San Juan, Puerto Rico

San Juan (Spaingie pronunciation: [saŋ ˈxwan], Saunt John; Inglis: /ˌsæn ˈhwɑːn/), offeecially Municipio de la Ciudad Capital San Juan Bautista (Municipality o the Caipital Ceety, Saunt John the Baptist), is the caipital an maist populous municipality in Puerto Rico, an unincorporatit territory o the Unitit States. As o the 2010 census, it haes a population o 395,326 makin it the 42nt-lairgest ceety unner the jurisdiction o the Unitit States. San Juan wis foondit bi Spaingie colonists in 1521, who cried it Ciudad de Puerto Rico ("Rich Port Ceety"). Puerto Rico's caipital is the seicont auldest European-established ceety in the Americas, efter Santo Domingo, in the Dominican Republic.[5] Several historical biggins are locatit in San Juan; amang the maist notable are the ceety's umwhile defensive forts, Fort San Felipe del Morro an Fort San Cristóbal, an La Fortaleza, the auldest executive mansion in conteenous uise in Americae.

San Juan
San Juan Bautista
Banner o San Juan
Coat of airms o San Juan
Coat airms
La Ciudad Amurallada (The Walled City), Ciudad Capital (Capital City)
Location o San Juan in Puerto Rico
Location o San Juan in Puerto Rico
Coordinates: 18°27′00″N 66°04′00″W / 18.45000°N 66.06667°W / 18.45000; -66.06667Coordinates: 18°27′00″N 66°04′00″W / 18.45000°N 66.06667°W / 18.45000; -66.06667
KintraUnitit States
TerritoryPuerto Rico
Named forJohn the Baptist
 • MayorJorge A. Santini Padilla (PNP)
 • Senatorial dist.1 - San Juan/Guaynabo
 • House dist.1,2,3,4,5
 • Municipality199.2 km2 (76.93 sq mi)
 • Laund123.9 km2 (47.82 sq mi)
 • Water75.4 km2 (29.11 sq mi)  37.83%
 • Municipality395,326
 • Density3,192/km2 (8267/sq mi)
 • Urban
 • Metro
 • Racial groups
(2010 Census)[4]
68.0% White
18.6% Black
0.8% American Indian/AN
0.4% Asie
0.0% Native Hawaiian/PI
8.2% Some ither race
4.0% Two or more races
Time zoneUTC-4 (AST (nae daylicht savin time))
ZIP codes
00901–02, 00906–17, 00919–21, 00923–31, 00933–34, 00936, 00939–40
Area code787, 939



San Juan wis foondit in 1521 bi Juan Ponce de León. It wis namit efter San Juan Bautista, or St. John the Baptist (name gien bi Christopher Columbus). San Juan is kent as "La Ciudad Amurallada" an aw. This means the "wawed ceety". San Juan haes mony auld biggins still staundin the day. Mony Spaingie splorers came durin the Age o Diskivery an biggit forts, kirkes, an ither historical biggins. An ensaumple o a vera auld fort is "La Fortaleza". It is kent as "Palacio de Santa Catalina" an aw. In the saxteent century, it wis a Spaingie fortress against Caribs. Thir wur the fowk native tae the Caribbean islands an Central Americae. Anither auld biggin is the auldest residence in Auld San Juan, Casas de los Contrasfuertes (Hoose o Buttresses).



San Juan is locatit alang the north-eastren coast o Puerto Rico. It lees sooth o the Atlantic Ocean; north o Caguas an Trujillo Alto; east o an Guaynabo; an wast o Carolina. The ceety occupees an aurie o 76.93 square mile (199.2 km2), o which, 29.11 square mile (75.4 km2) (37.83%) is watter. San Juan's main watter bouks are San Juan Bay an twa naitural lagoons, the Condado an San José.[6]



San Juan haes a tropical monsoon climate an enjoys an average temperatur o 79.9 °F (26.6 °C) awtho 90 °F (32 °C) or heicher temperaturs are aften felt durin the wetter months o the northren simmer, especially if the winds come frae the sooth. In the winter, temperatures can drop tae aroond 60 °F (16 °C), tho the average winter law is 71 °F (22 °C). The ceulest temperatur iver recordit wis 60 °F (16 °C) on 3 Mairch 1957, an the hettest wis 98 °F (37 °C) on 9 October 1981.[7] Rainfaw is well-distributit throuoot the year, but the months o Januar, Februar, an Mairch are the driest; as Februar averages juist unner 1.95 inches (49.5 mm) o rain, the ceety faws unner the tropical monsoon category.[8] Rainfaw averages 56.35 inches (1,431.3 mm), fawin on a average 198.5 days per year;[9] despite this dampness, the ceety averages nearly 3,000 oors o sunshine per year, or juist ower 2/3 o the possible tot.[10]

