Immanuel Kant (German: [ɪˈmaːnu̯eːl kant]; 22 Aprile 1724 – 12 Februar 1804) wis a German filosopher that is widely conseedert tae be a central feegur o modren filosofie. In his doctrine o transcendental idealism, he argied that space, time, an causation are mere sensibilities; "things-in-themsels" exist, but thair naitur is unkenable. In his view, the mind shapes an structures experience, wi aw human experience sharin certain structural featurs. He drew a parallel tae the Copernican revolution in his proposition that warldly objects can be intuitit a priori ('aforehaund'), an that intueetion is tharefore independent frae objective reality. Kant believed that raison is the soorce o morality, an that aesthetics arise frae a faculty o disinterestit juidgment. Kant's views conteena tae hae a major influence on contemporary filosofie, especially the fields o epistemology, ethics, poleetical theory, an post-modren aesthetics.
|Born||22 Apryle 1724|
Königsberg, Kinrick o Proushie
(nou Kaliningrad, Roushie)
|Died||12 Februar 1804 (aged 79)|
Königsberg, Kinrick o Proushie
|Residence||Kinrick o Proushie|
|Epistemology · Metapheesics|
Synthetic a priori
Noumenon · Sapere aude
In ane o Kant's major warks, the Critique o Pure Raison (1781), he attemptit tae explain the relationship atween raison an human experience an tae muive ayont the failyies o tradeetional filosofie an metapheesics. Kant wantit tae pit an end tae an era o futile an speculative theories o human experience, while resistin the skepticism o thinkers sic as David Hume. Kant regairdit himsel as shawin the way past the impasse atween raitionalists an empiricists that filosofie haed led tae, an is widely held tae hae synthesized baith tradeetions in his thocht.
Kant wis an exponent o the idea that perpetual peace coud be siccart throu universal democracy an internaitional cooperation. He believed that this wad be the eventual ootcome o universal history, awtho it is nae raitionally planned. The naitur o Kant's releegious ideas conteenas tae be the subject o filosofical dispute, wi viewpynts rangin frae the impression that he wis an ineetial advocate o atheism that at some pynt developed an ontological argument for God, tae mair creetical treatments epitomised bi Nietzsche, that claimed that Kant haed "theologian bluid" an wis merely a sophisticatit apologist for tradeetional Christian faith.[lower-alpha 1]
Kant published ither important warks on ethics, releegion, law, aesthetics, astronomy, an history. Thir include the Universal Natural History (1755), the Critique o Practical Raison (1788), the Metapheesics o Morals (1797), an the Critique o Juidgment (1790), that leuks at aesthetics an teleology.
- Nietzsche wrote that "Kant wanted to prove, in a way that would dumbfound the common man, that the common man was right: that was the secret joke of this soul."
- Durant, Will; Durant, Ariel (1967). The Story of Civilization: Rousseau and Revolution. MJF Books. pp. 571, 574. ISBN 978-1-56731-021-4.
- Nigel Warburton (2011). [Immanuel Kant at Google Books "Chapter 19: Rose-tinted reality: Immanuel Kant"] Check
|chapter-url=value (help). A little history of philosophy. Yale University Press. p. 134. ISBN 978-0-300-15208-1.
- "We here propose to do just what Copernicus did in attempting to explain the celestial movements. When he found that he could make no progress by assuming that all the heavenly bodies revolved round the spectator, he reversed the process, and tried the experiment of assuming that the spectator revolved.... We may make the same experiment with regard to the intuition of objects. If the intuition must conform to the nature of the objects, I do not see how we can know anything of them a priori. If, on the other hand, the object conforms to the nature of our faculty of intuition, I can then easily conceive the possibility of such an a priori knowledge." Kant, Immanuel. Translatit tae Inglis bi J.M.D. Meiklejohn, Critique of Pure Reason.
- Kant, Immanuel; Kitcher, Patricia (intro.); Pluhar, W. (trans.) (1996). Critique of Pure Reason. Indianapolis: Hackett. xxviii.
- Vanzo, Alberto (January 2013). "Kant on Empiricism and Rationalism". History of Philosophy Quarterly. 30 (1): 53–74.
- "Immanuel Kant". Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. 20 May 2010. Retrieved 6 October 2015.
- Idea for a Universal History wi a Cosmopolitan Purpose.
- Friedrich Nietzsche, The Anti-Christ (1895), para. 10.
- Friedrich Nietzsche (trans. Walter Arnold Kaufmann), The Portable Nietzsche, 1976, p. 96.