A pier is a raised structure, includin bridge an biggin supports an walkways, ower watter, teepically supportit bi widely spread piles or pillars. The lichter structure o a pier allaws tides an currents tae flow almaist unhindered, whauras the mair solit foundations o a quay or the closely-spaced piles o a wharf can act as a breakwater, an are consequently mair liable tae siltin. Piers can range in size an complexity frae a semple lichtweight widden structure tae major structures extendit ower a mile oot tae sea.
Piers hae been biggit for several different purposes, an acause thir different purposes hae distinct regional variances, the term pier tends tae hae different nuances o meanin in different pairts o the warld. Sicweys in North Americae an Australie, whaur mony ports wur, till recently, biggit on the multiple pier model, the term tends tae imply a current or umwhile cargo-handlin facility. In Europe housomeivver, whaur ports hae tended tae uise basins an river-side quays rather than piers, the term is principally associatit wi the image o a Victorian cast iron pleasure pier. Housomeivver, the earliest piers pre-date the Victorian age.
Types o pierEedit
Piers can be categorized intae different groupins accordin tae the principal purpose. Housomeivver thare is considerable owerlap atween thir categories. For ensaumple, pleasure piers aften an aa allou for the dockin o pleasure steamers an ither seemilar craft, whilst wirkin piers hae aften been convertit tae leisure uise efter bein rendered obsolete bi advanced developments in cargo-handlin technology.
Wirkin piers wur biggit for the handlin o passengers an cargo ontae an off ships or (as at Wigan Pier) canal boats. Workin piers themselves faw intae twa different groups. Langer individual piers are aften foond at ports wi lairge tidal ranges, wi the pier stretchin far eneuch aff shore tae reach deep watter at law tide. Sic piers providit an economical alternative tae impounded docks whaur cargo volumes wur law, or whaur specialist bulk cargo wis handled, sic as at coal piers. The ither form o wirkin pier, aften cawed the finger pier, wis biggit at ports wi smawer tidal ranges. Here the principal advantage wis tae gie a greater available quay lenth for ships tae berth against compared tae a linear littoral quayside, an sic piers are uisuallie muckle shorter. teepically each pier wad cairy a single transit shed the lenth o the pier, wi ships berthin bow or stern in tae the shore. Some major ports consistit o lairge nummers o sic piers linin the foreshore, classic ensaumples bein the Hudson River frontage o New York, or the Embarcadero in San Francisco.
The advent o container shippin, wi its need for lairge container handlin spaces adjacent tae the shippin berths, haes made wirkin piers obsolete for the handlin o general cargo, awtho some still survive for the handlin o passenger ships or bulk cargos. Ane ensaumple, is in uise in Progreso, Yucatán, whaur a pier extends mair nor 4 mile intae the Gulf o Mexico, makin it the langest pier in the warld. The Progreso Pier supplies muckle o the peninsula wi transportation for the fishin an cargo industries an serves as a port for lairge cruise ships in the aurie. Mony ither workin piers hae been demolished, or remain derelict, but some hae been recycled as pleasure piers. The best kent ensaumple o this is Pier 39 in San Francisco.
Pleasure piers wur first biggit in Ingland, during the 19t century. The earliest structures wur Ryde Pier, biggit in 1813/4, Leith Trinity Chain Pier, biggit in 1821, an Brighton Chain Pier, biggit in 1823. Ae the auldest o thir piers still remains. At that time the introduction o the railweys for the first time permittit mass tourism tae dedicatit seaside resorts. Housomeivver, the lairge tidal ranges at mony sic resorts meant that for muckle o the day, the sea wis no visible frae dry land. The pleasure pier wis the resorts' answer, permittin holiday makers tae promenade ower an alangside the sea at aw times. The langest Pleasure pier in the warld is at Soothend-on-sea, Essex, an extends 2,158 metres (1.34 mi) intae the Thames estuary. The langest pier on the West Coast o the Unitit States is the Oceanside Pier.
Pleasure piers aften include ither amusements an theatres as pairt o the attraction. Sic a pier mey be open air, closed, or pairtly open, paritly closed. Whiles a pier haes twa decks.
Earlie pleasure piers wur o wooden construction, wi iron structures bein introduced wi the construction in 1855 o Margate Jetty, in Margate, Ingland. Margate wis wrecked in storms in 1978 an wis niver repaired. The auldest iron pleasure pier still remainin is in Soothport, Ingland, an dates frae 1860 - housomeivver the warlds auldest iron pier dates frae 1834 an is in Gravesend, Kent. Gravesham council hae recently purchased an refurbished this passenger pier.
Mony piers are biggit for the purpose of providin land locked anglers access tae fishin grunds that are itherwise inaccessible.
Piers o the warldEedit
- Brichton (wi photograph)
- Great Yarmooth
- Ryde Pier
- Totland, Isle o Wicht
Lave o the warldEedit
- Belgium: Blankenberge, Nieuwpoort
- Denmark: Copenhagen
- Lithuanie: Palanga
- Netherlands: Scheveningen - haes twa decks, the upper ane open air, the lawer ane closed
- Poland: Sopot, Gdansk-Brzezno, Miedzyzdroje (Photo of the pier Archived 2004-07-24 at the Wayback Machine)
- Swaden: Malmö
- Atlantic stron
- Gulf o Mexico coast
- Pacific stron
- Avila Beach, Californie
- Cayucos, California
- Huntington Beach, Californie
- Oakland, Californie
- Pismo Beach, Californie
- San Diego, Californie
- San Francisco, Californie
- Santa Barbara, Californie
- Santa Cruz, Californie
- Santa Monica, Californie See Forby: Santa Monica Pier
- Venice, Californie
- Ventura, Californie
- Olympia, Washington
- Seattle, Washington
- Tacoma, Washington
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