Climate data for San Juan Marin Int'l, Puerto Rico (1981–2010 normals, extremes 1898–present)[a]
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record heich °F (°C) 92
Mean maximum °F (°C) 87.5
Average heich °F (°C) 83.2
Daily mean °F (°C) 77.6
Average law °F (°C) 72.0
Mean meenimum °F (°C) 67.1
Record law °F (°C) 61
Average rainfaw inches (mm) 3.76
Average rainy days (≥ 0.01 in) 17.6 13.9 12.2 13.3 15.7 14.4 18.6 18.5 17.4 17.7 19.6 19.6 198.5
Average relative humidity (%) 74.0 72.4 71.0 71.3 74.9 75.5 75.9 76.4 76.4 76.9 76.2 74.7 74.6
Mean monthly sunshine oors 237.4 231.2 282.0 268.3 255.2 259.4 280.8 267.8 234.7 227.2 202.4 217.4 2,963.8
Percent possible sunshine 69 72 76 71 63 65 69 68 64 63 60 64 67
Source: NOAA (relative humidity an sun 1961–1990)[12][13][14], The Weather Channel[7]





The airchitectur o San Juan is vera diverse, due tae its size an aw the cultural influences receivit durin its existence. The auldest pairt o the ceety, kent as Auld San Juan, maistly featurs the influence Spaingie airchitectur. This pairt o the ceety is comprised bi a netwirk o setted roads uisually surroondit bi auncient, twa-storiet hooses biggit on masonry. Some colonial structurs hae been restored an serve aither as govrenment offices or museums. Some ensaumples are the Ballajá Barracks, which nou serve as museum an heidquairter o several cultural organisations; La Fortaleza, which haes servit as the residence o the Govrenor o Puerto Rico syne the 16t Century; an the Auncient Welfare Asylum, which nou hooses the Institute o Puerto Rican Cultur, amang ithers. Auld San Juan featurs several public squares an aw, lik the Plaza de Armas, locatit in front o San Juan City Hall; an cathedrals, lik the Cathedral o San Juan Bautista.[15] Auld San Juan is notable for bein pairtly enclosed bi massive waws an fortifications biggit bi the Spaingie govrenment an aw.

The airchitectur is mair variet in ither destricts o the ceety. The destrict o Santurce featurs a lot o influence frae airt deco, while the destricts o Hato Rey featur mair modren structurs.


Destricts o San Juan

Wha is nou kent as Auld San Juan occupeed the wastren end o a rocky islet at the mooth o San Juan Bay. Durin the 20t century, the main population centres surgit well ayond the waws o the auld ceety an ontae Puerto Rico's main island, an mergit wi the existin dounsets east an sooth o Auld San Juan. Wi the annexation o Río Piedras in 1951, the municipality o San Juan grew fower times its previous size. As a result, the ceety is nou componed o a variety o destricts an neebourheids. San Juan is nou subdividit intae 18 destricts,[16] 16 o which faw athin the umwhile municipality o Río Piedras. Aicht destricts are faur subdividit intae sectors, includin twa destricts in the aurie that covered the oreeginal municipality o San Juan. The 18 destricts are:

