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Ruthenium is a chemical element wi seembol Ru an atomic nummer 44. It is a rare transeetion metal belangin the platinum group o the periodic table. Lik the ither metals o the platinum group, ruthenium is inert tae maist ither chemicals. The Baltic German scientist Karl Ernst Claus diskivered the element in 1844, an named it efter Ruthenia, the Laitin wird for Rus'. Ruthenium uisually occurs as a minor component o platinum ores; annual production is aboot 20 tonne.[4] Maist ruthenium produced is uised for wear-resistant electrical contacts an the production o thick-film resistors. A minor application o ruthenium is its uise in some platinum alloys.

Ruthenium,  44Ru
Ruthenium crystals.jpg
General properties
Appearance sillery white metallic
Staundart atomic wecht (Ar, staundart) 101.07(2)[1]
Ruthenium in the periodic cairt
Hydrogen Helium
Lithium Beryllium Boron Carbon Nitrogen Oxygen Fluorine Neon
Sodium Magnesium Aluminium Silicon Phosphorus Sulfur Chlorine Argon
Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium Manganese Airn Cobalt Nickel Capper Zinc Gallium Germanium Arsenic Selenium Bromine Krypton
Rubidium Strontium Yttrium Zirconium Niobium Molybdenum Technetium Ruthenium Rhodium Palladium Siller (element) Cadmium Indium Tin Antimony Tellurium Iodine Xenon
Caesium Barium Lanthanum Cerium Praseodymium Neodymium Promethium Samarium Europium Gadolinium Terbium Dysprosium Holmium Erbium Thulium Ytterbium Lutetium Hafnium Tantalum Tungsten Rhenium Osmium Iridium Platinum Gowd Mercur (element) Thallium Leid (element) Bismuth Polonium Astatine Radon
Francium Radium Actinium Thorium Protactinium Uranium Neptunium Plutonium Americium Curium Berkelium Californium Einsteinium Fermium Mendelevium Nobelium Lawrencium Rutherfordium Dubnium Seaborgium Bohrium Hassium Meitnerium Darmstadtium Roentgenium Copernicium Ununtrium Flerovium Ununpentium Livermorium Ununseptium Ununoctium
Fe

Ru

Os
technetiumrutheniumrhodium
Atomic nummer (Z) 44
Group group 8
Period period 5
Element category   transition metal
Block d-block
Electron confeeguration [Kr] 4d7 5s1
Electrons per shell
2, 8, 18, 15, 1
Pheesical properties
Meltin pynt 2607 K ​(2334 °C, ​4233 °F)
Bylin pynt 4423 K ​(4150 °C, ​7502 °F)
Density (near r.t.) 12.45 g/cm3
when liquid (at m.p.) 10.65 g/cm3
Heat o fusion 38.59 kJ/mol
Heat o vapourisation 591.6 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity 24.06 J/(mol·K)
Vapour pressur
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 2588 2811 3087 3424 3845 4388
Atomic properties
Oxidation states 8, 7, 6, 4, 3, 2, 1,[2] -2
(mildly acidic oxide)
Electronegativity Pauling scale: 2.2
Atomic radius empirical: 134 pm
Covalent radius 146±7 pm
Coloyr lines in a spectral range
Spectral lines o Ruthenium
Miscellanea
Creestal structurhexagonal close-packed (hcp)
Hexagonal close packed creestal structur for ruthenium
Speed o soond thin rod 5970 m/s (at 20 °C)
Thermal expansion 6.4 µm/(m·K) (at 25 °C)
Thermal conductivity 117 W/(m·K)
Electrical resistivity 71 n Ω·m (at 0 °C)
Magnetic orderin paramagnetic[3]
Young's modulus 447 GPa
Shear modulus 173 GPa
Bouk modulus 220 GPa
Poisson ratio 0.30
Mohs haurdness 6.5
Brinell haurdness 2160 MPa
CAS Nummer 7440-18-8
History
Diskivery Jędrzej Śniadecki (1807)
First isolation Jędrzej Śniadecki (1807)
Recognised as a distinct element by Karl Ernst Claus (1844)
Main isotopes o ruthenium
Iso­tope Abun­dance Hauf-life (t1/2) Decay mode Pro­duct
96Ru 5.52% >6.7×1016 y (β+β+) 96Mo
97Ru syn 2.9 d ε 97Tc
γ -
98Ru 1.88% - (SF) -
99Ru 12.7% - (SF) -
100Ru 12.6% - (SF) -
101Ru 17.0% - (SF) -
102Ru 31.6% - (SF) -
103Ru syn 39.26 d β 103Rh
γ -
104Ru 18.7% - (ββ) 104Pd
106Ru syn 373.59 d β 106Rh
Decay modes in parentheses is predict, but hisna yet been observed
| references | in Wikidata

ReferencesEedit

  1. Meija, J.; et al. (2016). "Atomic weights of the elements 2013 (IUPAC Technical Report)". Pure and Applied Chemistry. 88 (3): 265–91. doi:10.1515/pac-2015-0305. 
  2. "Ruthenium: ruthenium(I) fluoride compound data". OpenMOPAC.net. Retrieved 2007-12-10. 
  3. Magnetic susceptibility of the elements and inorganic compounds, in Handbook of Chemistry and Physics 81st edition, CRC press.
  4. Summary. Ruthenium. platinum.matthey.com, p. 9 (2009)