine tae the wast, sharin control o the Dead Sea. Jordan's anerlie port is at its soothren tip, at the Gulf o Aqaba, whilk is skared wi Israel, Egyp, an Saudi Arabie. Hantle o Jordan is kivered bi the Arabian Desert. Housomeivver, the north-wastren pairt o Jordan is pairt o the Fertile Crescent. The caipital ceety is Amman.

Hashemite Kinrick o Jordan

المملكة الأردنية الهاشمية (Arabic)
Al-Mamlakah Al-Urdunnīyah Al-Ḥāshimīyah
Motto: "God, Kintra, Keeng"
الله، الوطن، الملك (Arabic)
Allah, Al-Waṭan, Al-Malik[1]
Anthem(Scots: The Ryal Anthem o Jordan)
السلام الملكي الأردني
Al-Salam Al-Malaki Al-Urdunni

Map of Jordan showing influential governorate centers
Map of Jordan showing influential governorate centers
and largest city
31°57′N 35°56′E / 31.950°N 35.933°E / 31.950; 35.933
Offeecial leidsArabic
Ethnic groups
GovrenmentUnitar pairlamentar constitutional monarchy
• Keeng
Abdullah II
Bisher Al-Khasawneh
Hoose o Representatives
11 Apryle 1921
25 May 1946
• Total
89,341 km2 (34,495 sq mi) (112t)
• 2018 estimate
10,171,480[2] (88t)
• 2015 census
• Density
114/km2 (295.3/sq mi) (106t)
GDP (PPP)2018 estimate
• Total
$93.159 billion[4] (87t)
• Per capita
$9,406[4] (86t)
GDP (nominal)2018 estimate
• Tot
$41.869 billion[4] (92nt)
• Per capita
$4,228[4] (95th)
Gini (2011)35.4[5]
medium · 79t
HDI (2017)Steady 0.735[6]
heich · 95t
CurrencyDinar (JOD)
Time zoneUTC+2 (EET)
• Summer (DST)
Drivin sideri ht
Cawin code+962
ISO 3166 codeJO

Throu its history, Jordan haes seen a thrang o ceevilizations, includin sic auncient near eastren anes as the Canaanites an later ither Semitic fowks lik the Edomites, an the Moabites. Ither ceevilizations possessin poleetical sovereignty an influence in Jordan wur: Akkadian, Assyrian, Israelite/Judean, Babylonian, an Persian empires. The lands o Jordan wur for a time unner the rule o Pharaonic Egyp, componed pairt o the greater Kinrick o Israel (includin the later Judaean Kinrick, Hasmonaen Kinrick o Israel an Herodian Dynasty), an notably, the region o Jordan gied birth tae the Nabataean ceevilisation an aw, whilk left rich airchaeological remains at Petra, ane o the New Seiven Wonders o the Warld locatit in the Ma'an Govrenorate. Cultur faurer wast left their mark an aa, like the Macedonian/Greek/Hellenistic, Roman, Byzantine, an Ottoman Turkis empires. Syne the seivent century C.E., the area haes been unner the primary rule o Muslim an Arab cultur, wi the exceptions briefly for the area in wastren Jordan that wis pairt o the Crusader Kinrick o Jerusalem, an for the hale region in the early-mid twintiet century C.E. unner Breetish rule whilk led tae Jordan's establishment as an autonomous state.

The Hashemite Kinrick o Jordan is a constitutional monarchy wi representative govrenment. The reignin monarch is the chief executive an the commander-in-chief o the airmed forces. The king exercises his executive authority through the prime meenisters an the Cooncil o Meenisters, or cabinet. The cabinet, atween hauns, is responsible afore the democratically elect Hoose o Deputies whilk, alang wi the Hoose o Notables (Senate), constitutes the legislative branch o the govrenment. The judicial branch is an independent branch o the govrenment.