Auld San Juan

Streets in Auld San Juan

Durin the Spaingie colonial times maist o the urban population resided in what is nou kent as Auld San Juan. This sector is locatit on the wastren hauf o a sma island cried the Isleta de San Juan, which is connectit tae the mainland bi twa brigs an a causewey. The sma island, which comprises an aurie o 47 square miles (122 km2), hosts the wirkin-cless neebourheid o Puerta de Tierra an maist o Puerto Rico's central govrenment biggins an aw, includin the Commonwalth's Capitol. The main central pairt o the ceety is characterisit bi narrae streets made o blue cobblestane an picturesque colonial biggins, some o which date back tae the 16t an 17t century. Sections o the auld ceety are surroondit bi massive waws an several defensive structurs an notable forts. Thir include the 16t-century Fort San Felipe del Morro an the 17t-century Fort San Cristóbal, baith pairt o San Juan National Historic Site, an the 16t-century El Palacio de Santa Catalina, kent as La Fortaleza an aw, which serves as the govrenor's mansion.[17] Ither biggins o interest predatin the 20t century are the Ayuntamiento or Alcaldía (Ceety Haw), the Diputación Provincial an the Real Intendencia buildings, which currently hoose the Puerto Rico Department of State,[18] the Casa Rosa, the San José Church (1523) an the adjacent Hotel El Convento, the umwhile hoose o the Ponce de León faimily kent as Casa Blanca, the Teatro Tapia, the umwhile Spaingie barracks (nou Museum o Ballajá), La Princesa (umwhile municipal jyle, nou heidquairterin the Puerto Rico Tourism Company), an the municipal cemetery o Santa María Magdalena de Pazzi, locatit juist ootside the ceety waws.[19][20][21] The Cathedral o San Juan Bautista (construction began in the 1520s) is locatit in Auld San Juan an aw, an contains the tomb o the Spaingie splorer an dounset foonder Juan Ponce de León.[22] Auld San Juan, kent as the "auld ceety", is the main cultural tourist attraction in Puerto Rico; its bayside is lined bi dock slips for lairge cruise ships.

Ither destricts

The Central Business Destrict as viewed frae Ocean Park

East o Auld San Juan lees the walthy tourist-orientit neebourheid o Condado, which occupees laund that uised tae be awned bi entrepreneur Pablo Ubarri Capetillo, a Spaingie railwey developer an Coont o San José de Santurce unner the Spaingie colonial period. Beaches sic as nearbi Ocean Park, popular wi soummers, surfers an kitesurfers, are foond aw alang the destrict's Atlantic coastline which is the locus o numerous hotels an aw.[23]

Near Condado are twa separate business destricts, Santurce an Miramar. Miramar is mainly a residential aurie risin sooth o the Condado Lagoon. It comprises the umwhile barrio o Miraflores, as well as drained mairskland an landfill ower which wis biggit San Juan's first airport, the Isla Grande airport, which wis renamit Fernando Luis Ribas Dominicci Airport in honour o Major Fernando Luis Ribas-Dominicci (USAF). Miramar nou hosts the Puerto Rico Convention Center as well as some o San Juan Harbor's cruise ship piers. In 2005 Miramar wis designatit an historical destrict o Puerto Rico.[24]

Santurce, oreeginally namit San Mateo de Cangrejos (Saunt Matthew o the Crabs), wis a dounset for freed African slaves durin the early days o the ceety. Efter Pablo Ubarri socht permission tae link San Juan wi Río Piedras proper via steam tramwey in 1878, the time it teuk tae traivel atween baith pynts wur shortened an tharebi stimulatit the colonisation an growthe o the destrict. At the beginnin o the twintiet century an electric trolley wis installed, the tounship wis split intae three pairts, an its main dounset, mergit wi the ceety, wis renamit uisin the Spainyie spellin o Santurtzi (Saunt George in Basque), Ubarri's birthplace in Vizcaya, Spain. The "Museo de Arte de Puerto Rico" (Puerto Rico Museum of Art)[25] an ither important cultural venues are locatit in Santurce.

Sooth o Santurce is Hato Rey, pairt o the umwhile municipality o Río Piedras. Hato Rey wis grazin grund for cattle awned bi the ryal govrenment (hence its name, the Keeng's Herd in Spainyie) as early as the 16t century,[26] and is nou considered the financial centre of the island. A section of this destrict is eften referred tae as Milla de Oro (actually 0.47 mile (0.76 km)* lang) due in pairt tae the mony banks and businesses locatit thare.[26]

In the soothren pairt o the ceety is the socially diversifee'd commonty o Río Piedras. Foondit in the mid 1850s, Río Piedras wis a separate toun which hostit succar cane plantations an the estates o some o San Juan's walthiest indwallers (as well as thair wirkin cless staff). The Spainyie colonial govrenors haed thair simmer hame thare on laund an aw which eventually gae wey tae the main campus o the University of Puerto Rico. In 1951 the municipalities o San Juan an Río Piedras wur mergit tae redefine San Juan's current ceety leemits. The day Río Piedras comprises the lairgest aurie o the municipality o San Juan.[27] an is hame tae the renouned, tradeetional "Plaza del Mercado" (Río Piedras Mercatplace), the main campus an the Medical Sciences campus o the University of Puerto Rico an the San Juan Botanical Garden.



