Christopher Columbus

Christopher Columbus (Italian: Cristoforo Colombo;[a] c. 1451 – 20 Mey 1506) wis an Italian explorer, navigator, coloniser, an ceetizen o the Republic o Genoa.[3] Unner the auspices o the Catholic Monarchs o Spain, he haed duin fower voyages throu the Atlantic Ocean. Thae voyages an his efforts tae estaiblish permanent settlements on the island o Hispaniola ineetiatit the European colonisation o the New Warld.

Christopher Columbus
Posthumous portrait o Christopher Columbus bi Sebastiano del Piombo, 1519. Thare are na kent authentic portraits o Columbus.[1]
1st Govrenor o the Indies
In office
Appyntit biIsabella I o Castile
Succeedit biFrancisco de Bobadilla
Personal details
BornAfore 31 October 1451
Genoa, Republic o Genoa
Dee'd20 Mey 1506 (aged c. 54)
Valladolid, Croun o Castile
Spoose(s)Filipa Moniz Perestrelo
Domestic partnerBeatriz Enríquez de Arana
Giovanni Pellegrino
Giacomo (cried Diego an aw)[2]
Bianchinetta Columbus
ThriftMaritime explorer
ReligionRoman Catholic
Militar service
RankAdmiral o the Ocean Sea

Wastren imperialism an economic competeetion war emergin amang European kinricks throu the estaiblishment o trade routes an colonies. Columbus proponed tae reach the East Indies bi sailin wastwird, an this eventually received the support o the Spainish Croun, as thay saw a chance tae enter the spice trade wi Asie throu a new wastwaird route. During his first voyage in 1492, he reached the New Warld insteid o arrivin at Japan as he haed intendit, laundin on an island in the Bahamas airchipelago that he named "San Salvador". Ower the coorse o three mair voyages, he veesitit the Greater an Lesser Antilles, as weel as the Caribbean coast o Venezuela an Central Americae, claimin aw o it for the Croun o Castile.

Columbus wisna the first European explorer tae rax the Americas, haein been precedit bi the Viking expedeetion led bi Leif Erikson in the 11t yearhunner,[4][5] but his voyages led tae the first lastin European contact wi the Americas, inauguratin a period o European exploration, conquest, an colonisation that lastit several yearhunners. As a result, the voyages haed an enormous impact in the historical development o the modren Wastren warld. He spearheidit the transatlantic slave trade an haes been accuised bi twa-three historian o stairtin the genocide o the Hispaniola natives. Columbus hissel saw his accomplishments primarily in the licht o spreadin the Christian releegion.[6]

Columbus niver admittit that he haed raxed a continent thit afore wis unkent tae Europeans, raither nor the East Indies whaur he haed set coorse tae. He cried the indwallers o the launds that he veesitit indios (Spainish for "Indies").[7][8][9] His strained relationship wi the Spainish croun an its appyntit colonial admeenistrators in Americae led tae his reest an dismissal as govrenor o the settlements on the island o Hispaniola in 1500, an later tae protractit litigation ower the benefits that he an his heirs claimed war awed tae them bi the croun.


  1. In ither relevant leids:


  1. Portraits of Christopher Columbus – COLUMBUS MONUMENTS PAGES. Vanderkrogt.
  2.   "Columbus, Diego. The youngest brother of Christopher Columbus" . New Internaitional Encyclopaedia. 1905. Cite has empty unkent parameters: |HIDE_PARAMETER4=, |HIDE_PARAMETER2=, |HIDE_PARAMETER6=, |HIDE_PARAMETER5=, |HIDE_PARAMETER1=, and |HIDE_PARAMETER3= (help) — The names Giacomo an Diego are cognates, alang wi James, aw sharin a common origin. See Behind the Name, Mike Campbell, pages Giacomo, Diego, an James. Aw retrieved 2017-02-03.
  3.   Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Columbus, Christopher" . Encyclopædia Britannica. 6 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 741–746. Cite has empty unkent parameters: |HIDE_PARAMETER15=, |HIDE_PARAMETER13=, |HIDE_PARAMETER14c=, |HIDE_PARAMETER14=, |HIDE_PARAMETER9=, |HIDE_PARAMETER3=, |HIDE_PARAMETER1=, |HIDE_PARAMETER4=, |HIDE_PARAMETER2=, |HIDE_PARAMETER8=, |HIDE_PARAMETER20=, |HIDE_PARAMETER5=, |HIDE_PARAMETER7=, |HIDE_PARAMETER10=, |separator=, |HIDE_PARAMETER14b=, |HIDE_PARAMETER6=, |HIDE_PARAMETER11=, and |HIDE_PARAMETER12= (help)
  4. "History – Leif Erikson (11th century)". BBC. Retrieved 12 October 2015.
  5. "Why Do We Celebrate Columbus Day and Not Leif Erikson Day?". [[[National Geographic (magazine)|National Geographic]]. 11 October 2015. Retrieved 12 October 2015.
  6. "Christopher Columbus (Italian explorer)". Encyclopædia Britannica Online.
  7. Hoxie, Frederick (1996). Encyclopedia of North American Indians. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co. p. 568. ISBN 978-0-395-66921-1.
  8. Herbst, Philip (1997). The Color of Words: An Encyclopaedic Dictionary of Ethnic Bias in the United States. Intercultural Press. p. 116. ISBN 978-1-877864-97-1. Retrieved 28 Februar 2016.
  9. Wilton, David (2 December 2004). Word Myths: Debunking Linguistic Urban Legends. Oxford University Press. pp. 164–165. ISBN 978-0-19-517284-3.