The 31st o October is the 304t day o the year (305t in lowp years) in the Gregorian Calendar, wi 61 days bidin.
- 475 - Romulus Augustulus is proclaimed Roman Emperor.
- 1517 - Martin Luther is said tae hae nailed his 95 theses tae a kirk door in Wittenberg, present-day Germany, in wha is seen as the stairt o the Protestant Reformation.
- 1864 - Nevada becomes the 36t state o the Unitit States.
- 1876 - A cyclone kills 200,000 fowk in Indie.
- 1918 - Hungary withdraws frae the dual monarchy wi Austrick.
- 1941 - Carvin o Mount Rushmore, Sooth Dakota, is completit.
- 1956 - The Unitit Kinrick an Fraunce launch an air offensive against Egyp in the Suez Creesis.
- 1984 - Prime meenister o Indie Indira Gandhi is assassinatit bi two o her own bodyguards.
- 1992 - The Roman Catholic Kirk ends the Edict o Inquisition on Galileo Galilei.
- 2000 - Singapore Airlines Flicht 006 crashes on tak-aff frae Taipei, killin 83 fowk.
- 2003 - Mahathir Mohamad resigns efter 22 year as Prime meenister o Malaysie.
- 2010 - Dilma Rousseff is electit Preses o Brazil.
- 2011 - The Unitit Naitions proclaim the warld population tae be 7 billion.
- 2011 - UNESCO admits Palestine as a member.
- 2015 - Metrojet Flicht 9268 crashes in the Sinai Peninsula o Egyp, killin aw fowk on baird.
- 2017 - Germany haulds a naitional halyday tae mairk 500 year o the Protestant Reformation.
- 2017 - A Vehicle-rammin attack in Soothren Manhattan, New York Ceety, kills 8 fowk, incluidin 5 friends frae Argentinae.
- 2019 - A train catches fire naur Rahim Yar Khan, Pakistan, killin 74 fowk.
- 2019 - Shuri Castle, pairt o a UNESCO Warld Heritage steid in Okinawa, Japan, is maistly destroyed bi fire.
- 1424 - Wladyslaw III o Poland (d. 1444)
- 1632 - Johannes Vermeer, Dutch penter (d. 1675)
- 1705 - Pape Clement XIV (d. 1774)
- 1739 - James Craig, Scots airtist (d. 1795)
- 1760 - Hokusai, Japanese airtist (d. 1849)
- 1765 - Anne Bannerman, Scots poet (d. 1829)
- 1795 - John Keats, Inglis poet (d. 1821)
- 1815 - Karl Weierstrass, German mathemateecian (d. 1897)
- 1835 - Adolf von Baeyer, German chemist (d. 1917)
- 1841 - George Reid, Scots airtist (d. 1913)
- 1875 - Vallabhbhai Patel, Indian politeecian (d. 1950)
- 1887 - Chiang Kai-shek, Cheenese politeecian (d. 1964)
- 1892 - Alexander Alekhine, Roushie chess player (d. 1946)
- 1920 - Fritz Walter, German fitbawer (d. 2002)
- 1922 - Norodom Sihanouk, King o Cambodie (d. 2012)
- 1926 - Jimmy Savile, Inglis telly presenter an sexual abuser (d. 2011)
- 1930 - Michael Collins, American astronaut
- 1935 - Mohamed Hussein Tantawi, umwhile de facto Egyptian Heid o State
- 1942 - David Ogden Stiers, American actor (d. 2018)
- 1947 - Herman Van Rompuy, Belgian politeecian
- 1950 - Zaha Hadid, Iraqi-Breetish airchitect (d. 2016)
- 1950 - John Candy, Canadian actor (d. 1994)
- 1961 - Peter Jackson, New Zealand film director
- 1963 - Rob Schneider, American actor
- 1963 - Dunga, Brazilian fitbawer
- 1964 - Marco van Basten, Dutch fitbawer
- 1973 - Beverly Lynne, American actress
- 1988 - Lizzy Yarnold, Inglis skeleton racer
- 1990 - J.I.D, American hip-hop rapper
- 1990 - Emiliano Sala, Argentine fitbawer (d. 2019)
- 1993 - Letitia Wright, Guyanese-born Inglis actress
- 1997 - Marcus Rashford, Inglis fitbawer
- 2000 - Willow Smith, American sangster
- 2005 - Leonor, Princess o Asturias
- 1778 - Thomas Cochrane, 8t Yerl o Dundonal, Scots nobleman, airmy afficer an politeecian (b. 1691)
- 1918 - Egon Schiele, Austrick penter (b. 1890)
- 1926 - Harry Houdini, Hungarian-American magician an stuntman (b. 1874)
- 1943 - Albert Armitage, Scots polar splorer (b. 1864)
- 1954 - John Colville, 1st Baron Clydesmuir, Scots politeecian an industrialist (b. 1894)
- 1984 - Indira Gandhi, Prime meenister o Indie (b. 1917)
- 1993 - Federico Fellini, Italian film director (b. 1920)
- 1993 - River Phoenix, American actor (b. 1970)
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