Hải Phòng (IPA: [ha᷉ːj fâwŋ͡m] ( listen)), an aw Haiphong, is the 3rd lairgest ceety in Vietnam. The name means "coastal defence". Hai Phong is elk-namit "The Ceety o the Reid Flamboyant", acause thare a wheen flamboyant trees whilk is plantit in the ceety. Haiphong is the lairgest 1st-cless ceety an aw, an is an economic, industrial, commercial an educational centre in Vietnam. Wi the advantage o haein deep-watter ports, maritime transport here is vera developit.
Thành phố Hải Phòng
Provincial location in Vietnam
|• Total||1507.57 km2 (582.08 sq mi)|
|• Total||1,884,685 (3rd in Vietnam)|
Hai Phong wis oreeginally foondit bi Lê Chân, the female general o a Vietnamese revolution agin the Cheenese led bi the Trưng Sisters (Hai Bà Trưng) in the year 43 C.E. The aurie whilk is nou kent as Duong Kinh Destrict wis ance kent as Hai tan Phong thu ("defensive coastal aurie"), an servit as the seicont caipital o the Mac dynasty (1527–1592). At the end o Nguyen Emperor Tu Duc's reign, the heidquarters o An Duong Destrict wis muivit tae Hang Kenh, whilk nou belangs Le Chan Destrict.
In 1881, the ceety wis the steid o a devastating typhoon whilk claimit up tae 300,000 lifes.
Haiphong wis ane o Vietnam's principal ports an tradin centres. Whan the kintra wis invadit bi the French, the ceety became Fraunce's main naval base in Indocheenae. Efter Warld War II, whan Vietnam ettilt tae regain its unthirldom, Hai Phong wis the steid o the first militar action unnertaen bi the French, a paikin for the daith o three French sodgers. Some soorces claim that the French hivy cruiser Suffren bombardit the ceety, while ithers claim it wisnae Suffren but 3 avisos or sloops, unhauden bi Suffren, the ships that bombardit the ceety an adjacent fields in an aggression that contributit tae the stairt o the First Indocheenae War. French infantry forces unner the command o Jean-Étienne Valluy invadit the ceety an focht hoose tae hoose wi stuit frae armored units an jet fechters.
Later, in the Vietnam War, Hai Phong wis subjectit tae hivy bombin bi US Navy an Air Force strike aircraft acause it wis North Vietnam's anerlie major port. The ceety, housomeivver, wis evendoun unaffectit bi the war due tae the estaiblishment o a prohibition zone surroondin it. Efter the war, the ceety recovered an became a significant industrial centre. Thir days, its port sers the hailly northren region o Vietnam, an haes managit tae attract lairge foreign direct investment that fueled economic rates o growthe ootdingin 10% per annum ower the last decade.
- Population growt
As o the 2009 census, Haiphong's average annual population growthe rate wis gien as 4.0%. Haiphong's crude birth rate wis recordit at 18.1 live births per 1000 persons; the crude daith rate wis measured at 7.6 per 1000 persons. Life expectancy at birth wis estimate at 77.1 year for weemen an 72.0 year for men, or 74.5 year oweraw. The infant mortality rate wis meisured at 11.8 infant daiths per 1000 live births, juist ower twa pynt abuin the naition's average for urban auries. In the same census, the ceety's immigration an emigration rates wis measured at 2.8% an 1.9%, respectively, for a net migration rate o 0.9%.
Hai Phong is a coastal ceety locatit at the mooth o the Cam River, in Vietnam's northeastren coastal aurie, 120 km east o Hanoi. The Binh Brig crosses the Cam an connecks the ceety wit Thuy Nguyen Destrict. It haes a tot naitural aurie o 152,318.49ha (2001). It haes mairches wi Quang Ninh province norlins, Hai Duong province wastlins, Thai Binh province soothlins, an the Guwf o Tonkin eastlins. Bach Long Vi island, in the Guwf, is admeenistered as pairt o the ceety an aw. The ceety is locatit in a convenient poseetion for transportation tae domestic provinces, an internaitional netwirks via road netwirk, railwa, sea routes, inland waterwa an air.