Teams based in San Juan hae been notably successfu in athletic competeetion. The Santurce Crabbers wan the National Superior Basketball League championship on 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001 an 2003 durin this period bein recognisit as a dynasty. The San Juan Senators an the Santurce Crabbers wur the twa major basebaa teams in the ceety, the championship o the Puerto Rican Professional Baseball League a tot o seiventeen times. The Santurce Crabbers are locatit third amang teams wi maire championships in the Caribbean Series, winnin championships in the 1951, 1953, 1955, 1993 an 2000 edeetions o the tournament. The ceety haes been the host o numerous events athin the sports commonty an aw; some ensaumples include:

The recently biggit $28-million San Juan Natatorium is beginnin tae attract islandwide an regional soum meets, as well winter trainin bi tap-ratit mainland U.S. colleges an varsities, includin the United States Military Academy at West Point an the United States Naval Academy at Annapolis.

In Julie 2007, the San Juan Golf Academy an its gowf drivin range began operatin atop the ceety's umwhile sanitar landfill in Puerto Nuevo an will eventually include the ceety's first an anerlie 9-hole gowf course.

Perfaisional teams

Club Sport League Venue
Cangrejeros de Santurce Basebaw Puerto Rico Baseball League Hiram Bithorn Stadium
Cangrejeros de Santurce Basketbaw Baloncesto Superior Nacional José Miguel Agrelot Coliseum or Mario "Quijote" Morales Coliseum in Guaynabo.[35]
Atléticos de San Juan Fitbaw/Balompié (Soccer) Puerto Rico Soccer League Hiram Bithorn Stadium.[36]
Academia Quintana Fitbaw/Balompié (Soccer) Puerto Rico Soccer League Hiram Bithorn Stadium.[37]
San Juan United Fitbaw/Balompié (Soccer) Puerto Rico Soccer League Seicont Division Sixto Escobar Stadium.[38]

Sister ceeties


The follaein ceeties hae been identifeed as sister ceeties bi Sister Cities International:[39]

Twin towns — Sister ceeties


Killeen, Texas is twinned wi San Juan, Puerto Rico.[40]


