Indie

(Reguidit frae India)

Indie (Listeni/ˈɪndiə/), offeecially the Republic o Indie (Bharat Ganrajya), is a kintra in Sooth Asie. It is the seivent-lairgest kintra bi geographical aurie, the seicont-maist populous kintra wi ower 1.2 billion fowk, an the maist populous democracy in the warld. Mainland Indie is boondit bi the Indie Ocean on the sooth, the Arabie Sea on the wast, an the Bay o Bengal on the east; an it is bordered bi Pakistan tae the wast;[note] Bhutan, the Fowkrepublic o Cheenae an Nepal tae the north; an Bangladesh an Burma tae the east. In the Indie Ocean, mainland Indie an the Lakshadweep Islands are in the vicinity o Sri Lanka an the Maldives, while Indie's Andaman an Nicobar Islands share maritime mairch wi Thailand an the Indonesian island o Sumatra in the Andaman Sea.[14] Indie haes a coastline o 7,517 kilometres (4,700 mi).[15]

Republic o Indie

Bharat Ganrajya
Motto: "Satyameva Jayate" (Sanskrit)
"Truith Alane Triumphs"[1]
AnthemJana Gana Mana
"Thou Art the Ruler o the Minds o Aw Fowk"[2][3]
Naitional sang:
Vande Mataram
"I Bow tae Thee, Mither"[lower-alpha 1][1][3]
Image o a globe centred on Indie, wi Indie heichlichtit.
Aurie controlled bi Indie shawn in dark green;
claimed but uncontrolled regions shawn in licht green.
CaipitalNew Delhi
28°36.8′N 77°12.5′E / 28.6133°N 77.2083°E / 28.6133; 77.2083
Lairgest ceetyMumbai
Offeecial leids
Recognised regional leids
Naitional leidNone
Demonym(s)Indian
GovrenmentFederal pairlamentary
constitutional republic[1]
• Preses
Ram Nath Kovind
Venkaiah Naidu
Narendra Modi (BJP)
LegislaturPairlament o Indie
Rajya Sabha
Lok Sabha
Unthirldom 
• Dominion
15 August 1947
• Republic
26 Januar 1950
Aurie
• Total
3,287,590[6] km2 (1,269,350 sq mi)[lower-alpha 2] (7t)
• Water (%)
9.6
Population
• 2016 estimate
Increase1,324,171,354[7] (2nt)
• 2011 census
1,210,854,977[8][9] (2nt)
• Density
406.8/km2 (1,053.6/sq mi) (19t)
GDP (PPP)2020 estimate
• Total
Increase $12.363 trillion[10] (3rd)
• Per capita
Increase $9,027[10] (118t)
GDP (nominal)2020 estimate
• Tot
Increase $3.202 trillion[10] (5t)
• Per capita
Increase $2,338[10] (139t)
Gini (2013)33.9[11]
medium · 79t
HDI (2018)Increase 0.647[12]
medium · 129t
CurrencyIndian rupee () (INR)
Time zoneUTC+05:30 (IST)
• Summer (DST)
UTC+05:30 (nae observed)
Date formatdd-mm-yyyy (CE)
Drivin sideleft
Cawin code+91
ISO 3166 codeIN
Internet TLD.in

Hame tae the auncient Indus Valley Ceevilisation an a region o historic tred routes an vast empires, the Indie subcontinent wis identified wi its commercial an cultural wealth for muckle o its lang history.[16] Fower o the warld's major releegions—Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism an Sikhism—oreeginatit here, while Zoroastrianism, Judaism, Christianity an Islam arrived in the first millennium CE an shapit the region's diverse cultur. Gradually annexed bi the Breetish East Indie Company frae the early 18t century an colonised bi the Unitit Kinrick frae the mid-19t century, Indie became an independent naition in 1947 efter a struggle for unthirldom which wis merked bi a non-violent resistance led bi Mahatma Gandhi.

Indie is a federal constitutional republic wi a pairlamentary democracy consistin o 28 states an seiven union territories. A pluralistic, multilingual an multiethnic society whaur mair nor 300[17] leids are spoken, Indie is an aa hame tae a diversity o wildlife in a variety o pertected habitats. The Indian economy is the warld's eleivent lairgest economy bi nominal GDP an the fowert lairgest bi purchasin pouer parity. Syne the introduction of mercatt-based economic reforms in 1991, Indie haes acome ane o the fastest growin major economies in the warld;[18] housomeivver, the kintra continues tae face several poverty, illiteracy, corruption an public heal relatit challenges. Indie is clessifee'd as a newly industrialised kintra an is ane o the fower BRIC naitions.[19][20] It is the warld's saxt de facto recognised nuclear weapons state an haes the third-lairgest staundin airmed force in the warld, while its military expenditure ranks tent in the warld.[21] Indie is a regional pouer in Sooth Asie.[22]

It is a foondin member o the Unitit Naitions, the Non-Aligned Movement, the Warld Tred Organisation, the Sooth Asian Association for Regional Cooperation, the East Asie Summit, the G20 an the G8+5; a member o the Commonweel o Naitions; an an observer state in the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation.

