The Romani (spelt Romany an aw), or Roma, is a tradeitionally nomadic ethnic group, bidin maistly in Europe an the Americaes an originatin frae the northren regions o the Indie subcontinent,[52][53][54] presumably frae whaur the states Rajasthan, Haryana, an Punjab exeest the day.[53][54] Thay, alangside ither wanrelatit ethnic groups in Scotland an Ireland, is kent as Gypsies an aw.

Romani fowk
Romani banner creautit in 1933 an acceptit bi the 1971 World Romani Congress
Tot population
2–20 million[1][2][3][4]
Regions wi signeeficant populations
 United States1,000,000 estimatit wi Romani heritage
(5,400 per 2000 census)[5][6]
 Unitit Kinrick90,000–300,000
 North Macedonie53,879[8][31]
 Czech Republic40,370 (Romani speakers)[34]–300,000[35]
 Bosnie an Herzegovinae8,864–60,000[8][42]
Romani leid, Para-Romani varieties, leids o native regions
O the releegious predominantly Christianity[51]
Shaktism branch of Hinduism[51]
Relatit ethnic groups
Dom, Lom, Domba; ither Indo-Aryans


  1. Lewis, M. Paul, ed. (2009). "Ethnologue: Languages of the World" (online) (16th ed.). Dallas, TX: SIL. Retrieved 15 September 2010. Ian Hancock's 1987 estimate for 'all Gypsies in the world' was 6 to 11 million.
  2. "EU demands action to tackle Roma poverty". BBC News. 5 Apryle 2011.
  3. "The Roma". Nationalia. Retrieved 20 November 2015.
  4. "Rom". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 15 September 2010. ... estimates of the total world Romani population range from two million to five million.
  5. "The Marginalization of Shadow Minorities (Roma) and Its Impact on Opportunities". p. 117. Retrieved 27 Julie 2016.[deid airtin]
  6. Kayla Webley (13 October 2010). "Hounded in Europe, Roma in the U.S. Keep a Low Profile". Time. Retrieved 3 October 2015. Today, estimates put the number of Roma in the U.S. at about one million.
  7. "Falta de políticas públicas para ciganos é desafio para o governo" [Lack of public policy for Romani is a challenge for the administration] (in Portuguese). R7. 2011. Retrieved 22 Januar 2012. The Special Secretariat for the Promotion of Racial Equality estimates the number of "ciganos" (Romanis) in Brazil at 800,000 (2011). The 2010 IBGE Brazilian National Census encountered gypsy camps in 291 of Brazil's 5,565 municipalities.
  8. a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Recent Migration of Roma in Europe, A study by Mr. Claude Cahn and Professor Elspeth Guild, page 87–88 (09.2010 figures)
  9. "Türkiye'deki Kürtlerin sayısı!" [The number of Kurds in Turkey!] (in Turkish). 6 Juin 2008. Retrieved 2 Januar 2016.
  10. "Türkiye'deki Çingene nüfusu tam bilinmiyor. 2, hatta 5 milyon gibi rakamlar dolaşıyor Çingenelerin arasında". Hurriyet (in Turkish). TR. 8 Mey 2005. Archived frae the original on 7 October 2009. Retrieved 2 Januar 2016.
  11. Estimated by the Society for Threatened Peoples [1] Archived 2016-04-05 at the Wayback Machine
  12. "The Situation of Roma in Spain" (PDF). Open Society Institute. 2002. Archived frae the original (PDF) on 1 December 2007. Retrieved 15 September 2010. The Spanish government estimates the number of Gitanos at a maximum of 650,000.
  13. "Diagnóstico social de la comunidad gitana en España" (PDF). Archived frae the original (PDF) on 10 October 2017. Retrieved 27 Julie 2016.
  14. 2011 census data, based on table 7 Population by ethnicity, gives a total of 621,573 Roma in Romania. This figure is disputed by other sources, because at the local level, many Roma declare a different ethnicity (mostly Romanian, but also Hungarian in Transylvania and Turkish in Dobruja). Many are not recorded at all, since they do not have ID cards [2]. International sources give higher figures than the official census(UNDP's Regional Bureau for Europe Archived 2013-11-01 at the Wayback Machine, World Bank Archived 2006-08-24 at the Wayback Machine, International Association for Official Statistics Archived 2008-02-26 at the Wayback Machine).
  15. "Rezultatele finale ale Recensământului din 2011 – Tab8. Populaţia stabilă după etnie – judeţe, municipii, oraşe, comune" (in Romanian). National Institute of Statistics (Romania). 5 Julie 2013. Archived frae the original (XLS) on 18 Januar 2016. Retrieved 18 December 2013.CS1 maint: unrecognised leid (link) However, various organisations claim that there are 2 million Romanis in Romania. See [3]
  16. "Situation of Roma in France at crisis proportions". EurActiv Network. 7 December 2005. Retrieved 21 October 2015. According to the report, the settled Gypsy population in France is officially estimated at around 500,000, although other estimates say that the actual figure is much closer to 1.2 million.
  17. Gorce, Bernard (22 Julie 2010). "Roms, gens du voyage, deux réalités différentes". La Croix. Retrieved 21 October 2016. [MANUAL TRANS.] The ban prevents statistics on ethnicity to give a precise figure of French Roma, but we often quote the number 350,000. For travellers, the administration counted 160,000 circulation titles in 2006 issued to people aged 16 to 80 years. Among the travellers, some have chosen to buy a family plot where they dock their caravans around a local section (authorized since the Besson Act of 1990).