  1. San Juan, Ciudad Capital. Retrieved 2010-12-22.
  2. "San Juan and its barrios". United States Census Bureau. 2008. Archived frae the original on 12 Februar 2020. Retrieved 26 October 2009.
  3. "U.S. Census Bureau Delivers Puerto Rico's 2010 Census Population Totals, Including First Look at Race and Hispanic Origin Data for Legislative Redistricting - 2010 Census - Newsroom - U.S. Census Bureau". Retrieved 25 November 2012.
  4. American FactFinder
  5. Magaly Rivera. "San Juan Capital City". Welcome to Puerto Rico. Retrieved 2 Mey 2007.
  6. "Puerto Rico Geography". Retrieved 30 Juin 2007.
  7. a b "Monthly Averages for San Juan, PR – Temperature and Precipitation". The Weather Channel. Archived frae the original on 23 October 2012. Retrieved 16 Apryle 2011.
  8. "Climate information for San Juan Intl. Airport".
  9. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named NCDC
  10. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named HKO
  11. ThreadEx
  12. "NOWData - NOAA Online Weather Data". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 27 Juin 2013.
  13. "Station Name: SAN JUAN L M MARIN AP". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 13 Mey 2014. Unknown parameter |deadurl= ignored (help)
  14. "WMO Climate Normals for SAN JUAN/ISLA VERDE INT'L ARP,PR 1961–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 10 Mairch 2014.
  15. Grupo Editorial EPRL. "Viejo San Juan". Enciclopedia Puerto Rico. Archived frae the original on 23 Julie 2013. Retrieved 4 November 2012.
  16. "San Juan map: Municipo de San Juan" (PDF). Retrieved 25 November 2012.
  17. "Los Castillos del Viejo San Juan" (in Spanish). National Park Service. Retrieved 6 Mey 2007.CS1 maint: unrecognised leid (link)
  18. [1] Archived 2009-10-10 at the Wayback Machine
  19. "History of El Cuartel de Ballajá" (in Spanish). Coquí.Net. Retrieved 3 Mey 2007.CS1 maint: unrecognised leid (link)
  20. E. Ramirez Brau (2005). "Viejo Cementerio de San Juan (graveyard's history)" (in Spanish). Archived frae the original on 16 Januar 2007. Retrieved 3 Februar 2007.CS1 maint: unrecognised leid (link)
  21. "Teatro Tapia". Yahoo Travel. Archived frae the original on 13 Mairch 2012. Retrieved 3 Mey 2007.
  22. "Official Web Site of the Cathedral of San Juan Bautista" (in Spanish). Retrieved 3 Mey 2007.CS1 maint: unrecognised leid (link)
  23. "Puerto Rico Cheap Hotels: Condado, Old San Juan, Isla Verde and Ocean Park budget hotels". Hola San Juan. 2007. Retrieved 6 Mey 2007.
  24. "Informese: Miramar designated a historical district". MiramarPR. 2007. Retrieved 6 Mey 2007.
  25. "Official site of the Museo de Arte de Puerto Rico" (in Spanish). Museo de Arte de Puerto Rico. 2006. Retrieved 6 Mey 2007.CS1 maint: unrecognised leid (link)
  26. a b Brenda A. Mari (19 November 2004). "Eatin' Where The Cows Used To Roam: Hato Rey Dining At Its Best". The Puerto Rico Herald. Retrieved 6 Mey 2007.
  27. "Official site of the University of Puerto Rico" (in Spanish). Universidad de Puerto Rico. 2007. Retrieved 6 Mey 2007.CS1 maint: unrecognised leid (link)
  28. "Historia de los Juegos Centro Americanos y del Caribe" (in Spanish). Unión Pan Americana de Judo. 1998. Archived frae the original on 21 Apryle 2007. Retrieved 6 Mey 2007.CS1 maint: unrecognised leid (link)
  29. "VIII Pan American Games". LA84 Foundation. Archived frae the original on 2 Juin 2008. Retrieved 6 Mey 2007.
  30. "Caribbean World Series Historical Statistics 2005". Latino Baseball. 2005. Archived frae the original on 13 Februar 2007. Retrieved 6 Mey 2007."Archived copy". Archived frae the original on 13 Februar 2007. Retrieved 23 Januar 2013.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  31. Josh Dubow (2003). "Expos odyssey takes them back to Puerto Rico". Retrieved 6 Mey 2007.
  32. "Official site of the World Baseball Classic". World Baseball Classic. 2006. Archived frae the original on 8 Apryle 2007. Retrieved 6 Mey 2007.
  33. "Year by Year Champions". Fiba. Retrieved 6 Mey 2007.
  34. "New Year's revolution Pay-Per-View history". World Wrestling Entertainment. 2005. Retrieved 6 Mey 2007.
  35. "Coliseo de Puerto Rico Official website" (in Spanish). SMG. Retrieved 8 Mey 2007.CS1 maint: unrecognised leid (link)
  36. "Afiliados: Atlético San Juan Fútbol Club" (in Spanish). Federación Puertorriqueña de Fútbol. Archived frae the original on 21 November 2008. Retrieved 10 Februar 2010.CS1 maint: unrecognised leid (link)
  37. "Afiliados: Professional Team Academia Quintana FC" (in Spanish). Federación Puertorriqueña de Fútbol. Archived frae the original on 24 Februar 2012. Retrieved 9 Februar 2010.CS1 maint: unrecognised leid (link)
  38. "Afiliados: San Juan United Soccer Club, Corp" (in Spanish). Federación Puertorriqueña de Fútbol. Archived frae the original on 27 Julie 2009. Retrieved 9 Februar 2010.CS1 maint: unrecognised leid (link)
  39. "Online Directory: Puerto Rico, Caribbean". Sister Cities International. 2007. Archived frae the original on 28 Februar 2008. Retrieved 25 Juin 2007.
  40. "Killeen and San Juan, Puerto Rico now "sister cities" - - KCEN HD - Waco, Temple, and Killeen". 12 December 2010. Archived frae the original on 29 Julie 2012. Retrieved 25 November 2012.

Cite error: <ref> tags exist for a group named "lower-alpha", but no corresponding <references group="lower-alpha"/> tag was found