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The Greater Tokyo Aurie is a lairge metropolitan aurie in Kantō region, Japan, consistin o maist o the prefecturs o Chiba, Kanagawa, Saitama, an Tokyo (at the center). In Japanese, it is referred tae bi various terms, includin the Tokyo Aurie (東京圏, Tōkyō-ken), Naitional Caipital Region (首都圏, Shuto-ken), Ane Metropolis, Three Prefecturs (一都三県, Itto Sanken), an ithers.

Greater Tokyo Aurie
Skyscrapers of Shinjuku 2009 January.jpg
Location of Greater Tokyo Aurie
Frae top: Skyscrapers in Shinjuku, an Surroondin o Ginza
Frae top: Skyscrapers in Shinjuku, an Surroondin o Ginza
Coordinates: 35°41′23″N 139°41′30″E / 35.68972°N 139.69167°E / 35.68972; 139.69167
Kintra Japan
Major CeetiesTokyo Metropolis (Includit 23 special wairds)
Yokohama
Kawasaki
Sagamihara
Saitama
Chiba
Area
 • Urban
3,925 km2 (1,515 sq mi)
 • Metro
13,754 km2 (5,310 sq mi)
Population
 (Population Census o Japan 2000)[1]
 • Urban
32,542,946
 • Urban density8,817/km2 (21,480/sq mi)
 • Metro
34,607,069
 • Metro density2,516/km2 (6,516/sq mi)
GDP2008 estimate
Nominal[2]$1.941 trillion (¥165.01 trillion, The One Metropolis and Three Prefectures)
PPP$1.479 trillion[3] (1st)

A 2007 UN estimate pits the population at 35,676,000,[4] makkin it the warld's maist populous metropolitan aurie bi far. It kivers an aurie o thareby 13,500 km² (5,200 mi²),[5] givin it a population density o 2,642 person/km² - whilk is some mair nor twice the population density o Bangladesh. It is the seicont lairgest single metropolitan aurie in the warld in terms o biggit-up or urban function landmass at 7,800 km² (3,000 mi²).[6] Anerlie the New York metropolitan aurie, at 17,405 km², is lairger.

This aurie haes the lairgest metropolitan economy in the warld. Ane Metropolis, Three Prefectures, ane o the definitions o the Greater Tokyo Aurie, haed a tot GDP (nominal) o approximately US$1.9 trillion (165 trillion Yen[2]) in 2008. Accordin tae research published bi PricewaterhouseCoopers, the agglomeration o Tokyo haed a tot GDP o US$1.479 trillion in 2008 (at purchasin pouer parity), rankin again as the lairgest urban agglomeration GDP in the warld.[3]

DefinitionEedit

Thare are various different definitions o the Greater Tokyo Aurie. Ilka aurie haes a different population figure an ettles at incorporatin different aspects.

