kintra in Eastren Europe

Ukraine (Ukrainian: Україна, romanised: Ukraïna [ʊkrɐˈjinɐ]), whiles cried the Ukraine,[8] is a sovereign state in Eastren Europe,[9] mairchit bi Roushie tae the east an northeast; Belaroushie tae the northwast; Poland, Hungary, an Slovakie tae the wast; Romanie an Moldovae tae the soothwast; an the Black Sea an Sea o Azov tae the sooth an sootheast, respectively. Ukraine is currently in a territorial dispute wi Roushie ower the Crimean Peninsula, that Roushie annexed in 2014[10] but that Ukraine an maist o the internaitional commonty recognise as Ukrainian. Includin Crimea, Ukraine haes an aurie o 603,628 km2 (233,062 sq mi),[11] makkin it the mucklest kintra entirely within Europe an the 46t mucklest kintra in the warld. Excludin Crimea, Ukraine haes a population o aboot 42.5 million, makkin it the 32nt maist populous kintra in the warld.[3]


AnthemShche ne vmerla Ukraina
"Ukraine haes nae yet perished"
Location o  Ukraine  (green) on the European continent  (dark grey)  —  [Legend]
Location o  Ukraine  (green)

on the European continent  (dark grey)  —  [Legend]

and largest city
50°27′N 30°30′E / 50.450°N 30.500°E / 50.450; 30.500
Offeecial leidsUkrainian
Recognised regional leids
Ethnic groups
GovrenmentUnitary semi-presidential republic
• Preses
Volodymyr Zelensky
Denys Shmyhal
Dmytro Razumkov
LegislaturVerkhovna Rada
17 August 1649
7 November 1917
1 November 1918
10 Mairch 1919
8 October 1938
15 November 1939
30 June 1941
24 August 1991a
• Total
603,628 km2 (233,062 sq mi) (46th)
• Water (%)
• 2013 estimate
44,573,205[3] (29t)
• 2001 census
• Density
73.8/km2 (191.1/sq mi) (115t)
GDP (PPP)2013 estimate
• Total
$337.360 billion[4]
• Per capita
GDP (nominal)2013 estimate
• Tot
$175.527 billion[4]
• Per capita
Gini (2010)25.6[5]
HDI (2012)Increase 0.740[6]
heich · 78t
CurrencyUkrainian hryvnia (UAH)
Time zoneUTC+2[7] (Eastren European Time)
• Summer (DST)
UTC+3 (Eastren European Simmer Time)
Drivin sideright
Cawin code+380
ISO 3166 codeUA
Internet TLD
  1. An unthirldom referendum wis held on 1 December, efter which Ukrainian unthirldom wis finalized on 26 December. The current constitution wis adoptit on 28 Juin 1996.
Territorial organization

The territory o modren Ukraine haes been inhabitit syne 32,000 BC. In the Middle Ages, the aurie wis a key centre o East Slavic cultur, wi the pouerfu state o Kievan Rus' formin the basis o Ukrainian identity. Follaein its fragmentation in the 13t century, the territory wis contestit, ruled an dividit bi a variety o pouers, includin Lithuanie, Poland, the Ottoman Empire, Austrick-Hungary, an Roushie. A Cossack republic emerged an prospered in the 17t an 18t centuries, but its territory wis eventually split atween Poland an the Roushie Empire, an later merged fully intae Roushie.

In the 20t century three periods o unthirldom occurred. The first o thir periods occurred briefly in an immediately efter the German occupation near the end o Warld War I an the seicont occurred, an aa briefly, an an aa in German occupation, in Warld War II. Houiver, baith o thir first twa earlier periods wad eventually see Ukraine's territories consolidatit back intae a Soviet republic within the USSR. The third period o unthirldom begoud in 1991, whan Ukraine gained its unthirldom frae the Soviet Union in the eftermath o its dissolution at the end o the Cauld War. Ukraine haes maintained its unthirldom as a sovereign state iver syne. Afore its unthirldom, Ukraine wis teepically referred tae as "The Ukraine", but soorces syne then hae muived tae drap "the" frae the name o Ukraine in aw uises.[12]

Follaein its unthirldom, Ukraine declared itsel a neutral state.[13] Nanetheless it formed a leemitit militar pairtnership wi the Roushie Federation an ither CIS kintras an a pairtnership wi NATO in 1994. In the 2000s, the govrenment begoud leanin taewart NATO, an a deeper cooperation wi the alliance wis set bi the NATO-Ukraine Action Plan signed in 2002. It wis later agreed that the quiasten o jynin NATO shoud be answered bi a naitional referendum at some pynt in the futur.[14] Umwhile Preses Viktor Yanukovych conseedert the current level o co-operation atween Ukraine an NATO sufficient,[15] an wis against Ukraine jynin NATO.[16] In 2013, efter the govrenment o Preses Yanukovych ha decidit tae suspend the Ukraine-European Union Association Greement an seek closer economic ties wi Roushie, a several-months-lang wave o demonstrations an protests kent as the Euromaidan begoud, that later escalatit intae the 2014 Ukrainian revolution that led tae the owerthraw o Preses Yanukovych an his cabinet an the establishment o a new govrenment. Thir events formed the backgrund for the annexation o Crimea bi Roushie in Mairch 2014, an the War in Donbass in Apryle 2014. On 1 Januar 2016, Ukraine applee'd the economic pairt o the Deep an Comprehensive Free Tred Aurie wi the European Union.[17]

