Chelyabinsk (Roushie: Челябинск) is a ceety an the admeenistrative centre o Chelyabinsk Oblast, Roushie, locatit in the northwast o the oblast, 210 kilometer (130 mi) sooth o Yekaterinburg, juist tae the east o the Ural Muntains, on the Miass River, on the mairch o Europe an Asie.[7] [8] [9] Population: 1,130,132 (2010 Census);[1] 1,077,174 (2002 Census);[10] 1,141,777 (1989 Census).[11]


Banner o Chelyabinsk
Coat of airms o Chelyabinsk
Coat airms
Location o Chelyabinsk
Chelyabinsk is located in Roushie
Location o Chelyabinsk
Chelyabinsk is located in Chelyabinsk Oblast
Chelyabinsk (Chelyabinsk Oblast)
Coordinates: 55°09′17″N 61°22′33″E / 55.15472°N 61.37583°E / 55.15472; 61.37583Coordinates: 55°09′17″N 61°22′33″E / 55.15472°N 61.37583°E / 55.15472; 61.37583
Federal subjectChelyabinsk Oblast
 • BodiCooncil
 • HeadStanislav Mosharov
 • Total500.9 km2 (193.4 sq mi)
220 m (720 ft)
 • Total1,130,132
 • Estimate 
1,202,371 (+6.4%)
 • Rank9t in 2010
 • Density2,300/km2 (5,800/sq mi)
 • Subordinatit taeCeety o Chelyabinsk[3]
 • Caipital oChelyabinsk Oblast[3], Ceety o Chelyabinsk[3]
 • Urban okrugChelyabinsky Urban Okrug[3]
 • Caipital oChelyabinsky Urban Okrug[3]
Time zoneUTC+5 ([4])
Postal code(s)[5]
Dialin code(s)+7 351[6]
Ceety DaySeptember 13
Twin tounsColumbia, Omsk, Nottinghamshire, Kazan, Ramla, Ufa, Ürümqi, ChangchunEdit this on Wikidata
OKTMO ID75701000001

History eedit

The fortress o Chelyaba, frae which the ceety taks its name, wis constructit on the steid in 1736; toun status wis grantit tae it in 1781. Aroond 1900, it servit as a centre for the construction o the Trans-Siberie Railwey. Accordin tae offeecial statistics the population on 1 Januar 1913 wis 45,000 indwallers.

For several months durin the Roushie Ceevil War, Chelyabinsk wis held bi the White muivement an Czechoslovak Legions, becomin a centre for splinters o the Romanie Volunteer Corps in Roushie. The ceety later fell tae Bolshevik Roushie forces.

In the decades efter the Finnish Ceevil War in 1918, some 15,000 "Red" Finns defectit intae the Soviet Union. Aboot 2000 o them wur transferred tae Chelyabinsk via railwey. In 1938, durin the Great Purge, aroond 1000 o thaim wur executit, lairgest single action bein shuitin o 252 Finns in 10 an 13 Mairch in Chelyabinsk. Thair mass grave is locatit near the Zolonyi Gora's umwhile gowd mine, an the day bears a sma memorial.[12]

Durin the Soviet industrialisation o the 1930s, Chelyabinsk experiencit rapid growthe. Several industrial establishments, includin the Chelyabinsk Tractor Plant an the Chelyabinsk Metallurgical Plant, wur biggit at this time. Durin Warld War II, Joseph Stalin decidit tae muive a lairge pairt o Soviet factory production tae places oot o the wey o the advancin German airmies in late 1941. This brocht new industries an thoosans o wirkers tae Chelyabinsk—still essentially a sma ceety. Several enormous facilities for the production o T-34 tanks an Katyusha rocket launchers existit in Chelyabinsk, which became kent as "Tankograd" (Tank Ceety). Chelyabinsk wis essentially biggit frae scratch durin this time. A sma toun existit afore this, signs o which can be foond in the centre o the ceety. The S.M. Kirov Factory no. 185 muivit here frae Leningrad tae produce hivy tanks — it wis transferred tae Omsk efter 1962.