Various definitions o Tokyo/KantōEedit

Metropolitan aurie name Details Population Aurie (km2) Population Density (Fowk/km2) Agency Pop Date Cairt
Umwhile aurie o Tokyo Ceety Leemit 23 special wards 8,949,447 621.9 14,390 Japan Statistics Bureau 2010 Census[7]
Tokyo Metropolis excludin Izu/Ogasawara Islands 13,047,446 1808 7,216.5 Japan Statistics Bureau 2010 Census[7]
Tokyo Metropolitan Employment Aurie Tōkyō Dai-toshi Koyō-ken (東京大都市雇用圏) aw municipalities that hae leastweys 10% o thair population commutin tae 23 special wards
Figures for this definition are complex tae update athout a major re-study.
35,303,778 10,403.76 3,348.2 Center for Spatial Information Service, the University o Tokyo 2015
Ane Metropolis, Three Prefectures (一都三県, Itto Sanken) Maist Commonly Uised Definition
Misses mony mair distant suburbs that lay ootwi the prefectural borders, inspecially in Ibaraki an Gunma
Incorporates spairsely settlet rural destricts lik Nishitama an even islands lik Minamitorishima, 1850 km awa frae central Tokyo
35,623,327 13,555.65 2,627.9 Japan Statistics Bureau 2010 Census[8]
Kantō Major Metropolitan Aurie (関東大都市圏, Kantō Dai-toshi-ken) Ane o the twa definitions the Japan Statistics Bureau uises
Consists o aw municipalities that hae leastweys 1.5% o thair population a ged 15 an abuin commutin tae a designatit ceety (Yokohama, Kawasaki, Sagamihara, Chiba, an Saitama) or the 23 special wards
Afore Saitama became a designatit ceety in 2001, the aurie wis cried Keihin'yō Major Metropolitan Aurie (京浜葉大都市圏, Keihin'yō Dai-toshi-ken)
Maist locally detailed definition, but haurd tae update athoot major re-study
Excludes adjacent metropolitan auries o Gunma, Ibaraki, an Utsunomiya (ja:宇都宮都市圏) which are urbanized but hae some sma touns in atween them an Tokyo.
34.6 million Japan Statistics Bureau 2000
Tokyo Major Metropolitan Aurie (東京大都市圏, Tōkyō Dai-toshi-ken) Set o municipalities that are completely or maistly athin 50 an 70 kilometre o the Tokyo Metropolitan Govrenment Biggins in Shinjuku
Suburbs tend tae stend in a finger lik ootwart alang major commuter train routes an density builds alang express stops, no homogenous-lik, sae thir definitions arena the maist accurate definition
30,724,000(50 km) an 34,394,000 (70 km) respectively - - Japan Statistics Bureau[9] 2000
Kantō region Broad regional definition includes mony rural auries 42,607,376 32,423.9 1,314.1 Japan Statistics Bureau 2010 Census[8]
Naitional Caipital Region Accordin tae the Naitional Caipital Region Plannin Act
Includes mony rural auries
Essentially Kantō plus Yamanashi
43,470,148 36,889.28 1,178.4 Japan Statistics Bureau[9] 2010 Census[8]

Internaitional ComparisonEedit

Ane Metropolis 3 Prefectures definition, the tot size is smawer than Los Angeles Coonty, an amaist a third smawer at 13,555.65  km² than the Combined Statistical Aurie o New York, at 30,671 km². an 21.9 million fowk.

Metropolitan Aurie definition ambiguities an issuesEedit

  • The Sooth Kantō region (南関東, Minami Kantō) is a potentially ambiguous term. Informally, it mey mean the Ane Metropolis, Three Prefectures, or the aurie athoot Saitama Prefecture. Formally, it mey mean the Sooth Kantō Block, whilk isna the Greater Tokyo Aurie, but a proportional representation block o the naitional election, comprisin Kanagawa, Chiba, an Yamanashi Prefectures.
  • In informal occasions, the term Naitional Caipital Region (首都圏, Shuto-ken) aften means Greater Tokyo Aurie. Offeecially, the term refers tae a hintle lairger aurie, namely the hale Kantō region an Yamanashi Prefecture.
  • It should be notit that Tokyo as a metropolis includes some 394 km2
    o islands (Izu Islands an Ogasawara Islands), as weel as some muntainous auries tae the far wast, whilk isna pairt o Greater Tokyo, but hae comparatively vera sma population.

CeetiesEedit

(populations leetit for those ower 300,000)

Ceeties athin TokyoEedit

Tokyo is legally classifee'd as a to (), a wird whilk is translate as "metropolis," an is treatit as ane o the fowerty-seiven prefectures o Japan. It isna admeenistered as a single ceety.

