The Neolithic Age, Era, or Period, or New Stane Age, wis a period in the development o human technology, beginnin aboot 15,200 BC, accordin tae the ASPRO chronology, in some pairts o the Middle East, an later in ither pairts o the warld[1] an endin atween 4500 an 2000 BC. The period is definit by the uptake of agricultur.

The European NeolithicEedit

Syne the idea of an independent invention ae fermin in Europe wis scientifically rejectit in the 1960s [2], ane ae the maist muckle airchaeological debates his been oer how fermin reached Europe. The twa ideas are the spread of fermers themsels, or merely the spread o the idea ae fermin[3]. Evidence fae Autosomal DNA analysis has proven that fermers themsels certainly spread [4].


In Scotland, the Neolithic began roon aboot 4300/3800 BC [3]. Wit happened tae the pre-existin Mesolithic hunter-gatherer folks remains a mystery [3][5]. Wi Britain bein an island, the first fermers must hae crossid the watters in wee coracle boats, cerryin their cattle an ither beasts wi them.

The period wrapped up aroon 2500 BC wi the earliest metal-wirkin in the Early Bronze Age, which wis again associatit wi an incomin migration [6].

Theday Scotland his a UNESCO Warld Heritage Syte in Orkney; the Heart of Neolithic Orkney.


  1. Figure 3.3 frae First Farmers: The Origins of Agricultural Societies bi Peter Bellwood, 2004
  2. to do
  3. a b c Sheridan & Brophy 2012 Archived 2019-12-29 at the Wayback Machine
  4. Haak et al 2010
  5. "The Mesolithic-Neolithic transition in Scotland: ways forward". Scottish Heritage Hub. Archived frae the original on 29 December 2019. Retrieved 29 December 2019.
  6. Olalde et al 2018