Friedrich Nietzsche

Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (/ˈnə/[1] or /ˈnii/;[2] German: [ˈfʁiːdʁɪç ˈvɪlhɛlm ˈniːt͡sʃə]; 15 October 1844 – 25 August 1900) wis a German filologist, filosopher, cultural critic, poet an componer that's wark haes exertit a profoond influence on modren intellectual history.[3][4][5][6][7] He begoud his career as a clessical philologist afore turnin tae filosofie. He becam the youngest iver tae hauld the Chair o Clessical Philology at the Varsity o Basel in 1869 at the age o 24.[8] Nietzsche resigned in 1879 due to health problems that plagued him most of his life; he completed much of his core writing in the following decade.[9] In 1889 at age 44, he suffered a collapse an efterward, a complete loss o his mental faculties.[10] He leeved his remeenin years in the care o his mither till her daith in 1897 an then with his sister Elisabeth Förster-Nietzsche. Nietzsche dee'd in 1900.[11]

Friedrich Nietzsche
Nietzsche in Basel, c. 1875.
BornFriedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche
15 October 1844(1844-10-15)
Röcken-bei-Lützen, Kinrick o Prussia
Died25 August 1900(1900-08-25) (aged 55)
Weimar, Saxony, German Empire
Era19t-century filosofie
RegionWastren filosofie
SchuilWeimar classicism
SignaturFriedrich Nietzsche Signature.svg

Nietzsche's bouk o wark titched a wide range o topics, includin airt, philology, history, releegion, tragedy, cultur, an science. His writin spans filosofical polemics, poetry, cultural creeticism, an feection while displayin a fondness for aphorism an irony.[12] His early inspiration wis drawn frae feegurs sic as Arthur Schopenhauer,[13] Richard Wagner,[13] an Johann Wolfgang von Goethe.[13] Prominent elements o his filosofie include his radical critique o truth in favour o perspectivism; his genealogical critique o releegion an Christian morality an his relatit theory o master–sclave morality;[4][14] his aesthetic affirmation o existence in response tae the "daith o God" an the profoond creesis o nihilism;[4] his notion o the Apollonian an Dionysian; an his chairacterisation o the human subject as the expression o competin wills, collectively unnerstuid as the will tae pouer.[15] He an aw developed influential concepts sic as the Übermensch an the doctrine o eternal return.[16][17] In his later wark, he becam increasinly preoccupied wi the creautive pouers o the individual tae owercome social, cultural an moral contexts in pursuit o new vailyies an aesthetic heal.[7]

Efter his daith, his sister Elisabeth becam the curator an eeditor o Nietzsche's manuscripts, rewirkin his unpublished writins tae fit her awn German naitionalist ideology while eften contradictin or obfuscatin Nietzsche's statit opeenions, that war expleecitly opponed tae antisemitism an naitionalism. Throu her published edeetions, Nietzsche's wark becam associatit wi fascism an Nazism;[18] 20t century scholarts contestit this interpretation o his wark an correctit edeetions o his writins war suin made available. Nietzsche's thocht enjoyed renewed popularity in the 1960s an his ideas hae syne haed a profoond impact on 20t an early-21st century thinkers athort filosofie—especially in schuils o continental philosophy ic as existentialism, postmodrenism an post-structuralism—as weel as airt, leeteratur, psychology, politics an popular cultur.[5][6][7][19][20]


  1. Wells, John C (1990), "Nietzsche", Longman pronunciation dictionary, Harlow, ENG, UK: Longman, p. 478, ISBN 0-582-05383-8
  2. "Nietzsche".
  3. Magnus, Bernd (26 Julie 1999). "Friedrich Nietzsche". Encyclopædia Britannica.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  4. a b c "Friedrich Nietzsche," by Dale Wilkerson, The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy, ISSN 2161-0002,[deid airtin]. 14 October 2015.
  5. a b Raymond A. Belliotti, Jesus or Nietzsche: How Should We Live Our Lives? (Rodopi, 2013), 195–201
  6. a b Russell, Bertrand (1945). A History of Western Philosophy. New York: Simon and Schuster. pp. 766, 770. ISBN 978-0-671-20158-6.
  7. a b c Wicks, R. (Summer 2011) "Friedrich Nietzsche". The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Edward N. Zalta (ed.). Retrieved 6 October 2011.
  8. Anderson, R. Lanier (17 Mairch 2017). "Friedrich Nietzsche". Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Metaphysics Research Lab, Stanford University.
  9. Brobjer, Thomas. Nietzsche's philosophical context: an intellectual biography, p. 42. University of Illinois Press, 2008.
  10. Magnus 1999.
  11. Robert Matthews (4 May 2003), "'Madness' of Nietzsche was cancer not syphilis", The Daily Telegraph.
  12. McKinnon, A.M. (2012). 'Metaphors in and for the Sociology of Religion: Towards a Theory after Nietzsche'. Journal of Contemporary Religion, vol 27, no. 2, pp. 203–16 [1]
  13. a b c Dale Wilkerson. "Friedrich Nietzsche" Archived 2019-03-31 at the Wayback Machine. Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. ISSN 2161-0002. Retrieved 9 April 2018.
  14. See his own words: F. Nietzsche (1888), Twilight of the Idols. "Four Great Errors", 1, tr. W. Kaufmann & R.J. Hollingdale (online version). A strict example of a cause-and-effect mismatch, with regard to the God-creator as the cause and our concepts as the effects, is perhaps not fully stressed in this fragment, but the more explicit it is stressed in the same book, chapter ""Reason" in philosophy", 4, as well as in The Antichrist (57, where real and imaginary origins are contrasted, and 62, where he calls Christianity 'a fatality'—'fatal' also meaning 'unavoidable') and in The Genealogy of Morals, books 1–3, among others. The topic of "false origins" of ideas is also suggested in The Four Great Errors, 3, and (precisely about morality) in e.g. The Will to Power, tr. W. Kaufmann, 343 (online text here).
  15. K. Gemes, J. Richardson, The Oxford Handbook of Nietzsche, Oxford Univ. Press, 2013, pp. 177–78 ("The Duality of Nietzsche's Theory of the Will to Power: The Psychological and Cosmological Aspects"). Read online here
  16. 1941–, Lampert, Laurence (1986). Nietzsche's teaching : an interpretation of Thus spoke Zarathustra. New Haven: Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-04430-0. OCLC 13497182.CS1 maint: numeric names: authors leet (link)
  17. Bowman, William (2016). Friedrich Nietzsche: Herald of a New Era. Hazar Press. pp. 39–59. ISBN 978-0-9975703-0-4.
  18. Golomb, Jacob and Robert S. Wistrich (eds.), 2002, Nietzsche, Godfather of Fascism?: On the Uses and Abuses of a Philosophy. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press.
  19. Marianne Constable, "Genealogy and Jurisprudence: Nietzsche, Nihilism, and the Social Scientification of Law," Law & Social Inquiry 19, no. 3 (1 July 1994): 551–90.
  20. "100 years after death, Nietzsche's popularity keeps growing: 6/01".