Jordan taks its name frae the Jordan River that forms muckle o the kintra's northwastren mairch.[7] While several theories for the oreegin o the river's name hae been proponed, it is maist plausible that it derives frae the Semitic wird Yarad, meanin "the descender", reflectin the river's declivity.[8]



Auncient period


The auldest evidence o hominid habitation in Jordan dates back at least 200,000 year.[9] Jordan is rich in Paleolithic (up tae 20,000 year agae) remeens due tae its location within the Levant whaur expansions o hominids oot o Africae converged.[10] Past lakeshore environments attracted different hominids, and several remains of tools have been found from this period.[10] The warld's auldest evidence o breid-makin wis foond in a 14,500 year auld Natufian steid in Jordan's northeastren desert.[11] The transeetion frae hunter-gaitherer tae establishin populous agricultural veelages occurred in the Neolithic period (10,000–4,500 BC).[12] 'Ain Ghazal, ane sic veelage locatit in the day's eastren Amman, is ane o the lairgest kent prehistoric settlements in the Near East.[13]

Fortifee'd touns an urban centres first emerged in the soothren Levant early on in the Bronze Age (3600–1200 BC).[14] Wadi Feynan becam a regional centre for capper extraction, that wis exploitit on a lairge-scale tae produce bronze.[15] Tred an muivement o fowk in the Middle East peaked, spreidin an refinin ceevilisations.[16] Veelages in Transjordan expandit fest in areas wi reliable watter resoorces an agricultural laund.[16] Auncient Egyptians expandit taewart the Levant an controlled baith banks o the Jordan River.[17] In the Airn Age (1200–332 BC) efter the widrawal o the Egyptians, Transjordan wis hame tae Ammon, Edom an Moab.[18] Thay spaik Semitic leids o the Canaanite group, an are conseedert tae be tribal kinricks raither nor states.[18] Ammon wis locatit in the Amman plateau; Moab in the hielands east o the Deid Sea; an Edom in the aera aroond Wadi Araba doun sooth.[18]

Thir Transjordanian kinricks war in continuous conflict wi the neebourin Ebreu kinricks o Israel an Judah, centred wast o the Jordan River–tho the umwhile wis kent tae hae at times controlled smaw pairts east o the river.[19] Ane record o this is the Mesha Stele erectit bi the Moabite king Mesha in 840 BC on that he lauds himsel for the biggin projects that he initiatit in Moab an commemorates his glory an veectory against the Israelites.[20] The stele constitutes ane o the maist important direct accoonts o Biblical history.[21] Aroond 700 BC, the kinricks benefitit frae tred atween Sirie an Arabie whan the Assirian Empire controlled the Levant.[22] Babylonians teuk ower the empire efter its disintegration in 627 BC.[22] Awtho the kinricks supportit the Babylonians against Judah in the 597 BC sack o Jerusalem, they rebelled against them a decade later.[22] The kinricks war reduced tae vassals, an thay remeened tae be sae unner the Persian an Hellenic Empires.[22] Houiver, bi the time o Roman rule aroond 63 BC, Ammon, Edom an Moab haed lost thair distinct identities, an war assimilatit intae Roman cultur.[18]

Clessical period

Al-Khazneh in Petra (c. 1st century AD), is believed tae be the mausoleum o the Arab Nabataean Keeng Aretas IV.

Alexander the Great's conquest o the Persie Empire in 332 BC introduced Hellenistic cultur tae the Middle East.[23] Efter Alexander's daith in 323 BC, the empire split amang his generals, an in the end muckle o Transjordan wis disputit atween the Ptolemies based in Egyp an the Seleucids based in Sirie.[23] The Nabataeans, nomadic Arabs based sooth o Edom, managed tae establish an independent kinrick in 169 BC bi exploitin the struggle atween the twa Greek pouers.[23] The Nabataean Kinrick controlled muckle o the tred routes o the region, an it stretched sooth alang the Reid Sea coast intae the Hejaz desert, up tae as faur north as Damascus, that it controlled for a short period (85–71) BC.[24] The Nabataeans massed a fortune from their control of the trade routes, often drawing the envy of their neighbors.[25] Petra, Nabataea's barren caipital, floorished in the 1st century AD, driven bi its extensive watter irrigation sestems an agricultur.[26] The Nabataeans war an aw talentit stane cairvers, biggin thair maist elaborate structur, Al-Khazneh, in the first century AD.[27] It is believed tae be the mausoleum o the Arab Nabataean King Aretas IV.[27]

