The Mughal Empire (Persie: گورکانیانGūrkāniyān;[6] Urdu: مغلیہ سلطنت‎, Moghly-e Soltanat),[7] or Mogul (also Moghul) Empire in tradeetional English uisage, wis an imperial pouer in the Indian subcontinent frae aboot 1526 tae 1757 (though it lingered for anether century). The Mughal emperors wur Muslims an direct descendants o baith Genghis Khan (through his son Chagatai Khan) an of Tamerlane. At the heicht o their pouer in the late 17t an early 18t centuries, they controlled maist o the subcontinent—extendin frae Bengal in the east tae Balochistan in the wast, Kashmir in the north tae the Kaveri basin in the sooth. Its population at that time haes been estimatit as atween 110 an 150 million, ower a territory o mair nor 3.2 million square kilometres (1.2 million square miles).[8]

Mughal Empire

گورکانیان (Persian)
مغلیہ سلطنت (Urdu)
Flag o the Mughal Empire
Orthographic projection map of the Mughal Empire
The Mughal Empire durin the reign o Aurangzeb c. 1700
Fatehpur Sikri
Common leidsPersian (offeecial an court leid)[1]
Chagatai Turkic (only initially)
Urdu (later period)
Din-e Ilahi
GovrenmentAbsolute monarchy, unitary state
wi federal structure
• 1526–1530
Babur Beg (first)
• 1837–1857
Bahadur Shah II (last)
Historical eraEarly modren
21 Aprile 1526
10 Mey 1857
17004,500,000 km2 (1,700,000 sq mi)
• 1700
Precedit bi
Succeedit bi
Timurid dynasty
Delhi Sultanate
Suri dynasty
Adil Shahi dynasty
Sultanate o Bengal
Deccan Sultanates
Maratha Empire
Durrani Empire
Breetish Raj
Hyderabad State
Nawab o Carnatic
Nawab o Bengal
Nawab o Awadh
Kingdom o Mysore
Bharatpur State
The day pairt o Afghanistan


  1. Conan, Michel (2007). Middle East Garden Traditions: Unity and Diversity : Questions, Methods and Resources in a Multicultural Perspective, Volume 31. Washington, D.C.: Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection. p. 235. ISBN 978-0884023296.
  2. The title (Mirza) descends to all the sons of the family, without exception. In the Royal family it is placed after the name instead of before it, thus, Abbas Mirza and Hosfiein Mirza. Mirza is a civil title, and Khan is a military one. The title of Khan is creative, but not hereditary. pg 601 Monthly magazine and British register, Volume 34 Publisher Printed for Sir Richard Phillips, 1812 Original from Harvard University
  3. "The Muslim and Mogul Empires". Retrieved April 2, 2013.
  4. "Mughal Empire". Retrieved April 2, 2013.
  5. "Mughal Empire in India, 16th century". Retrieved April 2, 2013.
  6. Zahir ud-Din Mohammad (September 10, 2002). Thackston, Wheeler M. (ed.). The Baburnama: Memoirs of Babur, Prince and Emperor. New York: Modern Library. p. xlvi. ISBN 978-0375761379. In India the dynasty always called itself Gurkani, after Temür's title Gurkân, the Persianized form of the Mongolian [kürägän] error: {{lang}}: text haes italic markup (help), 'son-in-law,' a title he assumed after his marriage to a Genghisid princess.
  7. Balfour, E.G. (1976). Encyclopaedia Asiatica: Comprising Indian-subcontinent, Eastern and Southern Asia. New Delhi: Cosmo Publications. S. 460, S. 488, S. 897. ISBN 978-8170203254.
  8. Richards, John F. (March 18, 1993). Johnson, Gordon; Bayly, C. A. (eds.). The Mughal Empire. The New Cambridge history of India: 1.5. I. The Mughals and their Contemporaries. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 1, 190. doi:10.2277/0521251192. ISBN 978-0521251198. |access-date= requires |url= (help)