Hashemite is the Laitinate version o the Arabic: هاشمي, transliteration: Hāšimī, an tradeetionally refers tae those belangin tae the Banu Hashim, or "clan o Hashim", a clan athin the lairger Quraish tribe. It an aa refers tae an Arab dynasty whose oreeginal strength stemmed frae the netwirk o tribal alliances an bluid loyalties in the Hejaz region o Arabie, alang the Red Sea.
|Hoose o Hashim|
Coat o airms o Jordan
|Kintra||Hejaz (in present-day Saudi Arabie), Sirie, Iraq, Jordan|
|Parent hoose||Dhawu Awn, a brainch o Banu Qatadah, o Banu Hasan, o Banu Hashim, o Quraysh|
|Foonder||Hussein ibn Ali|
The Hashemites trace their ancestry from Hashim ibn Abd al-Manaf (d. c. 510 AD), the great-grandfaither of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, awtho the definition the day mainly refers to the descendants of the prophet's faither, Fatimah. The early history o the Hashemites saw them in a continuous struggle against the Umayyads for control ower who wad be the caliph or successor tae Muhammad. The Umayyads wur o the same tribe as the Hashemites, but a different clan. Efter the owerthrow o the Umayyads, the Abbasids wad present thairsels as representatives o the Hashemites, as thay claimed strynd frae Abbas ibn Abd al-Muttalib, an uncle o Muhammad. Muhammad's faither haed dee'd afore he wis born, an his mither dee'd while he wis a bairn, sae Muhammad wis raised bi his uncle Abu Talib, chief o the Hashemites.
Frae the 10t century onwards, the Sharif (releegious leader) o Mecca an its Emir wis bi traditional agreement a Hashemite. Afore Warld War I, Hussein bin Ali o the Hashemite Dhawu-'Awn clan ruled the Hejaz on behauf o the Ottoman sultan. For some time it haed been the practice o the Sublime Porte tae appynt the Emir o Mecca frae amang a select group o candidates. In 1908, Hussein bin Ali wis appointit Emir o Mecca. He foond hissel increasingly at odds wi the Young Turks in control at Istanbul, while he strove tae secure his faimily's poseetion as hereditary Emirs.
During an efter Warld War IEedit
Sharif Hussein bin Ali rebelled against the rule o the Ottomans durin the Arab Revolt o 1916. Atween 1917 an 1924, efter the collapse o Ottoman pouer, Hussein bin Ali ruled an independent Hejaz, o which he proclaimed hissel king, wi the tacit support o the Breetish Foreign Office. His supporters are whiles referred tae as "Sharifians" or the "Sharifian pairty". His chief rival in the Arabian peninsula wis the king o the heichlanders on the heichland o Najd named Ibn Saud, who annexed the Hejaz in 1925 an set his awn son, Faysal bin Abdelaziz Al Saud, as govrenor. The region wis later incorporatit intae Saudi Arabie.
Hussein bin Ali haed five sons:
- Ali, who briefly succeedit tae the throne o Hejaz afore its loss tae the Saud family.
- Abdullah, later became the king o Transjordan, an whose descendants rule the kinrick, that haes been kent iver syne as the Hashemite Kinrick o Jordan.
- Faisal, wis briefly proclaimed King o Sirie, an endit up becomin Keeng o Iraq.
- Prince Zeid, who muivit tae Jordan when his brither's grandson, King Faisal II o Iraq, wis owerthrown an murthert in a coup in 1958.
- Hassan, dee'd at a young age.
Ither Hashemites the dayEedit
The day Hashemites hae spread in mony places whaur Muslims hae ruled, namely Jordan, Yemen, an Turkey. Maist Hashemites in thir kintras cairy the title Sayyid. The Ryal faimily o the Sultanate o Sulu claims Hashemite ancestry currently in the Philippines. Thay are still influential ower the Muslim population o the Philippines. Mony members o the Banu Hashim hae spread oot athort the warld but sae far thare haes been nae attempt tae register them aw unner ane record. The Ryal Family o Morocco an aa claims ancestry frae Imam Ali but thay dae no uise Hashemite as thair dynastic name.
See an awEedit
|Wikimedia Commons haes media relatit tae Hashemites.|
- http://www.kinghussein.gov.jo/hashemites.html The Hashemites: Jordan's Royal Family
- T. E. Lawrence (1926), Seven Pillars of Wisdom, reprinted 2000 Penguin classics, p. 48
- Time-Life Books, What Life Was Like: In the Land of the Prophet, p. 17
- T. E. Lawrence (1926), Seven Pillars of Wisdom, reprinted 2000 Penguin classics, p. 53