Roman legions unner Pompey conquered muckle o the Levant in 63 BC, inauguratin a period o Roman rule that lastit fower centuries.[28] In 106 AD, Emperor Trajan annexed Nabataea unopponed, an rebiggit the Keeng's Heichwey that becam kent as the Via Traiana Nova road.[28] The Romans gae the Greek ceeties o Transjordan–Philadelphia (Amman), Gerasa (Jerash), Gedara (Umm Qays), Pella (Tabaqat Fahl) an Arbila (Irbid)–an ither Hellenistic ceeties in Palestine an soothren Sirie, a level o autonomy bi formin the Decapolis, a ten-ceety league.[29] Jerash is ane o the best preserved Roman ceeties in the East; it wis even veesitit bi Emperor Hadrian in his jurney tae Palestine.[30]

The Oval Forum o Jerash (c. 1st century AD), then pairt o the ten-ceety Roman league, the Decapolis.

In 324 AD, the Roman Empire split, an the Eastren Roman Empire–later kent as the Byzantine Empire–conteena'd to control or influence the region till 636 AD.[31] Christianity haed become legal within the empire in 313 AD an the offeecial state releegion in 390 AD, efter Emperor Constantine convertit tae Christianity.[31] Transjordan prospered in the Byzantine era, an Christian kirks war biggit iverywhaur.[32] The Aqaba Kirk in Ayla wis biggit in this era, it is conseedert tae be the warld's first purpose biggit Christian kirk.[33] Umm ar-Rasas in soothren Amman conteens at least 16 Byzantine kirks.[34] Meanwhile, Petra's importance declined as sea tred routes emerged, an efter a 363 yirdquauk destroyed mony structurs, till it becam an abandoned place.[27] The Sassanian Empire in the east becam the Byzantines' rivals, an frequent confrontations whiles led tae the Sassanids controllin some pairts o the region, includin Transjordan.[35]

Islamic era


In 629 AD, in the Battle o Mu'tah in whit is the day Al-Karak, the Byzantines an thair Arab Christian clients, the Ghassanids, staved aff an attack bi a Muslim Rashidun force that mairched northwart taewart the Levant frae the Hejaz (in modren-day Saudi Arabie).[36] The Byzantines houiver war defeatit bi the Muslims in 636 AD at the decisive Battle o Yarmouk juist north o Transjordan.[36] Transjordan wis an essential territory for the conquest o Damascus.[37] The first, or Rashidun, caliphate wis follaed bi that o the Ummayads (661–750).[37] Unner the Umayyad Caliphate, several desert castles war constructit in Transjordan, includin: Qasr Al-Mshatta an Qasr Al-Hallabat.[37] The Abbasid Caliphate's campaign tae tak ower the Umayyad's begoud in Transjordan.[38] A pouerfu 747 AD yirdquauk is thocht tae have contreibutit tae the Umayyads defeat tae the Abbasids, that muived the caliphate's caipital frae Damascus tae Baghdad.[38] In Abbasid rule (750–969), several Arab tribes muived northwart an settled in the Levant.[37] Concurrently, growthe o maritime tred diminished Transjordan's central poseetion, an the area becam increasinly povereesed.[39] Efter the decline o the Abbasids, Transjordan wis ruled bi the Fatimid Caliphate (969–1070), then bi the Crusader Kinrick o Jerusalem (1115–1187).[40]

The Karak Castle (c. 12t century AD) biggit bi the Crusaders, an later expandit unner the Muslim Ayyubids an Mamluks.

The Crusaders constructit several Crusader castles as pairt o the Lairdship o Oultrejordain, includin thae o Montreal an Al-Karak.[41] The Ayyubids biggit the Ajloun Castle an rebiggit aulder castles, tae be uised as militar ootposts against the Crusaders.[42] In the Battle o Hattin (1187) near Loch Tiberias juist north o Transjordan, the Crusaders lost tae Saladin, the foonder o the Ayyubid dynasty (1187–1260).[42] Veelages in Transjordan unner the Ayyubids becam important staps for Muslim pilgrims gaein tae Mecca that traivelled alang the route that connected Sirie tae the Hejaz.[43] Several o the Ayyubid castles war uised an expandit bi the Mamluks (1260–1516), that dividit Transjordan atween the provinces o Karak an Damascus.[44] In the next century Transjordan experienced Mongol attacks, but the Mongols war ultimately repelled bi the Mamluks efter the Battle o Ain Jalut (1260).[45]

