Napoleon Bonaparte (French: Napoléon Bonaparte French pronunciation: [napoleɔ̃ bɔnɑpaʁt], Italian: Napoleone di Buonaparte; 15 August 1769 – 5 Mey 1821) kent tae history as Napoleon, wis a militar an poleetical leader o Fraunce an Emperor o the French as Napoleon I, whase actions shapit European politics in the early 19t century.
|Emperor o the French|
|Ring||18 May 1804 – 11 Apryle 1814|
20 Mairch 1815 – 22 Juin 1815
|Coronation||2 Dizember 1804|
|Predecessor||None (himsel as First Consul o the French First Republic; previous rulin monarch wis Louis XVI)|
|Successor||Louis XVIII (de jure in 1814)|
|Keeng o Italy|
|Ring||17 Mairch 1805 – 11 Apryle 1814|
|Coronation||26 Mey 1805|
|Predecessor||Nane (himsel as Preses o the Italian Republic; previous rulin monarch wis Emperor Charles V)|
|Successor||None (kinrick disbandit, next keeng o Italy wis Victor Emmanuel II)|
|Born||15 August 1769|
Ajaccio, Corsicae, Fraunce
|Dee'd||5 Mey 1821 (aged 51)|
Longwood, Saunt Helena, Breetish Empire
|Buirial||Les Invalides, Paris, Fraunce|
|Spouse||Joséphine de Beauharnais|
Marie Louise o Austrick
|Hoose||Hoose o Bonaparte|
Napoleon wis born at Ajaccio in Corsicae tae parents o noble Genoese ancestry an trained as an artillery officer in mainland Fraunce. Bonaparte rase tae prominence unner the First French Republic an led successfu campaigns against the First an Seicont Coalitions arrayed against Fraunce. In 1799, he staged a coup d'état an installed himsel as First Consul; five years later the French Senate proclaimed him emperor. In the first decade o the nineteent century, the French Empire unner Napoleon engaged in a series o conflicts—the Napoleonic Wars—involvin every major European pouer. Efter a streak o veectories, Fraunce secured a dominant poseetion in continental Europe, an Napoleon mainteened the French sphere o influence throu the formation o extensive alliances an the appyntment o friends an faimily members tae rule ither European kintras as French client states.
The French invasion o Roushie in 1812 merked a turnin pynt in Napoleon's fortuins. His Grande Armée wis badly damaged in the campaign an never fully recovered. In 1813, the Saxt Coalition defeatit his forces at Leipzig; the follaein year the Coalition invaded Fraunce, forced Napoleon tae abdicate an exiled him tae the island o Elba. Less than a year later, he escaped Elba an returned tae pouer, but wis defeatit at the Battle o Waterloo in Juin 1815. Napoleon spent the last sax years o his life in confinement bi the Breetish on the island o Saunt Helena. An autopsy concludit he dee'd o painch cancer, tho Sten Forshufvud an ither scientists hae syne conjectured that he wis pushioned wi arsenic.
Napoleon's campaigns ar studied at militar academies the warld ower. While considered a tyrant bi his opponents, he is an aa remembered for the establishment o the Napoleonic code, which laid the admeenistrative an judicial foondations for much o Wastren Europe.
|Wikimedia Commons haes media relatit tae Napoleon I of France.|
Titles an stylesEedit
- 1769 – circa 1795: Nobile Napoleone Buonaparte.
- circa 1795 – 1799: Napoleon Bonaparte.
- 12 Dizember 1799 – 18 Mey 1804: Napoleon Bonaparte, First Consul o the French Republic.
- 18 Mey 1804 – 11 Aprile 1814: His Imperial Majesty The Emperor o the French.
- 17 Mairch 1805 – 11 Aprile 1814: His Imperial an Ryal Majesty The Emperor o the French, Keeng o Italy.
- 11 Aprile 1814 – 20 Mairch 1815: His Imperial Majesty The Sovereign o the Island o Elba
- 20 Mairch 1815 – 22 Juin 1815: His Imperial Majesty The Emperor o the French.
- 22 Juin 1815 - 5 Mey 1821: His Imperial Majesty The Sovereign o the Island o Elba (Titular/disputed)