  18. Население по местоживеене, възраст и етническа група [Population by place of residence, age and ethnic group]. Bulgarian National Statistical Institute (in Bulgairien). Retrieved 22 Juin 2015. Self declared
  19. "Roma Integration – 2014 Commission Assessment: Questions and Answers" (Press release). Brussels: European Commission. 4 Apryle 2014. Retrieved 28 Apryle 2016. EU and Council of Europe estimates
  20. Hungarian Central Statistical Office Census Data 2011. Retrieved 28 March 2013.
  21. Michael Kimmelman (6 Februar 2008). "In Hungary, Roma Get Art Show, Not a Hug". The New York Times. Retrieved 7 December 2015.
  22. "Greece NGO". Geek Helsinki Monitor. LV: Minelres.
  23. "RME", Ethnologue
  24. "National Composition of Population and Citizenship". RU: Perepis2002. Archived frae the original (Excel) on 9 Juin 2011. Retrieved 16 September 2010. Census 2002 in Russia: 182,766 Roma
  25. rs:Национална Припадност Припаднос [National origin affiliation] (PDF) (in Serbian). RS: Stat. 29 November 2012. Archived frae the original (PDF) on 8 Julie 2018. Retrieved 2 Januar 2016. Invalid |script-title=: invalid language code (help)
  26. "Serbia- a report by the European Roma Rights Centre" (PDF). ERRC. 2011–2012. Retrieved 30 September 2016.
  27. "Giornata Internazionale dei rom e sinti: presentato il Rapporto Annuale 2014 (PDF)" (PDF). Archived frae the original (PDF) on 3 Februar 2017. Retrieved 10 Apryle 2017.
  28. "Roma in Deutschland", Regionale Dynamik, Berlin-Institut für Bevölkerung und Entwicklung, archived frae the original on 29 Apryle 2017, retrieved 10 Apryle 2017
  29. "Population and Housing Census. Resident population by nationality" (PDF). SK: Statistics. Archived frae the original (PDF) on 15 Julie 2007.
  30. "Po deviatich rokoch spočítali Rómov, na Slovensku ich žije viac ako 400-tisíc". SME (in Slovak). SK: SITA. 25 September 2013. Retrieved 25 September 2013.
  31. "The 2002-census reported 53,879 Roma and 3,843 'Egyptians'". Republic of Macedonia, State Statistical Office. Archived frae the original on 21 Juin 2004. Retrieved 17 September 2010.
  32. "Sametingen. Information about minorities in Sweden", Minoritet (in Swaidish), IMCMS, archived frae the original on 26 Mairch 2017, retrieved 10 Apryle 2017
  33. National composition of population, 2001 census (in Ukrainian), UA: State statistics committee
  34. "Sčítání lidu, domů a bytů".
  35. "Současná romská komunita v Evropě". CZ: Retrieved 15 September 2010. Census 2001 in Bulgaria: 370,908 Roma
  36. Hazel Marsh. "The Roma Gypsies of Colombia". Latino Life. Archived frae the original on 23 Apryle 2021. Retrieved 29 Julie 2016.
  37. a b Roma /Gypsies: A European Minority Archived 2020-05-15 at the Wayback Machine, Minority Rights Group International
  38. "Historical Dictionary of the Gypsies (Romanies)".
  39. "Poland – Gypsies". Country studies. US. Retrieved 28 August 2015.
  40. 2004 census
  41. "POPULATION BY ETHNICITY – DETAILED CLASSIFICATION, 2011 CENSUS". Croatian Bureau of Statistics. Retrieved 21 Juin 2015.
  42. 1991 census
  43. "Albanian census 2011". Archived frae the original (XLS) on 13 November 2013. Retrieved 7 December 2015.
  44. "Roma in Canada fact sheet" (PDF). Archived frae the original (PDF) on 14 Juin 2007.
  45. Statistics Canada. "2011 National Household Survey: Data tables". Retrieved 11 Februar 2014.
  46. Yvonne Slee. "A History of Australian Romanies, now and then". Now and Then. Australia: Open ABC. Retrieved 28 Julie 2016.
  47. Emilio Godoy (12 October 2010). "Gypsies, or How to Be Invisible in Mexico". Inter Press Service. Retrieved 30 Julie 2016.
  48. Hazel Marsh. "The Roma Gypsies of Colombia". Latino Life. Archived frae the original on 23 Apryle 2021. Retrieved 30 Julie 2016.
  49. unknown. "Culture of Slovenia". Retrieved 28 Julie 2016.
  50. Emmanuel Haddad (21 Mairch 2012). "Kirtimai:Lithuania's Roma on education and 'missing England'". Cafebabel. Archived frae the original on 25 September 2017. Retrieved 29 Julie 2016.
  51. a b c Gall, Timothy L, ed. (1998), Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life, 4. Europe, Cleveland, OH: Eastword, pp. 316, 318, ‘Religion: An underlay of Hinduism with an overlay of either Christianity or Islam (host country religion)’; Roma religious beliefs are rooted in Hinduism. Roma believe in a universal balance, called kuntari... Despite a 1,000-year separation from India, Roma still practice 'shaktism', the worship of a god through his female consort...
  52. Hancock 2002, p. xx: ‘While a nine century removal from India has diluted Indian biological connection to the extent that for some Romanian groups, it may be hardly representative today, Sarren (1976:72) concluded that we still remain together, genetically, Asian rather than European’
  53. a b K. Meira Goldberg; Ninotchka Devorah Bennahum; Michelle Heffner Hayes (2015). Flamenco on the Global Stage: Historical, Critical and Theoretical Perspectives. McFarland. p. 50. ISBN 978-0-7864-9470-5. Retrieved 8 December 2015.
  54. a b Simon Broughton; Mark Ellingham; Richard Trillo (1999). World Music: Africa, Europe and the Middle East. Rough Guides. p. 147. ISBN 978-1-85828-635-8. Retrieved 8 December 2015.