Eastern Tokyo MetropolisEedit

Central Tokyo, situatit in the eastren portion o Tokyo Metropolis, wis ance incorporatit as Tokyo Ceety, whilk wis dismantled durin Warld War II. Its subdiveesions hae been reclassifee'd as special wards (特別区, tokubetsu-ku). The twinty three special wards currently hae the legal status o ceeties, wi individual mayors an ceety cooncils, an is cried "ceeties" in Scots. Housomeivver, whan leetin Japan's lairgest ceeties, Tokyo's twinty three wards are aften coontit as ane ceety. See: Special wards o Tokyo

Wastren Tokyo MetropolisEedit

Wastren Tokyo, kent as the Tama Aurie (Tama-chiiki 多摩地域) comprises a nummer o municipalities, includin thir suburban ceeties:

Ceeties ootside TokyoEedit

The core ceeties o the Greater Tokyo Area ootside Tokyo Metropolis are:

The ither ceeties in Chiba, Kanagawa an Saitama Prefectures are:

soorce: stat.go.jp census 2005

Additional ceetiesEedit

In the major metropolitan aurie (MMA) definition uised bi the Japanese Statistics Bureau, the follaein ceeties in Ibaraki, Tochigi, Gunma, Yamanashi, an Shizuoka Prefectures are includit:

Gunma PrefectureEedit

Ibaraki PrefectureEedit

Shizuoka PrefectureEedit

Tochigi PrefectureEedit

Yamanashi PrefectureEedit

Border areasEedit

Tichter definitions for Greater Tokyo dinna include adjacent metropolitan auries o Numazu-Mishima (thareby 450,000) southwastlins, Maebashi-Takasaki-Ōta-Ashikaga (thareby 1,500,000 fowk) norwastlins, an Greater Utsunomiya (ja:宇都宮都市圏) approx. 1,000,000) norlins. Gif thay are included, Greater Tokyo's population wad be aroond 39 million.

 
Tokyo skyline frae the northwast. The skyscrapers o Shinjuku lie 23 kilometers away on the ither side o ferms, pairks, an suburbia. The trees in the foregrund are the mairch o Tokyo an Saitama.

GeographyEedit

At the centre o the main urban aurie (approximately the first 10 km frae Tokyo Station) are the 23 special wards, umwhile treatit as a single ceety but nou govrened as separate municipalities, an containin mony major commercial centres sic as Shinjuku, Shibuya, Ikebukuro an Ginza. Aroond the 23 special wards are a multitude o suburban ceeties whilk merge seamlessly intae ilkanither tae form a continuous biggit up aurie, circumnavigatit bi the hivy-traivelt Route 16 whilk forms a (broken) luip aboot 40 km frae central Tokyo. Situatit alang the luip are the major ceeties o Yokohama (tae the sooth o Tokyo), Hachiōji (tae the wast), Ōmiya (nou pairt o Saitama Ceety, tae the north), an Chiba (tae the east). Athin the Route 16 luip, the coastline o Tokyo Bay is hivily industrialised, wi the Keihin Industrial Aurie stretchin frae Tokyo doun tae Yokohama, an the Keiyō Industrial Aurie frae Tokyo eastwart tae Chiba. Alang the periphery o the main urban aurie are hantle new suburban hoosin developments lik the Tama New Town. The landscape is relatively flat compared tae maist o Japan, maist o it comprisin law braes.

Ootwi the Route 16 luip the landscape becomes mair rural. Tae the soothwast is an aurie kent as Shōnan comprisin various ceeties an touns alang the coast o Sagami Bay, wi thair lang beaches comprisin black volcanic saund, an tae the wast the aurie is muntainous.

Mony rivers rin throu the aurie, the major anes bein Arakawa an Tama River.

EconomyEedit

Tokyo haes the lairgest ceety economy in the warld an ane o three command centers alang wi New York Ceety an Lunnon.