In 1516, the Ottoman Caliphate's forces conquered Mamluk territory.[46] Agricultural veelages in Transjordan witnessed a period o relative prosperity in the 16t century, but war later abandoned.[47] Transjordan wis o mairginal importance tae the Ottoman authorities.[48] As a result, Ottoman presence wis virtually absent an reduced tae annual tax collection veesits.[47] Mair Arab bedouin tribes muived intae Transjordan frae Sirie an the Hejaz in the first three centuries o Ottoman rule, includin the Adwan, the Bani Sakhr an the Howeitat.[49] Thir tribes laid claims tae different pairts o the region, an wi the absence o a meaninfu Ottoman authority, Transjordan slid intae a state o anarchy that conteena'd till the 19t century.[50] This led tae a short-leeved occupation bi the Wahhabi forces (1803–1812), an ultra-orthodox Islamic muivement that emerged in Najd (in modren-day Saudi Arabie).[51] Ibrahim Pasha, son o the govrenor o the Egyp Eyalet unner the request o the Ottoman sultan, ruitit oot the Wahhabis bi 1818.[52] In 1833 Ibrahim Pasha turned on the Ottomans an established his rule ower the Levant.[53] His oppressive policies led tae the unsuccessfu peasants' revolt in Palestine in 1834.[53] Transjordanian ceeties o Al-Salt an Al-Karak war destroyed bi Ibrahim Pasha's forces for herbourin a paisants' revolt leader.[53] Egyptian rule wis forcibly endit in 1841, wi Ottoman rule restored.[53]

The Ajloun Castle (c. 12t century AD) biggit bi the Ayyubid leader Saladin for uise against the Crusades.

Anerly after Ibrahim Pasha's campaign did the Ottoman Empire try tae solitifee its presence in the Syria Vilayet, that Transjordan wis pairt o.[54] A series o tax an laund reforms (Tanzimat) in 1864 brocht some prosperity back tae agricultur an tae abandoned veelages, while it provoked a backlash in ither areas o Transjordan.[54] Muslim Circassians an Chechens, fleein Roushie persecution, socht refuge in the Levant.[55] In Transjordan an wi Ottoman support, Circassians first settled in the lang-abandoned vicinity o Amman in 1867, an later in the surroondin veelages.[55] Efter haein established its admeenistration, conscription an hivy taxation policies bi the Ottoman authorities, led tae revolts in the areas it controlled.[56] Transjordan's tribes in pairteecular revoltit in the Shoubak (1905) an the Karak Revolts (1910), that war brutally suppressed.[55] The construction o the Hejaz Railwey in 1908–stretchin athort the lenth o Transjordan an airtin Mecca wi Istanbul–helped the population economically as Transjordan becam a stapower for pilgrimers.[55] Houiver, increasin policies o Turkification an centralisation adoptit bi the Ottoman Empire disenchantit the Arabs o the Levant.[57]

Modren era

Sodgers o the Hashemite-led Arab Airmy haudin the banner o the Great Arab Revolt in 1916.

Fower centuries o stagnation in Ottoman rule cam tae an end in World War I bi the 1916 Arab Revolt; driven bi lang-term resentment taewart the Ottoman authorities, an growin Arab naitionalism.[55] The revolt wis led bi Sharif Hussein o Mecca, an his sons Abdullah, Faisal an Ali, members o the Hashemite dynasty o the Hejaz, descendants o the Prophet Muhammad.[55] Locally, the revolt gained the support o the Transjordanian tribes, includin Bedouins, Circassians an Christians.[58] The Allies o World War I, includin Breetain an Fraunce, that's imperial interests converged wi the Arabist cause, offered support.[59] The revolt stairtit on 5 Juin 1916 frae Medina an pushed northwart till the fechting reached Transjordan in the Battle o Aqaba on 6 Julie 1917.[60] The revolt reached its climax whan Faisal entered Damascus in October 1918, an established the Arab Kinrick o Sirie, that Transjordan wis pairt o.[58]