Hai Phong featurs a humid subtropical climate, wi het, humid simmers an wairm, dry winters. The ceety is noticeably wetter frae Aprile throu October. In fact, aboot 90% o the ceety’s annual precipitation (whilk is thereaboot 1600 mm o rainfaw) teepically faws in thae month. Thare is a noticeable difference in temperaturs atween the ceety’s winters an simmers. Hai Phong’s ceulest months, Januar an Februar, sees average heich temperaturs reak 20 degrees Celsius an average law temperaturs at aroond 14 degrees Celsius. Its wairmest months, Juin an Julie, sees average heich temperaturs swither aroond 33 degrees Celsius an average law temperaturs at aroond 26 degrees Celsius.
|Climate data for Hai Phong|
|Average heich °C (°F)||20
|Average law °C (°F)||13
|Average rainfaw mm (inches)||26
|Average rainy days||10||11||14||13||14||15||15||16||14||11||8||6||147|
|Mean monthly sunshine oors||93||56||93||120||186||210||217||186||180||186||150||124||1,801|
|Source: World Climate Guide|
Hai Phong is northren Vietnam's seicont lairgest industrial centre. It's GDP accounted for 11.8 o the Red River Delta in 2007, seicont anerly tae Hanoi. It is a significant producer o rice an haes the Red River Delta's fowert lairgest fishing sector. Its industrial sector is the seicont lairgest in the region (10.6% o regional industrial GDP) an a totty wee bit aheid o Vinh Phuc province (2007). Hai Phong is northren Vietnam's major port ceety. As a result, it haes a lairge service sector an is important for the region's tred, wi export o US$1.26bn an imports o US$1.55bn in 2007.
Agricultur, Forestry an FisheryEedit
In maugre o its status as a ceety, aroond a third o Hai Phong's aurie or 52,300 ha (as o 2007) is uised for agriculture. Rice is the maist important crap, takkin up aroond 80% o the agricultural land wi an output o 463,100 ton in 2007. Ither agricultural products include maize, succar an peanuts.
Hai Phong haes a relatively lairge fishing sector wi an output o 79,705 ton (2007). Gross output haes awmaist doubled atween 2000 an 2007, maistly due tae fast growthe in aquaculture, whilk made up 60% o gross output in 2007. In maugre o its coastal location, sea fish contribute relatively little tae the sector (aroond a fowert). Nam Dinh province an Thai Binh province haes fair feck lairger fishing sectors an even the inland Hai Duong province haes a lairger gross output frae fishin than Hai Phong.
As o 2007, 315,500 wis employed in agriculture an fishery, a significant decrease frae 396,300 in 2000. Houiver, thir sectors still accoont for awmaist a third o tot employment in Hai Phong, a lairger dale than industry. Housomever, gross output in baith agriculture an fishery haes been growin significantly atween 2000 an 2007.
Hai Phong haes a lairge an diversifee'd industrial sector includin fuid processin, licht industries an hivy industries. Major products include fish sauce, beer, cigarettes, textiles, paper, plastic pipes, cement, iron, pharmaceuticals, electric fans, motorbikes, steel pipes an ships. Maist o thae industries haes been growin significantly atween 2000 an 2007, wi the exceptions o the cigarette an pharmaceutical industries. Shipbiggin, steel pipes, plastic pipes an textiles are amang the industries wi the maist rapid growthe.
Several lairge industrial projects wi foreign pairticipation are currently bein prepared. The kintra's fowert Vietnam Singapore Industrial Pairk is unner construction in Hai Phong. It haes an investment caipital o US$1bn an is projectit tae hae a population o 150,000 bi 2020. Anither billion dollar project wis annooncit bi the Japanese tire producer Bridgestone in December 2011. Hai Phong will be the location o Vietnam's first specialisit industrial pairk exclusively for Japanese investors an aw.