Chelyabinsk haes haed a lang association (syne the 1940s) wi tap-secret nuclear research, tho this is mair properly applicable tae Chelyabinsk Oblast as a whole, as nuclear facilities sic as Chelyabinsk-70 (Snezhinsk) are, or wur, locatit far ootside the ceety. A serious nuclear accident occurred in 1957 at the Mayak nuclear fuel reprocessin plant, 150 km north-wast o the ceety, which caused daiths in Chelyabinsk Oblast but no in the ceety. The province wis closed tae aw foreigners till 1992 ither than a Breetish medical team follaein a twa train rail explosion in the mid 1980s.

2013 meteor event eedit

Shortly efter dawn on 15 Februar 2013, a 10-ton meteor descendit at aboot 40,000 mph (ower 55,000 km/h) ower the Ural Muntains, explodin at an altitude 15–20 mile in a momentar flash as bricht as the sun an generatin a shockwave that injured mair nor 1200 fowk. Fragments fell in an aroond Chelyabinsk. Interior Meenistry spokesman Vadim Kolesnikov said 1100 fowk haed cried for medical assistance follaein the incident, maistly for treatment o injuries frae gless breuken bi the explosions. Kolsenikov said aboot 600 square metres (6,000 square feet) o a ruif at a zinc factory haed collapsed an aw. A spokeswumman for the Emergency Meenistry tauld the Associated Press that thare wis a meteor shouer, but anither meenistry spokeswumman wis quotit bi the Interfax news agency as sayin it wis a single meteorite.[13][14][15]

Admeenistrative an municipal status eedit

Chelyabinsk is the admeenistrative centre o the oblast.[3] Athin the framewirk o admeenistrative diveesions, it is incorporatit as the Ceety o Chelyabinsk—an admeenistrative unit wi the status equal tae that o the destricts.[3] As a municipal diveesion, the Ceety o Chelyabinsk is incorporatit as Chelyabinsky Urban Okrug.[3]

Climate eedit

Climate data for Chelyabinsk
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average heich °C (°F) −10.5
Daily mean °C (°F) −14.1
Average law °C (°F) −19.0
Average precipitation mm (inches) 17
Average precipitation days 6 4 4 5 7 9 10 9 7 8 7 7 83
Average relative humidity (%) 85 77 76 66 61 64 69 71 73 73 82 83 73
Source #1:[16]
Source #2: World Meteorological Organization (precipitation days only)[17]

Education eedit

Thare are ower a dozen varsities in Chelyabinsk. The main anes are South Ural State University, Chelyabinsk State University an Chelyabinsk Medical Academy.

Economy eedit

Chelyabinsk is ane o the major industrial centres o Roushie. Hivy industrie predominates, especially metallurgy an militar machinery, notably the Chelyabinsk Metallurgical Combinate (CMK, ChMK), Chelyabinsk Tractor Plant (CTZ, ChTZ), Chelyabinsk Electrode plant (CHEZ), Chelyabinsk Tube Rolling Plant (ChTPZ) an Chelyabinsk Forge-and-Press Plant (ChKPZ).

Transportation eedit

Planned metro netwirk

Chelyabinsk Metro eedit

Chelyabinsk stairtit construction o a three-line subwey netwirk in the early 1980s. It is proceedin slowly uisin the New Austrian Tunneling method. Pendin financin, the openin o the first section is scheduled for 2017.

Airport eedit

The ceety is servit bi the Chelyabinsk Airport.

Pollution eedit

The ceety haes been reportit as bein ane o the maist pollutit places on Yird, haein previously been a centre o production o wappens-grade plutonium.[18]

Notable fowk eedit

Internaitional relations eedit

Twin touns an sister ceeties eedit

Chelyabinsk is twinned wi:

