caipital an the seicont lairgest ceety o Sirie as well as the caipital o the Damascus Govrenorate
For ither uises, see Damascus (disambiguation).

Damascus (Arabic: دِمَشقDimashq, commonly kent as الشام al-Shām an aa kent as the "Ceety o Jasmin" Arabic: مدينة الياسمينMadīnatul Yāsmīn) is the caipital an the seicont lairgest ceety o Sirie as well as the caipital o the Damascus Govrenorate. In addeetion tae be ane o the auldest continuously inhabitit ceeties in the warld, Damascus is a major cultural an releegious centre o the Levant. Currently, the ceety haes an estimatit population o aboot 1,711,000 (2009 est.).[1]


دِمَشق Dimashq
Offeecial seal o Damascus
(Madīnatu 'l-Yāsmīn) Ceety o Jasmin
Damascus is locatit in Syria
Coordinates: 33°30′47″N 36°17′31″E / 33.51306°N 36.29194°E / 33.51306; 36.29194Coordinates: 33°30′47″N 36°17′31″E / 33.51306°N 36.29194°E / 33.51306; 36.29194
GovrenoratesDamascus Govrenorate
 • GovrenorBishr Al Sabban
 • Ceety105 km2 (41 sq mi)
 • Urban
77 km2 (30 sq mi)
680 m (2,230 ft)
 (2009 est.[1])
 • Ceety1,711,000
Time zoneUTC+2 (EET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+3 (EEST)
Aurie code(s)Kintra code: 963, Ceety code: 11
WabsteidDamascus Govrenorate
Sources: Damascus city area [2]

Locatit in soothwastren Sirie, it is the centre o a lairge metropolitan aurie o 2.4 million fowk (2004), makkin it the kintra's lairgest metropolitan aurie.[3] Geographically embeddit on the eastren fuithills o the Anti-Lebanon muntain range 80 km (50 mi) inland frae the eastren shore o the Mediterranean Sea on a plateau 680 metres (2,200 ft) abuin sea-level, Damascus experiences a semi-arid climate due tae the rain shadow effect. The Barada River flows throu Damascus.


The name o Damascus first appeared in the geographical leet o Thutmose III as T-m-ś-q in the 15t century BC.[4] In Arabic, the ceety is cried دمشق الشام (Dimashq al-Shām), awtho this is aften shortened tae aither Dimashq or al-Shām bi the ceetizens o Damascus, o Sirie an ither Arab neighbors. Al-Shām is an Arabic term for north an for Sirie (Sirie—pairticularly historical Greater Sirie—is cried Bilād al-Shāmبلاد الشام, "land o the north"—in Arabic.) The etymology o the auncient name "T-m-ś-q" is uncertain, but it is suspectit tae be pre-Semitic. It is attestit as 𒁲𒈠𒊭𒅗 Dimašqa in Akkadian, 𒁲𒈠𒊭𒅗T-ms-ḳw in Egyptian, Dammaśq (דמשק) in Auld Aramaic an Dammeśeq (דמשק) in Biblical Ebreu. The Akkadian spellin is the earliest attestation, foond in the Amarna letters, frae the 14t century BC. Later Aramaic spellins o the name aften include an intrusive resh (letter r), aiblins influenced bi the ruit dr, meanin "dwellin". Sicweys, the Qumranic Darmeśeq (דרמשק), an Darmsûq (ܕܪܡܣܘܩ) in Syriac.[5][6] The Inglish an Laitin name o the ceety is "Damascus" which wis importit frae Greek: Δαμασκός, which oreeginatit in Aramaic: דרמשק; "a well-watered place".[7][8]


al-Merjeh square

Damascus is dividit intae mony destricts. Amang them thare are:


Popular sports include fitbaa, basketbaw, soummin an table tennis. Damascus is hame tae mony sports clubs, includin Al Jaish, Al Wahda an Al Majd.

The fift an the seivent Pan Arab Gemmes wur held in Damascus in 1976 an 1992, respectively.