The nascent Hashemite Kinrick wis forced tae surrender tae French truips on 24 Julie 1920 in the Battle o Maysalun.[61] Arab aspirations failed tae gain internaitional recogneetion, due mainly tae the saicret 1916 Sykes–Picot Greement, that dividit the region intae French an Breetish spheres o influence, an the 1917 Balfour Declaration, that promised Palestine tae Jews.[62] This wis seen bi the Hashemites an the Arabs as a betrayal o thair previous greements wi the Breetish,[63] includin the 1915 McMahon–Hussein Correspondence, in that the Breetish stated thair willinness tae recognise the unthirldom of a unifee'd Arab state stretchin frae Aleppo tae Aden unner the rule o the Hashemites.[64]:55 Abdullah, the seicont son o Sharif Hussein, arrived frae Hejaz bi train in Ma'an in soothren Transjordan on 21 November 1920 tae redeem the Kinrick his brither haed lost.[65] Transjordan then wis in disarray; widely conseedert tae be ungovrenable wi its dysfunctional local govrenments.[66] Abdullah then moved tae Amman an established the Emirate o Transjordan on 11 Apryle 1921.[67]

Al-Salt residents gaither on 20 August 1920 in the Breetish Heich Commissioner's veesit tae Transjordan.

The Breetish reluctantly acceptit Abdullah as ruler o Transjordan.[68] Abdullah gained the trust o Tansjordan's tribal leaders afore scrammlin tae convince them o the benefits o an organised govrenment.[69] Abdullah's successes drew the envy o the Breetish, even whan it wis in thair interest.[70] In September 1922, the Cooncil o the League o Naitions recognised Transjordan as a state unner the Breetish Mandate for Palestine an the Transjordan memorandum, an excludit the territories east o the Jordan River frae the provisions o the mandate dealin wi Jewish settlement.[71][72] Transjordan remeened a Breetish mandate till 1946, but it haed been grantit a greater level o autonomy nor the region wast o the Jordan River.[73]

The first organised airmy in Jordan wis established on 22 October 1920, an wis named the "Arab Legion".[74] The Legion grew frae 150 men in 1920 tae 8,000 in 1946.[75] Multiple difficulties emerged upon the assumption o pouer in the region bi the Hashemite leadership.[74] In Transjordan, smaw local rebellions at Kura in 1921 an 1923 war suppressed bi Emir Abdullah wi the help o Breetish forces.[74] Wahhabis frae Najd regained strenth an repeatitly raidit the soothren pairts o his territory in (1922–1924), seriously threitenin the Emir's poseetion.[74] The Emir wis unable tae repel thae raids withoot the aid o the local Bedouin tribes an the Breetish, that mainteened a militar base wi a smaw RAF detachment close tae Amman.[74]


Keeng Abdullah I on 25 Mey 1946 readin the declaration o unthirldom.

The Treaty o London, signed bi the Breetish Govrenment an the Emir o Transjordan on 22 Mairch 1946, recognised the unthirldom o Transjordan upon ratification bi baith kintras' pairlaments.[76] On 25 Mey 1946, the day that the treaty wis ratifee'd bi the Transjordan pairlament, Transjordan wis raised tae the status o a kinrick unner the name o the Hashemite Kinrick o Transjordan, wi Abdullah as its first king.[77] The name wis shortened tae the Hashemite Kinrick o Jordan on 26 Apryle 1949.[78] Jordan becam a member o the Unitit Naitions on 14 December 1955.[78]

On 15 Mey 1948, as pairt o the 1948 Arab–Israeli War, Jordan invadit Palestine thegither wi ither Arab states.[79] Follaein the war, Jordan controlled the Wast Bank an on 24 Apryle 1950 Jordan formally annexed thir territories efter the Jericho conference.[80][81] In response, some Arab kintras demandit Jordan's expulsion frae the Arab League.[80] On 12 Juin 1950, the Arab League declared that the annexation wis a temporary, practical meisur an that Jordan wis haudin the territory as a "trustee" pendin a futur settlement.[82] King Abdullah wis assassinatit at the Al-Aqsa Mosque in 1951 bi a Palestinian militant, amid rumours he intendit tae sign a peace treaty wi Israel.[83]