EtymologieEedit

Main airticle: Names o Indie

The name Indie is derivit frae Indus, which is derivit frae the Auld Persian wird Hindu, frae Sanskrit सिन्धु Sindhu, the historic local appellation for the Indus River.[23] The auncient Greeks referred tae the Indians as Indoi (Ινδοί), the fowk o the Indus.[24] The Constitution o Indie an common uisage in various Indian leids an aa recognise Bharat (pronoonced [ˈbʱaːrət̪] (  listen)) as an offeecial name o equal status.[25] The name Bharat is derivit frae the name o the legendary keeng Bharata in Hindu scriptures. Hindustan ([ɦɪnd̪ʊˈst̪aːn] (  listen)), oreeginally a Persian wird for “Land o the Hindus” referrin tae northren Indie, is an aa occasionally uised as a synonym for aw o Indie.[26]

NotesEedit

  1. "[...] Jana Gana Mana is the National Anthem of India, subject to such alterations in the words as the Government may authorise as occasion arises; and the song Vande Mataram, which has played a historic part in the struggle for Indian freedom, shall be honoured equally with Jana Gana Mana and shall have equal status with it." (Constituent Assembly of India 1950).
  2. "The country's exact size is subject to debate because some borders are disputed. The Indian government lists the total area as 3,287,260 km2 (1,269,220 sq mi) and the total land area as 3,060,500 km2 (1,181,700 sq mi); the United Nations lists the total area as 3,287,263 km2 (1,269,219 sq mi) and total land area as 2,973,190 km2 (1,147,960 sq mi)." (Library of Congress 2004).

ReferencesEedit

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 National Informatics Centre 2005.
  2. Wolpert 2003, p. 1.
  3. 3.0 3.1 "National Symbols | National Portal of India". India.gov.in. Retrieved 6 July 2013.
  4. "Profile | National Portal of India". India.gov.in. Retrieved 23 August 2013.
  5. "Eighth Schedule" (PDF). Retrieved 1 July 2013.
  6. Profile | National Portal of India
  7. "World Population Prospects: The 2017 Revision". ESA.UN.org (custom data acquired via website). United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved 10 September 2017.
  8. "Population Enumeration Data (Final Population)". 2011 Census Data. Office of the Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. Archived frae the oreeginal on 22 May 2016. Retrieved 17 June 2016.
  9. "A – 2 Decadal Variation in Population Since 1901" (PDF). 2011 Census Data. Office of the Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. Archived frae the oreeginal (PDF) on 30 April 2016. Retrieved 17 June 2016.
  10. 10.0 10.1 10.2 10.3 "World Economic Outlook Database, October 2019". IMF.org. International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 30 October 2019.
  11. "Income Gini coefficient". United Nations Development Programme. Archived frae the oreeginal on 10 June 2010. Retrieved 14 January 2017.
  12. "Human Development Report 2019" (PDF) (in Inglis). United Nations Development Programme. 10 December 2019. Retrieved 10 December 2019.
  13. "INDIA STATS : Million plus cities in India as per Census 2011".
  14. "Andaman & Nicobar Command – Indian Navy". Indiannavy.gov.in. Retrieved 2010-08-23.
  15. Kumar, V. Sanil (2006). "Coastal processes along the Indian coastline" (PDF). Current Science. 91 (4): 530–536. Unknown parameter |coauthors= ignored (|author= suggested) (help)CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  16. Oldenburg, Phillip. 2007. "India: History[deid airtin]," Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia 2007. Archived 1 November 2009.
  17. "Ethnologue report for India". Retrieved 20 अगस्त, 2008. Check date values in: |accessdate= (help)
  18. "India is the second fastest growing economy". Economic Research Service (ERS). United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Retrieved 5 August 2007.
  19. "UNIDO releases latest International Yearbook of Industrial Statistics". Ministry of Commerce of China. 2010. Retrieved 31 July 2010. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  20. Mauro F. Guillén (2003). "Multinationals, Ideology, and Organized Labor". The Limits of Convergence. Princeton University Press. pp. 126 (Table 5.1). ISBN 0-69-111633-4.
  21. "Indian Armed Forces, CSIS (Page 24)" (PDF). 25 July 2006.
  22. Perkovich, George. "Is India a Major Power?" (PDF). The Washington Quarterly (27.1 Winter 2003–04). Retrieved 2007-12-13.
  23. "India", Oxford English Dictionary, second edition, 2100a.d. Oxford University Press.
  24. Basham, A. L. (2000). The Wonder That Was India. South Asia Books. ISBN 0283992573.
  25. "Official name o the Union". Courts Informatics Division, National Informatics Centre, Ministry of Comm. and Information Tech. Retrieved 8 August 2007. Name and territory of the Union- India, that is Bharat, shall be a Union of States.
  26. "Hindustan". Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. 2007. Retrieved 18 June 2007.

Freemit airtinsEedit