The Republic o Cheenae (ROC), commonly kent as Taiwan, is a kintra in East Asie locatit aff the east coast o mainland Cheenae. Subject tae an ongoin dispute wi the Fowkrepublic o Cheenae (FRC) that haes left it wi leemitit formal diplomatic relations, the govrenment o the Republic o Cheenae currently govrens the islands o Taiwan, Penghu, Kinmen, Matsu an ither minor islands. Neighbourin states include the Fowkrepublic o Cheenae tae the wast, Japan tae the northeast, an the Philippines tae the sooth.
Republic o Cheenae
|Lairgest ceety||Taipei–New Taipei|
|Offeecial leids||Staundart Cheenese (de facto)|
|Recognised naitional leids|
|Recognised regional leids|
|Ethnic groups||95% Han|
∟ 70% Hoklo
∟ 14% Hakka
∟ 14% Waisheng[c]
3.1% New immigrants
|Govrenment||Unitar semi-presidential constitutional republic|
|10 October 1911|
|1 Januar 1912|
|25 October 1945|
|25 December 1947|
|7 December 1949|
|36,197 km2 (13,976 sq mi)|
• 2017 estimate
• 2010 census
|650/km2 (1,683.5/sq mi) (17t)|
|GDP (PPP)||2017 estimate|
• Per capita
|GDP (nominal)||2017 estimate|
• Per capita
|HDI (2014)|| 0.882[e]|
verra heich · 25t
|Currency||New Taiwan dollar (NT$) (TWD)|
|Time zone||UTC+8 (Naitional Staundart Time)|
|ISO 3166 code||TW|
The Republic o Cheenae wis formally established on 1 Januar 1912 follaein the revolution o Wuchang Uprisin on 10 October 1911. Frae its foondin an till 1949 it encompassed mainland Cheenae (includin Tibet an Ooter Mongolie). Central authority waxed an waned in response tae warlordism (1915–28), Japanese invasion (1937–45), an the Cheenese Ceevil War (1927–49), wi central authority strangest durin the Nanjing Decade (1927–37) when maist o Cheenae came unner the control o the Kuomintang (KMT). At the end o Warld War II in 1945, wi the surrender o Japan, the Republic o Cheenae teuk ower the island groups o Taiwan an Penghu frae the Japanese Empire.
The Communist takeower o continental Cheenae in the Cheenese Ceevil War in 1949 an later Hainan, Tachen an ither ootlyin islands in the 1950s left the rulin Kuomintang (KMT) wi control ower anerlie Taiwan, Penghu, Kinmen, Matsu, an ither minor islands. The KMT declared Taipei the proveesional caipital. an foondit the Fowkrepublic o Cheenae in Beijing, leadin tae twa rival govrenments claimin tae be the sole legitimate govrenment o Cheenae. Housomeivver, till the 1970s the ROC wis still recognised bi mony kintras an the Unitit Naitions as the sole legitimate govrenment o baith mainland Cheenae an Taiwan. The ROC haed been a foondin member o the Unitit Naitions an ane o the five permanent members o the Security Cooncil till 1971, when Cheenae's representative wis replaced bi the FRC via UN General Assembly Resolution 2758.
The FRC doesna recognise the legitimacy o the ROC an claims Taiwan as a pairt o the FRC's territory, despite niver haein controlled it. It seeks tae "unify" Taiwan unner the formula o ane kintra, twa systems an reserves the authority tae uise military force (see Anti-Secession Law). The Republic o Cheenae rejects the PRC's claim an views itself as a sovereign state. This tension atween the twa states colors maist o the poleetical life in Taiwan, an ony attempt at declaring a Taiwanese republic in place o the Republic o Cheenae is met wi threats frae the FRC. The FRC govrenment an aa refuses tae hae diplomatic relations wi kintras which recognise the Republic o Cheenae an opposes the ROC takin pairt in organisations whaur statehuid is required; sicweys, as o 2010, anerlie 23 sovereign states hae formal diplomatic relations wi the ROC, tho maist ithers retain unoffeecial exchynges wi the ROC (e.g. the American Institute in Taiwan) that are diplomatic aw but in name.