Thare growin industries supplyin products uised bi existingindustries in the ceety an aw. PetroVietnam set up a jynt-ventur PVTex wi textile manufacturer Vinatex tae bigg Vietnam's first polyester feebre plant in Hai Phong. The factory will uise bi-products frae ile-refinin an reduce reliance on importit materials.
270,600 fowk wur employed in Hai Phong's industry. 112,600 industrial jobs wur creatit atween 2000 an 2007.
Haiphong is a bonnie ceety. Ceety Airchitectur is a harmonious mixtur atween twa Asie an Wastren culturs. This mixtur gies the ceety a specific, elagant an strang beauty. Till nou, Haiphong haes a lot o auld quairters which wur biggit aboot 100 years ago. In Hong Bang destrict, for instance, thare are monys Franch bonnie villa, clean an uncroudit streets. Near Tam Bac Lake, thare is a Cheenese quairter, whaur Cheenese businessmen uised tae live in the past, haes a lot seemilar beauties wi Cho Lon in Ho Chi Minh Ceety. Especially Tam Bac street near dreamlike Tam Bac river, its beauty haes been theme o mony poets an painters.
Haiphong is a famous ceety in the north o Vietnam wi mony coastlines namit Do Son, Cat Ba, Cat Co, an Dao Khi. Doson Casino is a tourist attraction place an aw.
Haiphong is locatit near the junction o twa Naitional Heich-gates: Route 5, leadin wast tae Hanoi, an Route 10, leadin sooth tae Nam Dinh an connectin wi National Heich-gate 1A at Ninh Binh. Heich-gate 356 passes wast–east frae the Route 5/10 junction throu Haiphong's dountoun aurie aw the wa tae the coast. Thare is a connectin road frae route 5 tae route 18 whilk connects Hai Phong an Quang Ninh province an aw. Thare several coach stations, sic as Tam Bac, Niem Nghia, an Cau Rao.
Hai Phong port is ane o the twa biggest ports in Vietnam. It is leetit in ane o the maist important port in the Sootheast Asie. The Port o Haiphong is dividit intae three main terminals: Hoang Dieu terminal (Central terminal), locatit near the ceety's centre; Chua Ve terminal, an Dinh Vu Terminal, baith on the eastren side o toun. Aw three terminals are locatit on the banks o the Cam River. Several ferry terminals connect Haiphong wi the neehbourin Cat Hai an Cat Ba Islands; Ben Binh Ferry terminal is locatit near the dountoun aurie, while Dinh Vu Ferry is locatit on a spit o land on the coast. Recently, the govrenment o Vietnam haes appruivit the plan aboot biggin an internaitional port in Lach Huyen – 15 kilometer frae the ceety central. This will be ane o the biggest port in Vietnam whase depth is aboot −14m whilk can receive 50000 tae 100000 DWT ships.
Hai Phong Railway Station, established in 1902, is the eastren terminus o the Hanoi–Hai Phong railwa line, kent as the Yunnan–Vietnam Railway an aw. Built at the initiative o the French in thair occupation, the railwa ance connectit Haiphong tae the ceety o Kunming in Cheenae's Yunnan province, awthough service alang the Cheenese portion o the line is currently suspendit. Rail traivel frae Haiphong is still possible, wi connections tae the rest o the Vietnamese railwey network possible via Hanoi. Besides this, thare a fair few o railwey roads in the hale ceety tae ser the requirement o muivin guids oot o an intae ports.
The main airport serrin Hai Phong is Cat Bi International Airport, wi three flichts a day tae Ho Chi Minh Ceety. Recently, in Aprile 2011 Vietnam Airlines haes jist opened a new flicht whilk connects Hai Phong an Da Nang wi 5 flichts a week. Accordin tae the plan o Vietnam govrenment, thare will be an internaitional airport in Hai Phong whilk is locatit in Tien Lang destrict. This is planned tae be the biggest airport in North Vietnam.