Abdullah wis succeedit bi his son Talal, that wad suin abdicate due tae illness in favour o his eldest son Hussein.[84] Talal established the kintra's modren constitution in 1952.[84] Hussein ascendit tae the throne in 1953 at the age o 17.[83] Jordan witnessed great poleetical uncertainty in the follaeingperiod.[85] The 1950s war a period o poleetical upheaval, as Nasserism an Pan-Arabism swept the Arab Warld.[85] On 1 Mairch 1956, King Hussein Arabised the command o the Airmy bi dismissin a nummer o senior Breetish officers, an act made tae remuive remeenin furrin influence in the kintra.[86] In 1958, Jordan and neighbouring Hashemite Iraq formed the Arab Federation as a response tae the formation o the rival Unitit Arab Republic atween Nasser's Egyp an Sirie.[87] The union lastit anerly sax month, bein dissolved efter Iraqi Keeng Faisal II (Hussein's cuisin) wis deponed bi a bluidy militar coup on 14 July 1958.[87]

Keeng Hussein on 21 Mairch 1968 checkin an abandoned Israeli tank in the eftermath o the Battle o Karameh.

Jordan signed a militar pact wi Egyp juist afore Israel launched a preemptive strike on Egyp tae begin the Sax-Day War in Juin 1967, whaur Jordan an Sirie jynt the war.[88] The Arab states war defeatit an Jordan lost control o the Wast Bank tae Israel.[88] The War o Attrition wi Israel follaed, that includit the 1968 Battle of Karameh whaur he combined forces o the Jordanian Airmed Forces an the Palestine Liberation Organisation (PLO) repelled an Israeli attack on the Karameh camp on the Jordanian mairch wi the Wast Bank.[88] Despite the fact that the Palestinians haed leemitit involvement against the Israeli forces, the events at Karameh gained wide recogneetion an acclaim in the Arab warld.[89] As a result, the time period follain the battle witnessed an upsurge o support for Palestinian paramilitar elements (the fedayeen) within Jordan frae ither Arab kintras.[89] The fedayeen activities soon became a threit tae Jordan's rule o law.[89] In September 1970, the Jordanian airmy targetit the fedayeen an the resultant fechtin led tae the expulsion o Palestinian fechters frae various PLO groups intae Lebanon, in a conflict that becam kent as Black September.[89]

In 1973, Egyp an Sirie waged the Yom Kippur War on Israel, an fechtin occurred alang the 1967 Jordan River cease-fire line.[89] Jordan sent a brigade tae Sirie tae attack Israeli units on Sirie territory but did nae engage Israeli forces frae Jordanian territory.[89] At the Rabat summit conference in 1974, Jordan greed, alang wi the rest o the Arab League, that the PLO wis the "sole legitimate representative o the Palestinian fowk".[89] Subsequently, Jordan renoonced its claims tae the Wast Bank in 1988.[89]

At the 1991 Madrid Conference, Jordan greed tae negotiate a peace treaty sponsored bi the US an the Soviet Union.[89] The Israel-Jordan Treaty o Peace wis signed on 26 October 1994.[89] In 1997, Israeli agents entered Jordan uisin Canadian passports an pushioned Khaled Meshal, a senior Hamas leader.[89] Israel providit an antidote tae the pushion an released dizens o poleetical prisoners, includin Sheikh Ahmed Yassin efter Keng Hussein threitened tae annul the peace treaty.[89]

Airmy Chief Habis Majali an Prime Meenister Wasfi Tal in a militar parade in 1970, twa widely acclaimed naitional feegurs.

On 7 Februar 1999, Abdullah II ascendit the throne upon the daith o his faither Hussein.[90] Abdullah embaurked on economic leeberalisation whan he assumed the throne, an his reforms led tae an economic buim that conteena'd till 2008.[91] Abdullah II haes been creditit wi increasin furrin investment, impruivin public-preevat pairtnerships an providin the foondation for Aqaba's free-trede zone an Jordan's floorishin information an communication technology (ICT) sector.[91] He an aw set up five ither special economic zones.[91] Houiver, in the follaein years Jordan's economy experienced haurdship as it dealt wi the effects o the Great Recession an spillower frae the Arab Ware.[92]

Al-Qaeda unner Abu Musab al-Zarqawi's leadership launched coordinatit explosions in three hotel labbies in Amman on 9 November 2005, resultin in 60 daiths an 115 injured.[93] The bombins, that tairgetit ceevilians, caused widespreid ootrage amang Jordanians.[93] The attack is conseedert tae be a rare event in the kintra, an Jordan's internal siccarity wis dramatically impruived efterwart.[93] Na major terrorist attacks hae occurred syne then.[94] Abdullah an Jordan are viewed wi contempt bi Islamic extremists for the kintra's peace treaty wi Israel an its relationship wi the Wast.[95]