Greater Tokyo Aurie 2005Eedit

  • 2005 average exchynge rate (1 US Dollar = 110.22 Yen)[10]
Prefecture Gross Prefecture Product
(in billion Yen)
Gross Prefecture Product
(in billion US$)
Tokyo
92,269
837
Kanagawa
31,184
282
Saitama
20,650
187
Chiba
19,917
180
Ibaraki
10,955
99
Tochigi
8,195
74
Gunma
7,550
68
Yamanashi
3,206
29
The Ane Metropolis
an Three Prefectures
164,020
1,488
Naitional Caipital Region
193,926
1,759

Source [2]

GDP (purchasin pouer parity) 2005Eedit

The agglomeration o Tokyo is the warld's lairgest economy, wi the lairgest gross metropolitan product at purchasin pouer parity (PPP) in the warld in 2005 accordin tae a study bi PricewaterhouseCoopers.[11]

Rank Urban agglomerations Kintra GDP(PPP)
(in billion US$)
1 Tokyo   Japan
1,191
2 New York Ceety   United States
1,133
3 Los Angeles   United States
639
4 Chicago   United States
460
5 Paris   France
460
6 Lunnon   United Kingdom
452
7 Osaka   Japan
341
8 Mexico Ceety   Mexico
315
9 Philadelphia   United States
312
10 Washington, D.C.   United States
299

TransportationEedit

 
Yamanote Line, 3.61 million passengers ride per day

AirEedit

The Greater Tokyo Aurie haes twa major airports, Tokyo International Airport, commonly kent as Haneda Airport (chiefly domestic) an Narita International Airport (chiefly internaitional). Minor facilities include the Chōfu an Honda Airport. Tokyo Heliport serves helicopter traffeck, includin polis, fire, an news. Various military facilities haundle air traffeck: Naval Air Facility Atsugi (Unitit States Navy an Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force), Hyakuri Airfield (Japan Air Sel-Defense Force), Yokota Air Base (Unitit States Air Force), an Camp Zama (Unitit States Airmy). Hyakuri is bein developit for ceevil aviation wi plans for service that begin in Mairch 2010; it is cried Ibaraki Airport.

RailEedit

Greater Tokyo haes an extensive railway netwirk comprisin heich-speed rail, commuter rails, subways, monorails, private lines, trams an ithers. Thare aroond 136 individual rail lines in the Greater Tokyo Aurie, an atween 1,000 tae 1,200 railway stations dependin on ane's definition o the aurie, maist designed for hivy uise, uisually lang eneuch tae accommodate 10-caur trains. Major stations are designed tae accommodate hunders o thoosans o passengers at ony speceefic time, wi miles o connectin tunnels linkin vast department stores an corporate offices. Tokyo Station haes unnerground connections that streik weel ower 4 kilometer, an Shinjuku Station haes weel ower 200 exits. Greater Tokyo's Railway Network is easy considered the warld's lairgest in terms o baith daily passenger throughput wi a daily trips o ower 40 million (20 million different passengers) as weel as physical extent wi approximately 2,578 kilometer o track. Some 57 percent o aw Greater Tokyo residents uised rail as thair primary means o transport in 2001.[12]

JR East an mony ither carriers crisscross the region wi a network o rail lines. (See this map showin the Suica/PASMO acceptin aurie that roughly corresponds wi Greater Tokyo). The maist important carriers include Keihin Kyūkō Electric Railway (Keikyū), Keisei Electric Railway, Keiō Electric Railway, Odakyū Electric Railway, Seibu Railway, Tōbu Railway, an Tōkyū Corporation. In addition tae Tokyo's twa subway seestems — Tokyo Metro an Tokyo Metropolitan Bureau of Transportation (Toei an Toden lines), Yokohama operates three lines. The Tokyo Monorail provides service tae Haneda Airport an ither destinations.

ItherEedit

The Shuto Expressway seestem connects ither naitional expressways in the caipital region.

Tokyo an Yokohama are major commercial seaports, an baith the Maritime Self-Defense Force an Unitit States Navy mainteen naval bases at Yokosuka.

See an aaEedit

ReferencesEedit

Freemit airtinsEedit