Ukraine haes lang been a global breidbasket acause o its extensive, growthie fermlands an is ane o the warld's mucklest grain exporters.[18][19] The diversified economy o Ukraine includes a muckle hivy industry sector, pairteecularly in aerospace an industrial equipment.

Ukraine is a unitar republic unner a semi-presidential seestem wi separate pouers: legislative, executive an judicial brainches. Its caipital an mucklest ceety is Kiev. Takkin intae accoont reserves an paramilitar personnel,[20] Ukraine mainteens the seicont-mucklest military in Europe efter that o Roushie. The kintra is hame tae 42.5 million fowk (excludin Crimea),[3] 77.8 percent o that are Ukrainians "bi ethnicity", follaed bi a sizeable minority o Roushies (17.3 percent) as weel as Georgies, Romanies/Moldovans, Belaroushies, Crimean Tatars, Bulgaries an Hungarians. Ukrainian is the offeecial leid an its alphabet is Cyrillic. The dominant releegion in the kintra is Eastren Orthodoxy, that haes strangly influenced Ukrainian airchitectur, leeteratur an muisic. It is a member o the Unitit Naitions syne its foondin, the Cooncil o Europe, OSCE, GUAM, an ane o the foondin states o the Commonweel o Independent States (CIS).


  1. "Law of Ukraine "On Principles of State Language Policy"". Retrieved 25 August 2012.
  2. a b "Population by ethnic nationality, 1 January, year". Ukrainian Office of Statistics. Archived frae the original on 23 Mairch 2008. Retrieved 17 Apryle 2010.Archived 2008-03-23 at the Wayback Machine
  3. a b c "Population (by estimate) as of 1 April, 2016". State Statistics Service of Ukraine. Archived frae the original on 8 August 2016. Retrieved 1 Apryle 2016.
  4. a b c d "Report for Selected Countries and Subjects". World Economic Outlook Database. International Monetary Fund. October 2013. Retrieved 20 October 2013.
  5. "Gini index". World Bank. Retrieved 26 Mairch 2013.
  6. "2013 Human Development Report Statistics" (PDF). Human Development Report 2013. United Nations Development Programme. 14 Mairch 2013. Archived frae the original (PDF) on 19 Mairch 2013. Retrieved 16 Mairch 2013.
  7. "Рішення Ради: Україна 30 жовтня перейде на зимовий час " Події " Україна " Кореспондент". Retrieved 31 October 2011.
  8. Geoghegan, Tom (7 Juin 2012), "Ukraine or the Ukraine: Why do some country names have 'the'?", BBC News Magazine, BBC
  9. "The World Factbook – Ukraine". Central Intelligence Agency. 7 Januar 2014. Archived frae the original on 9 Julie 2016. Retrieved 23 Januar 2014.
  10. Simpson, John (19 Mairch 2014). "Russia's Crimea plan detailed, secret and successful" – via
  11. "Ukraine – United Nations Statistics Division". United Nations. 2016. Retrieved 6 September 2016.
  12. "The "the" is gone". The Ukrainian Weekly. 8 December 1991. Archived frae the original on 14 October 2017. Retrieved 21 October 2015.
  13. "Declaration of State Sovereignty of Ukraine". Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine. Archived frae the original on 27 September 2007. Retrieved 24 December 2007.
  14. "White Book 2006" (PDF). Ministry of Defence of Ukraine. Archived frae the original (PDF) on 8 November 2007. Retrieved 24 December 2007. Archived 2007-11-08 at the Wayback Machine
  15. "NATO confirms readiness for Ukraine's joining organization". Kyiv Post. 13 Apryle 2010. Archived frae the original on 16 Apryle 2010.
  16. Richard Balmforth (7 Januar 2010). "Yanukovich vows to keep Ukraine out of NATO". Reuters. Archived frae the original on 17 November 2015. Retrieved 20 October 2015.
  17. "Ukraine – Trade – European Commission".
  18. "Ukraine becomes world's third biggest grain exporter in 2011 – minister" (Press release). Black Sea Grain. 20 Januar 2012. Archived frae the original on 31 December 2013. Retrieved 31 December 2013.
  19. "World Trade Report 2013". World Trade Organisation. 2013. Retrieved 26 Januar 2014.
  20. IISS 2010, pp. 195–197