Leisur activitiesEedit

Coffeehooses, whaur—in addition tae Arabic coffee an tea—nargileh (watter pipes) are servit, proliferate Damascus. Card gemmes, tables (backgammon variants), an chess are activities frequentit in cafes.[9]

Tishreen Pairk is bi far the lairgest pairk in Damascus. It is hame tae the yearly held Damascus Flouer Shaw. Ither pairks include Aljahiz, Al sibbki, Altijara an Alwahda. Damascus' Ghouta (Oasis) is a popular destination for recreation an aw. Thare are several recreation centers in Damascus includin several stadiums, soummin puils an gowf courses. An aa, The Sirie Arab Horse Association in Damasacus affers a wide range o activities an services for horse breeders an riders.[10]

Nearbi attractionsEedit

Zabadani resort near Damascus
  • Madaya: a sma muntainous toun weel kent holiday resort.
  • Bloudan: a toun locatit 51 km northwast o Damascus, its moderate temperatur an law humidity in simmer attracts mony visitors frae Damascus an throughoot Sirie, Lebanon an the Persie Guwf.
  • Zabadani: a ceety in close tae the mairch wi Lebanon. Its mild wather alang wi the scenic views, made the toun a popular resort baith for tourists an for visitors frae ither Sirie ceeties.
  • Maaloula: a toun dominatit bi speakers o Wastren Neo-Aramaic.
  • Saidnaya: a ceety locatit in the muntains, 1,500 metre (4,921 ft) abuin sea level, it wis ane o the episcopal ceeties o the auncient Patriairchate o Antioch.

Twin touns an sister ceetiesEedit


  1. 1.0 1.1 Central Bureau Of Statistics in Syria: Chapter 2: Population & Demographic Indicators Table 3: Estimates of Population actually living in Syria in 31 December 2009 by Mohafazat and six (in thousands)
  2. Albaath.news statement by the governor of Damascus, Syria (in Arabic), April 2010
  3. Central Bureau of Statistics Syria Syria census 2004
  4. List I, 13 in J. Simons, Handbook for the Study of Egyptian Topographical Lists relating to Western Asia, Leiden 1937. See also Y. AHARONI, The Land of the Bible: A Historical Geography, London 1967, p147, No. 13.
  5. "(in Book Reviews) ''Ancient Damascus: A Historical Study of the Syrian City-State from Earliest Times Until Its Fall to the Assyrians in 732 BC.'', Wayne T. Pitard. Review author: Paul E. Dion, ''Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research'', No. 270, Ancient Syria. (May, 1988), p. 98". Links.jstor.org. Retrieved 2010-06-20.
  6. "''The Stele Dedicated to Melcarth by Ben-Hadad of Damascus'', Frank Moore Cross. ''Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research'', No. 205. (Feb., 1972), p. 40". Links.jstor.org. Retrieved 2010-06-20.
  7. "Online Etymology Dictionary". Etymonline.com. Retrieved 2010-06-20.
  8. "Damascus – Wiktionary". En.wiktionary.org. 2010-05-09. Retrieved 2010-06-20.
  9. Beatties and Pepper, 2001, p. 102.
  10. "Syrian Arab Horse Association". Saha-sy.org. Retrieved 2010-06-20.
  11. UAEinteract.com, Sister Cities delegates praise Dubai 'best practices' UAE – The Official Web Site – News, Uaeinteract.com, retrieved 2009-05-29
  12. "Sister Cities", Toledo Turismo, Patronato Municipal de Turismo, retrieved 2008-10-16
  13. Ayuntamento de Córdoba Córdoba City Council Web, sister cities
  14. "International Relations – São Paulo City Hall – Official Sister Cities". Prefeitura.sp.gov.br. Retrieved 2010-06-20.
  15. Sister Cities of Istanbul – Turkey, Sister Cities of Istanbul – Turkey, retrieved 2009-11-24
  16. Yerevan Municipality – Sister Cities, © 2005–2009 www.yerevan.am, retrieved 2009-06-22 External link in |publisher= (help)
  17. The Syrian-Iranian Joint Supreme Committee meetings (in Arabic), Alwehda Publications, 2009-03-08, retrieved 2009-11-30
  18. محافظة دمشق ومنطقة نينغيشيا الصينية توقعان على اتفاقية توأمة, Syria News, retrieved 2010-04-22
  19. Damascus, Ankara become sister cities, Worldbulletin.net, 2010-07-06, retrieved 2010-11-09
  • eDamascus – Offeecial wabsteid for Damascus