The Arab Ware war lairge-scale protests that eruptit in the Arab Warld in 2011, demandin economic an poleetical reforms.[96] Mony o these protests tore doun regimes in some Arab naitions, leadin tae instability that endit wi veeolent ceevil wars.[96] In Jordan, in response tae domestic unrest, Abdullah replaced his prime meenister an introduced a nummer o reforms includin: reformin the Constitution, an laws govrenin public freedoms an elections.[96] Proportional representation wis re-introduced tae the Jordanian pairlament in the 2016 general election, a muive that he said wad eventually lead tae establishin pairlamentar govrenments.[97] Jordan wks left lakrgely unscathed frae the veeolence that swept the region despite an influx o 1.4 million Sirie refugees intae the naitural resoorces-lackin kintra an the emergence o the Islamic State o Iraq an the Levant (ISIL).[97]


Wadi Rum's resemblance tae the surface o Maurs haes made it a popular filmin an tourist attraction.

Jordan sits strategically at the crossroads o the continents o Asie, Africae an Europe,[98] in the Levant area o the Fertile Crescent, a cradle o ceevilisation.[99] It is 89,341 square kilometre (34,495 sq mi) lairge, an 400 kilometre (250 mi) lang atween its northrenmaist an soothrenmaist points; Umm Qais an Aqaba respectively.[7] The kinrick lies atween 29° an 34° N, an 34° an 40° E. The east is an arid plateau irrigatit bi oases an saisonal watter streams.[7] Major ceeties are owerwhelminly locatit on the north-wastren pairt o the kinrick due tae its fertile siles an relatively abundant rainfaw.[100] Thir include Irbid, Jerash an Zarqa in the northwast, the caipital Amman an Al-Salt in the central wast, an Madaba, Al-Karak an Aqaba in the soothwast.[100] Major touns in the eastren pairt o the kintra are the oasis touns o Azraq an Ruwaished.[99]



The climate in Jordan varies greatly. Generally, the faur inland frae the Mediterranean, greater contrasts in temperatur occur an the less rainfaw thare is.[7] The kintra's average elevation is 812 m (2,664 ft) (SL).[7] The heichlands abuin the Jordan Valley, muntains o the Deid Sea an Wadi Araba an as faur sooth as Ras Al-Naqab are dominatit bi a Mediterranean climate, while the eastren an northeastren areas o the kintra are arid desert.[101] Awtho the desert pairts o the kinrick reach heich temperaturs, the heat is uisually moderatit bi law humidity an a daytime breeze, while the nichts are cuil.[102]

Simmers, lastin frae Mey tae September, are het an dry, wi temperaturs averagin aroond 32 °C (90 °F) an whiles exceedin 40 °C (104 °F) atween Julie an August.[102] The winter, lastin frae November tae Mairch, is relatively cuil, wi temperaturs averagin aroond 13 °C (55 °F).[101] Winter an aw sees frequent shouers an occasional snawfaw in some wastren elevatit areas.[101]


A forest in Ajloun, northren Jordan.

Ower 2,000 plant species hae been recordit in Jordan.[103] Mony o the flouerin plants bluim in the ware efter the winter rains an the teepe o vegetation depends lairgely on the levels o precipitation. The muntainous regions in the northwast are claithed in forests, while faur sooth an east the vegetation becomes mair scrubby an transeetions tae steppe-teep vegetation.[104] Forests kiver 1.5 million dunums (1,500 km2), less nor 2% o Jordan, makkin Jordan amang the warld's least forestit kintras, the internaitional average bein 15%.[105]

Plant species include, Aleppo pine, Sarcopoterium, Salvia dominica, black iris, Tamarix, Anabasis, Artemisia, Acacia, Mediterranean cypress an Phoenecian juniper.[106] The muntainous regions in the northwast are claithed in naitural forests o pine, deciduous aik, evergreen aik, pistachio an wild olive.[107] Mammal an reptile species include, the lang-eared hedgehog, Nubian ibex, wild boar, fallae deer, Arabie wouf, desert monitor, hinnie badger, gless snake, caracal, gowden jackal an the roe deer, amang ithers.[108][109][110] Bird include the huidit craw, Eurasian jay, lappet-faced vultur, barbary faucon, hoopoe, pharaoh eagle-oul, common cuckoo, Tristram's starling, Palestine sunbird, Sinai rosefinch, lesser kestrel, hoose craw an the white-spectacled bulbul.[111]