References eedit

Notes eedit

  1. a b Roushie Federal State Stateestics Service (2011). "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 Aw-Roushie Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года [2010 Aw-Roushie Population Census] (in Roushie). Federal State Stateestics Service.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link) CS1 maint: unrecognised leid (link)
  2. "26. Численность постоянного населения Российской Федерации по муниципальным образованиям на 1 января 2018 года". Roushie Federal State Stateestics Service. Retrieved 23 Januar 2019.
  3. a b c d e f g h Resolution #161
  4. "Об исчислении времени". Официальный интернет-портал правовой информации (in Roushie). 3 Juin 2011. Retrieved 19 Januar 2019.CS1 maint: unrecognised leid (link)
  5. Information about central postal office Archived 2016-03-03 at the Wayback Machine (in Russian)
  6. Russian Federation Cities dialing codes[deid airtin] (in Russian)(zip 34.4 KB)
  7. "Archived copy". Archived frae the original on 1 December 2020. Retrieved 23 Januar 2013.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  9. Archived 2013-02-24 at the Wayback Machine
  10. Roushie Federal State Stateestics Service (21 Mey 2004). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population o Roushie, Its Federal Destricts, Federal Subjects, Destricts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Admeenistrative Centres, an Rural Localities wi Population o Ower 3,000] (XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [Aw-Roushie Population Census o 2002] (in Roushie).CS1 maint: ref=harv (link) CS1 maint: unrecognised leid (link)
  11. "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров" [Aw Union Population Census o 1989: Present Population o Union an Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts an Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Destricts, Urban Settlements, an Veelages Servin as Destrict Admeenistrative Centres]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года [Aw-Union Population Census o 1989] (in Roushie). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute o Demografie at the Naitional Resairch Varsity: Heicher Schuil o Economics]. 1989 – via Demoscope Weekly.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link) CS1 maint: unrecognised leid (link)
  12. Jukka Rislakki, Eila Lahti-Argutina: Meillä ei kotia täällä: Suomalaisten Loikkarien Joukkotuho Uralilla 1938. Otava, 1997. ISBN 951-1-14851-6.
  13. "BREAKING: Huge Meteor Blazes Across Sky Over Russia; Sonic Boom Shatters Windows [UPDATED]". Retrieved 15 Februar 2013.
  14. "Meteor strikes Earth in Russia's Urals". Pravda. Retrieved 15 Februar 2013.
  15. "400 INJURED BY METEORITE FALLS IN RUSSIAN URALS". AP. Archived frae the original on 18 Februar 2013. Retrieved 15 Februar 2013.
  16. "" (in Russian). Weather and Climate (Погода и климат). Retrieved 13 December 2012.CS1 maint: unrecognised leid (link)
  17. "World Weather Information Service – Cheljabinsk". World Meteorological Organization. Archived frae the original on 17 November 2018. Retrieved 13 December 2012.
  18. Andrew Osborn (27 Julie 2011). "How Chelyabinsk became synonymous with pollution". The Telegraph. Telegraph Media Group. Retrieved 16 November 2012.

Sources eedit

  • Законодательное Собрание Челябинской области. Постановление №161 от 25 мая 2006 г. «Об утверждении перечня муниципальных образований (административно-территориальных единиц) Челябинской области и населённых пунктов, входящих в их состав», в ред. Постановления №1178 от 25 октября 2012 г. «О внесении изменений в некоторые постановления Законодательного Собрания Челябинской области». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Южноуральская панорама", №111-112, 14 июня 2006 г. (Legislative Assembly of Chelyabinsk Oblast. Resolution #161 of November 25, 2006 On Adoption of the Registry of the Municipal Formations (Administrative-Territorial Units) of Chelyabinsk Oblast and of the Inhabited Localities They Comprise, as amended by the Resolution #1178 of October 25, 2012 On Amending Various Resolutions of the Legislative Assembly of Chelyabinsk Oblast. Effective as of the official publication date.).
  • Lennart Samuelson, Tankograd. The Formation of a Soviet Company Town: Cheliabinsk, 1900s–1950s (Basingstoke, Palgrave Macmillan, 2011).

Freemit airtins eedit

  • Wabsteid aboot Chelyabinsk
  • Chelyabinsk ceety portal (in Roushie)
  • Chelyabinsk News Agency (in Roushie)
  •   Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Chelyabinsk" . Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. Cite has empty unkent parameters: |HIDE_PARAMETER15=, |HIDE_PARAMETER13=, |HIDE_PARAMETER14c=, |HIDE_PARAMETER14=, |HIDE_PARAMETER9=, |HIDE_PARAMETER3=, |HIDE_PARAMETER1=, |HIDE_PARAMETER4=, |HIDE_PARAMETER2=, |HIDE_PARAMETER8=, |HIDE_PARAMETER20=, |HIDE_PARAMETER5=, |HIDE_PARAMETER7=, |HIDE_PARAMETER10=, |separator=, |HIDE_PARAMETER14b=, |HIDE_PARAMETER6=, |HIDE_PARAMETER11=, and |HIDE_PARAMETER12= (help)

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