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Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin (18 December 1879 – 5 Mairch 1953) wis a Soviet politeecian an heid o state who servit as the first General Secretar o the Communist Pairty o the Soviet Union's Central Committee frae 1922 till his daith in 1953. Efter the daith o Vladimir Lenin in 1924, Stalin rase tae acome the leader o the Soviet Union, which he ruled as a dictator.

Joseph Stalin
Иосиф Сталин (Roushie)
იოსებ სტალინი (Georgie)
Stalin Full Image.jpg
Stalin in 1937
General secretar o the Central Committee o the Communist Pairty o the Soviet Union
In office
3 Apryle 1922 – 16 October 1952
Precedit bi Vyacheslav Molotov
(as Responsible Secretar)
Succeedit bi Nikita Khrushchev
(office reestablished)
Chairman o the Cooncil o Meenisters
In office
6 Mey 1941 – 5 Mairch 1953
First Deputies Nikolai Voznesensky
Vyacheslav Molotov
Precedit bi Vyacheslav Molotov
Succeedit bi Georgy Malenkov
Fowkcommissar for Defence o the Soviet Union
In office
19 Julie 1941 – 25 Februar 1946
Premier Hissel
Precedit bi Semyon Timoshenko
Succeedit bi Nikolai Bulganin
after vacancy
Member o the Secretariat
In office
3 April 1922 – 5 March 1953
Full member o the Presidium
In office
25 Mairch 1919 – 5 Mairch 1953
Member of the Orgburo
In office
16 Januar 1919 – 5 Mairch 1953
Personal details
Born 18 December 1878(1878-12-18)
Gori, Tiflis Govrenorate, Roushie Empire
Dee'd 5 Mairch 1953(1953-03-05) (aged 74)
Kuntsevo Dacha, Kuntsevo, Roushie SFSR, Soviet Union
Restin place Lenin's Mausoleum, Moscow, Roushie SFSR, Soviet Union (9 Mairch 1953 – 31 October 1961)
Kremlin Waw Necropolis, Moscow, Roushie (frae 31 October 1961)
Naitionality Georgie
Poleetical pairty Communist Pairty o the Soviet Union
Spoose(s) Ekaterina Svanidze (1906–1907)
Nadezhda Alliluyeva (1919–1932)
Bairns Yakov Dzhugashvili, Vasily Dzhugashvili, Svetlana Alliluyeva
Religion Nane (atheist), umwhile Georgie Orthodox
Awairds Hero o the Soviet Union Hero of Socialist Labor medal.png Badge Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union.jpg
Ordervictory rib.png Ordervictory rib.png
Order of Red Banner ribbon bar.png Order of Red Banner ribbon bar.png 20 years saf rib.png Order of Lenin ribbon bar.png
Order of Lenin ribbon bar.png Order suvorov1 rib.png Ribbon bar for the medal for the Defense of Moscow.png Order of Glory Ribbon Bar.png
OrdenSuheBator.png OrdenSuheBator.png Victoryjapan rib.png Victoryjapan rib.png
800thMoscowRibbon.png Order redstar rib.png Order redstar rib.png Order redstar rib.png
Czechoslovak War Cross 1939-1945 Bar.png Czechoslovak War Cross 1939-1945 Bar.png CZE Rad Bileho Lva 5 tridy BAR.svg CZE Rad Bileho Lva 3 tridy BAR.svg Czechoslovak War Cross 1939-1945 Bar.png
Militar service
Nickname(s) Koba
Allegiance  Soviet Union
Service/branch Soviet Airmit Forces
Years o service 1943–1953
Rank Mairshal o the Soviet Union (1943–1945)
Generalissimus o the Soviet Union (1945–1953)
Commands Aw (supreme commander)
Battles/wars Warld War II

Stalin launcht a command economy, replacin the New Economic Policy o the 1920s wi Five-Year Plans an launchin a period o rapid industrialization an economic collectivization. The upheaval in the agricultural sector disruptit fuid production, resultin in widespread faimin, includin the catastrophic Soviet faimin o 1932–1933 (kent in Ukraine as the Holodomor).[1]

Durin the late 1930s, Stalin launcht the Great Purge (an aa kent as the "Great Terror"), a campaign tae purge the Communist Pairty o fowk accuised o sabotage, terrorism, or treachery; he extendit it tae the military an ither sectors o Soviet society. In practice, the purges wur indiscriminate. Targets wur aften executit, impreesoned in Gulag labor camps or exiled. In the years which follaed, millions o members o ethnic minorities wur deportit an aw.[2][3]

In 1939 Stalin entered intae a non-aggression pact wi Nazi Germany, follaed bi the Soviet invasion o Poland, Finland, the Baltics, Bessarabie an northren Bukovinae. Efter Germany violatit the pact in 1941, the Soviet Union jynt the Allies tae play an important role in the Axis defeat, at the cost o the lairgest daith toll for ony kintra in the war (maistly due tae the mass daiths o civilians in territories occupeed bi Germany). Efter the war, Stalin instawed subservient communist govrenments in maist kintras in Eastren Europe, formin the Eastren bloc, ahint wha wis referred tae as an "Airn Curtain" o Soviet rule durin the Cauld War.

Stalin fostered a cult o personality aroond hissel, but efter his daith, his successor, Nikita Khrushchev, denoonced his legacy an drove the process o de-Stalinization o the Soviet Union.[4]