Politics an government


Jordan is a unitar state unner a constitutional monarchy. Jordan's constitution, adoptit in 1952 an amendit a nummer o times syne, is the legal framewirk that govrens the monarch, govrenment, bicameral legislatur an judiciary.[112] The king retains wide executive an legislative pouers frae the govrenment an pairlament.[113] The king exercises his pouers throu the govrenment that he appynts for a fower-year term, that is responsible afore the pairlament that is made up o twa chaumers: the Senate an the Hoose o Representatives. The judiciar is independent accordin tae the constitution.[112]

The king is the heid o state an commander-in-chief o the airmy. He can declare war an peace, ratifee laws an treaties, convene an close legislative sessions, caw an postpone elections, dismiss the govrenment an dissolve the pairlament.[112] The appyntit govrenment can an aw be dismissed throu a majority vote o na confidence bi the electit Hoose o Representatives. Efter a bill is proponed bi the govrenment, it maun be appruived bi the Hoose o Representatives then the Senate, an becomes law efter bein ratifee'd bi the king. A ryal veto on legislation can be owerridden bu a twa-thirds vote in a jynt session o baith hooses. The pairlament an aw haes the richt o interpellation.[112]

Lairgest ceeties


Admeenistrative diveesions


The first level subdiveesion in Jordan is the muhafazah or govrenorate. The govrenorates are dividit intae liwa or destricts, that are eften faur subdividit intae qda or sub-destricts.[114] Control for ilk admeenistrative unit is in a "chief toun" (administrative centre) kent as a nahia.[114]

Map Govrenorate Caipital Population
Northren region
1 Irbid Irbid 1,770,158
2 Ajloun Ajloun 176,080
3 Jerash Jerash 237,059
4 Mafraq Mafraq 549,948
Central region
5 Balqa Al-Salt 491,709
6 Madaba Madaba 189,192
7 Amman Amman 4,007,256
8 Zarqa Zarqa 1,364,878
Soothren region
9 Karak Al-Karak 316,629
10 Tafila Tafila 96,291
11 Ma'an Ma'an 144,083
12 Aqaba Aqaba 188,160


Historical populations
YearPop.±% p.a.
1920 200,000—    
1922 225,000+6.07%
1948 400,000+2.24%
1952 586,200+10.03%
1961 900,800+4.89%
1979 2,133,000+4.91%
1994 4,139,500+4.52%
2004 5,100,000+2.11%
2015 9,531,712+5.85%
2018 10,171,480+2.19%
Source: Department of Statistics[115]

The 2015 census shawed Jordan's population tae be 9,531,712 (Female: 47%; Males: 53%). Aroond 2.9 million (30%) war non-ceetizens, a feegur includin refugees, an illegal immigrants.[3] Thare war 1,977,534 hoosehauds in Jordan in 2015, wi an average o 4.8 persons per hoosehaud (compared tae 6.7 persons per hoosehaud for the census o 1979).[3] The caipital an lairgest ceety o Jordan is Amman, that is ane o the warld's auldest conteenuously inhabitit ceeties an ane o the maist modren in the Arab warld.[116] The population o Amman wis 65,754 in 1946, but exceedit 4 million bi 2015.

Arabs mak up aboot 98% o the population. The remeenin 2% consist lairgely o Circassians an Armenians, alang wi smawer minority groups.[7] Aboot 84.1% o the population live in urban areas.[7]

Sunni Islam is the dominant releegion in Jordan. Muslims mak up aboot 95% o the kintra's population; in turn, 93% o thae sel-identifee as Sunnis.[117] Thare are an aw a smaw nummer o Ahmadi Muslims,[118] an some Shiites. Mony Shia are Iraqi an Lebanese refugees.[119] Muslims that convert tae anither releegion as weel as missionaries frae ither releegions face societal an legal discrimination.[120]


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Faur readin

  • Salibi, Kamal S. (1993). The Modern History of Jordan. London: I B Tauris. ISBN 978-1860643316.