Cleveland (Inglis: ˈkliːvlənd) is a ceety in the U.S. state o Ohio an is the coonty seat o Cuyahoga Coonty,[1] the maist populous coonty in the state. The municipality is locatit in northeastren Ohio on the soothren shore o Lake Erie, approximately 60 mile (97 km) wast o the Pennsylvania border. It wis foondit in 1796 near the mooth o the Cuyahoga River, an becam a manufacturin centre awin tae its location at the heid o numerous canals an railwey lines. Wi the decline o hivy manufacturin, Cleveland's businesses hae diversified intae the service economy, includin the financial services, insurance, legal, an healcare sectors. Cleveland is an aa hame tae the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame.[2]

Dountoun Cleveland seen fae Tremont neeburhuid

As o the 2000 Census, the ceety proper haed a tot population o 478,403, an wis the 33rd lairgest ceety in the Unitit States (nou estimatit as the 43rd lairgest due tae declines in population)[3] an the seicont lairgest ceety in Ohio. The ceety's population haes been shrinkin syne it peaked at 914,808 in 1950.[4] It is the centre o Greater Cleveland, the lairgest metropolitan aurie in Ohio. The Cleveland-Elyria-Mentor Metropolitan Statistical Aurie that in 2000 rankit as the 23rd lairgest in the Unitit States wi 2,250,871 fowk. Cleveland is an aa pairt o the lairger Cleveland-Akron-Elyria Combined Statistical Aurie, that in 2000 haed a population o 2,945,831, an rankit as the kintra's 14t lairgest.[5]

Suburbanisation chynged the ceety in the late 1960s an 1970s, whan financial difficulties an a notorious 1969 fire on the Cuyahoga River challenged the ceety. The ceety haes wirked tae improve its infrastructur, diversify its economy, an invest in the airts iver syne, an nou Cleveland is considered a exemplar for public-private pairtnerships, dountoun revitalisation, an urban renaissance. In studies conductit bi The Economist in 2005 Cleveland wis rankit as ane o the maist livable ceeties in the Unitit States,[6] an the ceety wis rankit as the best ceety for business meetins in the continental U.S.[7] The ceety faces continuin challenges, in parteecular frae concentratit poverty in some neeburhuids an difficulties in the fundin an delivery o heich-quality public education.[8]

Residents o Cleveland are cried Clevelanders. Nicknames for the ceety include "The Forest Ceety",[9] "Metropolis of the Western Reserve",[9] "Saxt Ceety",[10] an 'The Rock 'n' Roll Caipital o the Warld'.[9][11]

Due tae Lake Erie's northren mairch wi the ceety, the Cleveland aurie is an aa referred tae bi residents an local businesses as "The North Coast".

Internaitional relationsEedit

Sister ceetiesEedit

Cleveland haes twinty sister ceeties:[12]


  1. "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Retrieved 2011-06-07.
  2. "Visitor Information". Rock and Roll Hall of Fame. Retrieved 2007-05-14.
  3. United States Census Bureau (2001-04-02). "Census 2000 PHC-T-5. Ranking Tables for Incorporated Places of 100,000 or More: 1990 and 2000". United States Census, 2000. Retrieved 2007-08-07.
  4. Cleveland City Planning Commission. "Population Trends". Connecting Cleveland: 2020 Citywide Plan. Retrieved November 18, 2010.
  5. United States and Puerto Rico -- Metropolitan Area GCT-PH1. Population, Housing Units, Area, and Density: 2000, United States Census Bureau, Census 2000. Retrieved on 2007-05-09.
  6. "Vancouver tops liveability ranking according to a new survey by the Economist Intelligence Unit" (Press release). Economist. Archived frae the oreeginal on 2006-04-28. Retrieved 2005-10-11.
  7. Copestake, Jon. "Where business is a pleasure." The Economist. (2005-12-23)
  8. "Request For Proposals: Finance, Design, Build, Manage, Operate, Maintain, Repair and Upgrade A Citywide Municipal Wireless Broadband Network Infrastructure" (PDF). City of Cleveland Municipal Wireless Network RFP. April 20, 2007. p. Page 17. Archived frae the oreeginal (PDF) on 2008-03-08. Retrieved 2007-08-01.
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 Marshall, Alli (January 24, 2007). "Of Cleveland, by Cleveland, for Cleveland (and the world)". Asheville Arts and Entertainment. Mountain Xpress. Retrieved July 5, 2010. Nicknames include the 'Forest City,' 'Metropolis of the Western Reserve', and 'C-Town.'
    • Neville, Anne (August 16, 2009). "Buffalo by any other name". Buffalo The Buffalo News. Retrieved October 25, 2010. Cleveland has been called by many titles, including The Forest City, The Metropolis of the Western Reserve and The Rock 'n' Roll Capital of the World. The city is has also been called 'C-Town'…
  10. "Ohio: Sixth City". Time Inc. October 11, 1937. Retrieved July 5, 2010.
  11. "Rock 'n' Roll". The Encyclopedia of Cleveland History. Case Western Reserve University. 2009. Retrieved June 22, 2010.
  12. Sister Cities information obtained from Online Directory: Ohio, USA. Sister Cities International, Inc. Retrieved on July 11, 2007.
  13. "Bratislava City - Twin Towns". © 2003–2009 Retrieved 2009-07-07.
  14. "Cleveland Jews support Israel generously". Retrieved 2009-02-08.
  15. "Gdańsk Official Website: 'Miasta partnerskie'" (in Polish & English). © 2009 Urząd Miejski w Gdańsku. Retrieved 2009-07-11. External link in |publisher= (help)CS1 maint: unrecognised leid (link)
  16. Roguski, Randy (2008-08-10). "Cleveland hopes to gain from century-old link to Rouen, France". Plain Dealer. Retrieved 2009-09-26.

Coordinates: 41°28′56″N 81°40′11″W / 41.48222°N 81.66972°W / 41.48222; -81.66972