Albert Einstein

German-American pheesicist an foonder o the theory o relativity

Albert Einstein (/ˈnstn/;[4] German: [ˈalbɛɐ̯t ˈaɪnʃtaɪn] ( listen); 14 Mairch 1879 – 18 Apryle 1955) wis a German-born theoretical physicist. He developpit the theory o relativity, ane o the twa pillars o modren physics (alangside quantum mechanics).[3][5]:274 Einstein's work is forby kent for its influence on the filosofie o science.[6][7] Einstein is best kent in popular cultur for his mass–energy equivalence formula E = mc2 (which haes been dubbed "the warld's maist famous equation").[8] He received the 1921 Nobel Prize in Physics "for his services tae theoretical physics, an especially for his diskivery o the law o the photoelectric effect",[9] a pivotal step in the evolution o quantum theory.

Albert Einstein
Albert Einstein in 1921
Born14 Mairch 1879(1879-03-14)
Ulm, Kinrick o Württemberg, German Empire
Dee'd18 Apryle 1955(1955-04-18) (aged 76)
Princeton, New Jersey, U.S.
ResidenceGermany, Italy, Swisserland, Austrick (present-day Czech Republic), Belgium, Unitit States
Kent for
Hauf-marrae(s)Mileva Marić (1903–1919)
Elsa Löwenthal (1919–1936)[1][2]
Bairns"Lieserl" (1902–1903?)
Hans Albert (1904–1973)
Eduard "Tete" (1910–1965)
Scientific career
FieldsPhysics, filosofie
ThesisEine neue Bestimmung der Moleküldimensionen (A New Determination of Molecular Dimensions) (1905)
Doctoral advisorAlfred Kleiner
Other academic advisorsHeinrich Friedrich Weber

Near the beginnin o his career, Einstein thocht that Newtonian mechanics wisna eneuch ony mair fur tae reconcile the laws o clessical mechanics wi the laws o the electromagnetic field. This led him tae develop his special theory o relativity throu his time at the Swiss Patent Office in Bern, Swisserland. Briefly afore, he aquired the Swiss ceetizenship in 1901, whilk he kept for his hale life, efter bein stateless for mair nor five year. He realised, housomever, that the principle o relativity coud forby be extendit tae gravitational fields, an wi his subsequent theory o gravitation in 1916, he published a paper on general relativity. He continued tae deal wi problems o stateestical mechanics an quantum theory, whilk led tae his explanations o pairticle theory an the motion o molecules. He forby investigatit the thermal properties o licht whilk laid the foondation o the photon theory o licht. In 1917, Einstein applee'd the general theory o relativity tae model the lairge-scale structur o the universe.[10][11]

He wis veesitin the Unitit States whan Adolf Hitler came tae pouer in 1933 an, bein Jewish, didnae gae back tae Germany, whaur he haed been a professor at the Berlin Academy o Sciences. He sattlet in the Unitit States, becomin an American ceetizen in 1940.[12] On the een o Warld War II, he endorsed a letter tae Preses Franklin D. Roosevelt alertin him tae the potential development o "extremely pouerful bombs o a new teep" an recommendin that the U.S. begin seemilar resairch. This eventually led tae whit wad become the Manhattan Project. Einstein supportit defendin the Allied forces, but generally denoonced the idea o uisin the newlins diskivert nuclear fission as a wappen. Later, wi the Breetish filosofer Bertrand Russell, Einstein signed the Russell–Einstein Manifesto, whilk heichlichtit the danger o nuclear wappens. Einstein wis affiliatit wi the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, New Jersey, till his daith in 1955.

Einstein published mair nor 300 scienteefic papers alang wi ower 150 non-scienteefic warks.[10][13] On 5 December 2014, varsities an archives annoonced the release o Einstein's papers, comprisin mair nor 30,000 unique documents.[14][15] Einstein's intellectual achievements an oreeginality haes made the wird "Einstein" synonymous wi "genius".[16]


  1. a b Unner the German Empire, ceetizenship wis alanerly subject o ane o the 27 Bundesstaaten


  1. Heilbron, John L., ed. (2003). The Oxford Companion to the History of Modern Science. Oxford University Press. p. 233. ISBN 978-0-19-974376-6.
  2. Pais (1982), p. 301.
  3. a b c Whittaker, E. (1 November 1955). "Albert Einstein. 1879–1955". Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society. 1: 37–67. doi:10.1098/rsbm.1955.0005. JSTOR 769242.
  4. Wells, John (3 Apryle 2008). Longman Pronunciation Dictionary (3rd ed.). Pearson Longman. ISBN 1-4058-8118-6.
  5. Fujia Yang; Joseph H. Hamilton (2010). Modern Atomic and Nuclear Physics. World Scientific. ISBN 978-981-4277-16-7.
  6. Don A. Howard, ed. (2014) [First published 11 February 2004], "Einstein's Philosophy of Science", Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (website), The Metaphysics Research Lab, Center for the Study of Language and Information (CSLI), Stanford University, retrieved 4 Februar 2015
  7. Don A. Howard (December 2005), "Albert Einstein as a Philosopher of Science" (PDF), Physics Today, American Institute of Physics, 58 (12): 34–40, Bibcode:2005PhT....58l..34H, doi:10.1063/1.2169442, retrieved 8 Mairch 2015 – via University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN, author's personal webpage
  8. David Bodanis (2000). E = mc2: A Biography of the World's Most Famous Equation. New York: Walker.
  9. "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1921". Nobel Prize. Retrieved 11 Julie 2016.
  10. a b Scientific Background on the Nobel Prize in Physics 2011. The accelerating universe (PDF), Nobel Media AB, p. 2, archived frae the original (PDF) on 28 August 2015, retrieved 4 Januar 2015 – via
  11. Overbye, Dennis (24 November 2015). "A Century Ago, Einstein's Theory of Relativity Changed Everything". New York Times. Retrieved 24 November 2015.
  12. Paul S. Boyer; Melvyn Dubofsky (2001). The Oxford Companion to United States History. Oxford University Press. p. 218. ISBN 978-0-19-508209-8.
  13. Paul Arthur Schilpp, ed. (1951), Albert Einstein: Philosopher-Scientist, II, New York: Harper and Brothers Publishers (Harper Torchbook edition), pp. 730–746. His non-scientific works include: About Zionism: Speeches and Lectures by Professor Albert Einstein (1930), "Why War?" (1933, co-authored by Sigmund Freud), The World As I See It (1934), Out of My Later Years (1950), and a book on science for the general reader, The Evolution of Physics (1938, co-authored by Leopold Infeld).
  14. Stachel (2008).
  15. Overbye, Dennis (4 December 2014). "Thousands of Einstein Documents Are Now a Click Away". New York Times. Retrieved 4 Januar 2015.
  16. Result of WordNet Search for Einstein, 3.1, The Trustees of Princeton University, retrieved 4 Januar 2015