The Mongolian leid ( Monggol kele.svg, Mongγol kele; Cyrillic: Монгол хэл, Mongol khel ) is the best-kent member o the Mongolic leid family. It haes aboot 5.7 million speakers, includin ower 90% o the residents o Mongolie[6] an mony o the Mongolian residents o the Inner Mongolie autonomous region o Cheenae. In Mongolie, the Khalkha dialect o Mongolian, written in Cyrillic, is predominant; in Inner Mongolie, the leid is mair dialectally diverse an written in the traditional Mongolian script.

монгол хэл
Monggol kele.svg
Pronunciation/mɔŋɢɔ̆ɮ xeɮ/
Native taeMongolie
RegionAw o state Mongolie an Inner Mongolie; Buryatia, Kalmykia, pairts o Irkutsk Oblast, Zabaykalsky Krai in Roushie; pairts o Liaoning, Jilin, Heilongjiang, Xinjiang, Gansu an Qinghai provinces in Cheenae; Issyk-Kul Region in Kyrgyzstan
Native speakers
5.2 million (2005)[1]
  • Mongolie
Early forms
Staundart forms
Khalkha (Mongolie)
Chakhar (Cheenae)
Mongolie alphabets:
Tradeetional Mongolie alphabet
(in Cheenae),
Mongolie Cyrillic alphabet (in Mongolie),
Mongolie Braille
Offeecial status
Offeecial leid in


Regulatit biMongolia:
State Leid Cooncil,[3]
Council for Language and Literature Work[4]
Leid codes
ISO 639-1mn
ISO 639-2mon
ISO 639-3moninclusive code
Individual codes:
khk – Khalkha Mongolie
mvf – Peripheral Mongolie (part)
Linguaspherepart of 44-BAA-b
Geografic distribution o Mongolic fowks athort Asie (reid)
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Mongolian haes vouel hermony an a complex seellabic structure for a Mongolic leid that allous up tae three seellable-final consonants. It is a typical agglutinative leid that relies on suffix chains in the verbal an nominal domains. While the basic wird order is subject–object–predicate, the noun phrase order is relatively free, so functional roles are indicatit bi a seestem o aboot aicht grammatical cases. Thare are five voices. Verbs are marked for voice, aspect, tense, an epistemic modality/evidentiality. In sentence linkin, a special role is played bi converbs.

Modren Mongolian evolved frae "Middle Mongolian", the leid spoken in the Mongol Empire o the 13t an 14t centuries. In the transition, a major shift in the vouel hermony paradigm occurred, lang vouels developed, the case seestem wis slichtly reformed, an the verbal seestem wis restructured.


  1. Estimate from Svantesson et al. 2005: 141.
  2. "China". Ethnologue.
  3. "Törijn alban josny helnij tuhaj huul'". 2003-05-15. Archived frae the oreeginal on 2009-08-22. Retrieved 2009-03-27. Unknown parameter |dead-url= ignored (help) The decisions of the council have to be ratified by the government.
  4. "Mongγul kele bičig-ün aǰil-un ǰöblel". See Sečenbaγatur et al. 2005: 204.
  5. Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Mongolian". Glottolog. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology.
  6. Ethnologue, Mongolia page