Twin touns an sister ceetiesEedit
- Haiphong's Culture. HaiphongTourism.gov.vn
- Vietnam By Spencer C. Tucker,page 47. "On 23 November DebeS delivered an ultimatum to the Vietnamese at Haiphong,ordering them to withdraw from the French section of the city,the Chinese quarter,and the port.He gave them only two hours to reply.When the time was up the French subjected the Vietnamese positions to air,land,and sea bombardment,the bulk of the firepower coming from the three- and eight-inch guns of the French Navy Cruiser Suffren.Only military targets were destroyed and not the Vietnamese quarter as some have claimed. Estimates of the number killed in the shelling and ensuing panic vary widely.Casualties up to 20,000 have been cited.French Admiral Batter later said that no more than 6,000 Vietnamese had died, but in 1981 Vu Quoc Uy,then chairman of the Haiphong municipal committee,told Stanley Karnow that the figure was only 500 to 1,000 dead.Others have put the figure as low as 200".
- (in French) Maurice Vaïsse, L'Armée française dans la guerre d'Indochine (1946–1954) : Adaptation ou inadaptation, 2000, p. 276
- Plon, Le General de Gaulle et l'Indochine 1940–1946, page 210. "In connection with the naval bombardment, let us note that only the ships of small tonnage could go up the river of Haiphong. On November 23, two colonial sloops supported for the first time the French troops with their artillery to a limited effect: the Chevreuil with its double turret, with its two pairs of 100mm, Savorgnan de Brazza with its four turrets each of one 138mm. No battleship was present. On November 27 on that the evening, the cruiser Suffren was in the Bay d' Along, its tidal water prohibiting it access of the Cua Cam. It transported troops in reinforcement..."
- Phillippe Devillers, Histoire du Viêt-Nam de 1940 à 1952. Editions du Seuil, Paris. Third edition,1952, pp. 331–340
- Bureau of East Asian and Pacific Affairs (27 Mey 2010). "Background Note: Vietnam". U.S. Department of State. Retrieved 21 Juin 2010.
- The 2009 Vietnam Population and Housing census: Major findings. General Statistics Office of Vietnam.
- Atlat Dia li Viet Nam (Geographical Atlas of Vietnam). NXB Giao Duc, Hanoi: 2010
- General Statistics Office (2009): Socio-economic Statistical Data of 63 Provinces and Cities, Vietnam. Statistical Publishing House, Hanoi
- calculations based on General Statistics Office (2009): Socio-economical Statistical Data of 63 Provinces and Cities. Statistical Publishing House, Hanoi
- "VSIP starts work on integrated township in Haiphong". The Saigon Times. 15 Januar 2010. Archived frae the original on 30 November 2012. Retrieved 7 Januar 2012.
- "Japan's Bridgestone to build tire plant in Haiphong". The Saigon Times. 23 December 2011. Archived frae the original on 30 November 2012. Retrieved 7 Januar 2012.
- "Lốp xe Bridgestone sẽ được sản xuất tại Việt Nam". The Saigon Times. 20 December 2011. Archived frae the original on 12 Mey 2012. Retrieved 7 Januar 2012.
- "PVTex to operate first polyester fiber project early 2011". The Saigon Times. 14 Mey 2010. Archived frae the original on 6 October 2011. Retrieved 6 Julie 2011.
- Haiphong Port: Maps
|Wikimedia Commons haes media relatit tae Haiphong.|
- Offeecial Wabsteid o Hai Phong Ceety Archived 2012-07-27 at the Wayback Machine
- Official Website of Haiphong Tourism Archived 2010-11-12 at the Wayback Machine.
- History of Haiphong: interactive Google Cairt wi specific sites an historic views o the ceety frae French colonial times.