Baruch Spinoza (Dutch: [baːˈrux spɪˈnoːzaː]; born Benedito de Espinosa, Portuguese pronunciation: [benɨˈðitu ðɨ iʃpɨˈnozɐ]; 24 November 1632 – 21 Februar 1677, later Benedict de Spinoza) wis a Dutch philosopher o Sephardi Portuguese oreegin. Ane o the early thinkers o the Enlichtment an modren biblical creeticism, includin modren conceptions o the sel an the universe, he cam tae be conseedert ane o the great raitionalists o 17t-century philosophie. Inspired bi the grundbrakin ideas o René Descartes, Spinoza becam a leadin philosophical feegur of the Dutch Gowden Age. Spinoza's gien name, that means "Blessed", varies amang different leids. In Ebreu, it is written ברוך שפינוזה. His Portuguese name is Benedito "Bento" de Espinosa or d'Espinosa. In his Laitin warks, he uised Laitin: Benedictus de Spinoza.
|Born||24 November 1632|
Amsterdam, Dutch Republic
|Died||21 Februar 1677 (aged 44)|
The Hague, Dutch Republic
|Schuil||Rationalism, foonder o Spinozism|
|Ethics, Epistemology, Metaphysics, Ebreu Grammar|
|Pantheism, determinism, neutral monism, intellectual an releegious freedom, separation o kirk an state, creeticism o Mosaic authorship o some beuks o the Ebreu Bible, poleetical society derived frae pouer, nae contract|
Spinoza wis raised in a Portuguese-Jewish commonty in Amsterdam. He developed heichly controversial ideas regairdin the authenticity o the Ebreu Bible an the naitur o the Divine. Jewish releegious authorities issued a cherem (חרם) against him, causin him tae be effectively expelled an shunned bi Jewish society at age 23, includin bi his awn faimily. His beuks war later addit tae the Catholic Kirk's Index o Forbidden Beuks. He wis frequently cried an "atheist" bi contemporaries, awtho nawhaur in his wark daes Spinoza refute the exeestence o God.
Spinoza leeved an ootwartly semple life as an optical lens grinder, collaboratin on microscope an telescope lens designs wi Constantijn an Christiaan Huygens. He turned doun rewairds an honours ootthrou his life, includin prestigious teachin poseetions. He dee'd at the age o 44 in 1677 frae a lung illness, aiblins tuberculosis or silicosis exacerbatit bi the inhalation o fine gless dust while grindin lenses. He is buiried in the Christian kirkyaird o Nieuwe Kerk in The Hague.
Spinoza's magnum opus, the Ethics, wis published posthumously in the year o his daith. The wark opponed Descartes' philosophie o mynd–bouk dualism, an earned Spinoza recogneetion as ane o Wastren philosophie's maist important thinkers. In it, "Spinoza wrote the last indisputable Laitin masterpiece, an ane in that the refined conceptions o medieval philosophie are feenally turned against themsels an destroyed entirely". Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel said, "The fact is that Spinoza is made a testin-pynt in modren philosophie, so that it mey really be said: Ye are aither a Spinozist or nae a philosopher at aw." His philosophical accomplishments an moral chairacter promptit Gilles Deleuze tae name him "the 'prince' o philosophers."
- Scruton 1986 (2002 ed.), ch. 2: "Through the works of Moses Maimonides and the commentaries of the Arab Averroës, Spinoza would have become acquainted with Aristotle."
- Anthony Gottlieb. "God Exists, Philosophically (review of "Spinoza: A Life" by Steven Nadler)". The New York Times, Books. 18 July 1999. Retrieved 7 September 2009.
- Yalom, Irvin (21 Februar 2012). "The Spinoza Problem". The Washington Post. Archived frae the original on 12 November 2013. Retrieved 7 Mairch 2013. Unknown parameter
- Yovel, Yirmiyahu, Spinoza and Other Heretics: The Adventures of Immanence (Princeton University Press, 1992), p. 3
- "Destroyer and Builder". The New Republic. 3 Mey 2012. Retrieved 7 Mairch 2013.
- Scruton 2002, p. 26.
- Stewart, Matthew (2007). The Courtier and the Heretic: Leibniz, Spinoza, and the Fate of God in the Modern World. W. W. Norton & Company. p. 352. ISBN 978-0393071047.
- de Spinoza, Benedictus; Hessing, Siegfried (1977). Speculum Spinozanum, 1677–1977. Routledge & Kegan Paul. p. 828.
- Scruton 2002, p. 32.
- Meeting, Hegel Society of America (1 Januar 2003). Hegel's History of Philosophy. ISBN 978-0791455432. Archived frae the original on 13 Mey 2011. Retrieved 2 Mey 2011. Unknown parameter
- quoted in the translator's preface of Deleuze Expressionism in Philosophy: Spinoza (1990).