In Taiwan's poleetical condeetion, which is separated intae twa major concepts in cross-strait relations; the Pan-Blue Coalition (majority Kuomintang) supports the Ane Cheenae principle unner the terms o the 1992 consensus, unner the view that the ROC still regards itself as the sole legitimate govrenment o Cheenae. The opposition Pan-Green Coalition (majority Democratic Progressive Pairty or DPP) regards Taiwan tae be an independent, sovereign state synonymous wi the ROC, opposes the notion that Taiwan is pairt o Cheenae, an seeks an eventual declaration o Taiwan unthirldom.
A single-pairty state unner the KMT syne 1928, the Republic o Cheenae evolved intae a multi-pairty democracy in the 1980s an 1990s. It haes a semi-presidential seestem an universal suffrage. The preses serves as the heid o state an commander-in-chief o the airmed forces. The Legislative Yuan is the ROC's unicameral legislature. The ROC is a member o the WTO an APEC. It is ane o the Fower Asien Tigers, an haes an industrialized advanced economy. The 26t-lairgest economy in the warld, its advanced technology industry plays a key role in the global economy. The ROC is ranked hicht in terms o freedom o the press, heal care, public eddication an economic freedom.
- See Names o the Republic o Cheenae.
- See 
- This does nae include ceetizens o the Fowkrepublic o Cheenae that mair recently muived tae Taiwan. Some Waishengren are an a Hakka or Hokkien, an smaw minority are nae Han but Manchu, Mongol etc.
- Taiwanese aborigines are offeecially categorised intae 16 separate ethnic groups bi the Republic o Cheenae. Exec. Yuan (2014), p. 49
- The UN has not calculated an HDI for the ROC, which is not a member nation. The ROC government calculated its HDI for 2014 to be 0.882, which would rank it 25th among countries.
- "Interior minister reaffirms Taipei is ROC's capital". Taipei Times. 5 December 2013. Retrieved 7 December 2013.
- Shih, Hsiu-chuan (27 Januar 2018). "Taiwan mulling English as an official language, but is it ready?". Central News Agency. Retrieved 27 Januar 2018.
- "President lauds efforts in transitional justice for indigenous people". Focus Taiwan. Retrieved 19 Julie 2017.
- "Hakka made an official language". Taipei Times. Retrieved 29 December 2017.
- "Official documents issued in Aboriginal languages". Taipei Times. Retrieved 20 Julie 2017.
- Exec. Yuan (2014), p. 36.
- "CIA World Factbook". United States Central Intelligence Agency. Missing or empty
- "Number of Villages, Neighborhoods, Households and Resident Population". MOI Statistical Information Service. Archived frae the original on 29 Mairch 2014. Retrieved 2 Februar 2014. Unknown parameter
- "Statistics from Statistical Bureau". National Statistics, Republic of China (Taiwan). Retrieved 29 Juin 2017.
- "General Statistical analysis report, Population and Housing Census" (PDF). National Statistics, ROC (Taiwan). Archived frae the original (PDF) on 26 December 2016. Retrieved 26 November 2016.
- "Taiwan Province of China". International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 7 Mey 2017.
- "Table 4. Percentage Share of Disposable Income by Quintile Group of Households and Income Inequality Indices". Report on The Survey of Family Income and Expenditure. Taipei, Taiwan: Directorate General of Budget, Accounting and Statistics. 2010.
- 人類發展指數(HDI) [Human Development Index (HDI)]. National Statistics, Republic of China (Taiwan) (in Chinese). Directorate General of Budget, Accounting and Statistics, Executive Yuan, R.O.C. 15 September 2014.CS1 maint: unrecognised leid (link)
- "ICANN Board Meeting Minutes". ICANN. 25 Juin 2010.
Owerviews an dataEedit
- Taiwan entry at The World Factbook
- Taiwan flashpoint BBC News
- Taiwan kintra profile BBC News
- Background Note: Taiwan US Department o State
- Taiwan Travel Information and Travel Guide Lonely Planet
- Taiwan's 400 years of history New Taiwan, Ilha Formosa
- Office o the President
- Control Yuan
- Examination Yuan Archived 2010-10-01 at the Wayback Machine
- Executive Yuan
- Government Information Office Archived 2005-04-03 at the Wayback Machine
- Judicial Yuan
- Legislative Yuan
- Meenistry o Foreign Affairs Archived 2005-05-09 at the Wayback Machine
- Naitional Assembly Archived 2005-06-30 at the Wayback Machine
- Taipei Economic & Cultural Representative Office in the US
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