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Lunnon (//) is the caipital an maist populous ceety o Ingland, Unitit Kinrick an the European Union. Staunin on the River Thames, Lunnon haes been a major dounset for twa millennia, its history that gangs back tae its foundin bi the Romans, wha named it Londinium. Lunnon's ancient core, the City o Lunnon, lairgely retains its 1.12-square-mile (2.9 km2) medieval boundaries an in 2011 haed a resident population o 7,375, makin it the smallest ceety in Ingland. Syne at least the 19th century, the term Lunnon haes referred tae the metropolis developed aroond this core an aa. The bulk o this conurbation forms the Greater Lunnon administrative aurie (coterminous wi the Lunnon region), govrened bi the Mayor o Lunnon an the Lunnon Assembly.
Lunnon is a leadin global ceety, wi strenths in the arts, commerce, eddication, entertainment, fashion, finance, healthcare, media, professional services, research an development, tourism, an transport aw contributing tae its prominence. It is ane o the warld's leadin financial centres an haes the fifth-or sixth-lairgest metropolitan aurie GDP in the warld dependin on measurement. Lunnon is a warld cultural caipital. It is the warld's maist-visitit ceety as measured by international arrivals an haes the warld's lairgest ceety airport system measured bi passenger traffic. Lunnon's 43 varsities form the lairgest concentration o higher education institutes in Europe. In 2012, Lunnon became the first ceety tae host the modern Summer Olympic Games three times.
Lunnon haes a diverse range o fowk an culturs, an mair nor 300 leids is spoken wiin Greater Lunnon. The Greater Lunnon Authority estimatit its population tae be 8.63 million in 2015, the lairgest o ony municipality in the European Union, an accoonting for 12.5 percent o the UK population. Lunnon's urban aurie is the seicont maist populous in the EU, efter Paris, wi 9,787,426 indwallers accordin tae the 2011 census. The city's metropolitan aurie is the ane o the maist populous in Europe wi 13,614,409 indwallers, while the Greater Lunnon Authority puts the population o Lunnon metropolitan region at 21 million. Lunnon wis the warld's maist populous ceety frae aroond 1831 tae 1925.
Lunnon contains fower Warld Heritage Steids: the Touer o Lunnon; Kew Gardens; the site comprisin the Palace o Westminster, Westminster Abbey, an St Margaret's Church; an the historic dounset o Greenwich (in which the Royal Observatory, Greenwich marks the Prime Meridian, 0° langitude, an GMT). Ither famous laundmerks include Buckingham Palace, the Lunnon Ee, Piccadilly Circus, St Paul's Cathedral, Tower Bridge, Trafalgar squerr, an The Shard. Lunnon is home tae numerous museums, galleries, libraries, sporting events an ither cultural institutions, includin the British Museum, National Gallery, Tate Modern, British Library an 40 West End theatres. The Lunnon Unnergrund is the auldest unnerground railway network in the warld.