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Genghis Khan [note 3] (born Temüjin,[note 1] c. 1162 – 18 August 1227), born B. Temüjin (Audio file "Temujin.ogg" nae foond, wis the foonder, Khan (ruler) an Khagan (emperor) o the Mongol Empire, which became the lairgest contiguous empire in history efter his daith.

Genghis Khan
YuanEmperorAlbumGenghisPortrait.jpg
Genghis Khan as portrayed in a 14t-century Yuan era album; the oreeginal version wis in black an white. Oreeginal size is 47 cm wide an 59.4 cm heich. Pent an ink on silk. Nou locatit in the Naitional Pailace Museum, Taipei, Taiwan.
1st Great Khan of the Mongol Empire
Ring Ware 1206 – 18 August 1227
Coronation Ware 1206 in a Kurultai at the Onon River, Mongolie
Successor Ögedei Khan
Born Temüjin[note 1]
likely 1162[2]
Khentii Muntains, Khamag Mongol
Dee'd 18 August 1227(1227-08-18) (aged 64–65)[3]
Yinchuan, Wastren Xia
Spouse
Issue
Full name
ᠴᠢᠩᠭᠢᠰ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ
Genghis Khan
Mongolian: Чингис хаанChinggis Khaan
Mongol script (picture on the right): ᠴᠢᠩᠭᠢᠰ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ Chinggis Khagan[note 2]
Hoose The Imperial Hoose o Borjigin
Dynasty Genghisid
Faither Yesügei
Mither Hoelun
Releegion Tengrism

He came tae pouer bi unitin mony o the nomadic tribes o northeast Asie. Efter foondin the Mongol Empire an being proclaimed "Genghis Khan", he startit the Mongol invasions that woud ultimately result in the conquest o maist o Eurasie. These includit raids or invasions o the Kara-Khitan Khanate, Caucasus, Khwarezmid Empire, Western Xia an Jin dynasties. These campaigns wur aften accompanied bi wholesale massacres o the civilian populations - especially in Khwarezmia. Bi the end o his life, the Mongol Empire occupied a substantial portion o Central Asie an Cheenae.

Afore Genghis Khan dee'd, he assigned Ögedei Khan as his successor an split his empire intae khanates amang his sons an grandsons.[7] He dee'd in 1227 efter defeatin the Tanguts. He wis buried in an unmarked grave somewhere in Mongolie at an unkent location. His descendants went on tae stretch the Mongol Empire across maist o Eurasia bi conquering an/or creatin vassal states oot o aw o modern-day Cheenae, Korea, the Caucasus, Central Asian kintras, an substantial portions o modern Eastren Europe an the Middle East. Mony o these invasions also resultit in lairge-scale slaughter o the local populations an ar no viewed positively in these parts o the warld today.

Ayont his great military accomplishments, Genghis Khan also advanced the Mongol Empire in ither ways. He decreed the adoption o the Uyghur script as the Mongol Empire's writin system. He also promotit religious tolerance in the Mongol Empire, an creatit a unified empire frae the nomadic tribes o northeast Asie. Present-day Mongolians regard him highly as the foondin faither o Mongolie.[8]

NotesEedit

  1. 1.0 1.1 English: /təˈmɪn/, whiles an aw written as Temuchin or Temujin; Mongolian: Тэмүжин[tʰemut͡ʃiŋ] (  listen); Middle Mongol: Temüjin;[1] traditeeonal Cheenese: 鐵木真; simplifeed Cheenese: 铁木真; pinyin: Tiěmùzhēn; Wade–Giles: T'ieh3-mu4-chen1.
  2. Cheenese: 成吉思汗; pinyin: Chéngjísī Hán; Wade–Giles: Ch'eng2-chi2-szu1 Han4.
  3. Historians o the Mongol empire generally prefer the spellin Chinggis Khaan, that mair closely approximates the name in Mongolie, Чингис хаан [t͡ʃʰiŋɡɪs xaːŋ] (  listen).[4] The spellin o his name cam oreeginally frae Italian, hyne the pronunciation /ˌɛŋɡɪs ˈkɑːn/, that is similar tae the Italian pronunciation; the seicont G has a follaein H tae produce the soond Template:IPAc-it, as in spaghetti. But acause G afore E in Inglis/Scots is ambiguous (cf. get vs. gel), this leads tae the common pronunciation o /ˌɡɛŋɡɪs ˈkɑːn/, wi baith Gs producin the soond /ɡ/, that has led tae the alternate spellin Jenghis Khan tae try tae prevent this.[5]
    The Middle Mongol pronunciation was [ˈt͡ɕʰiŋːɡɪs ˈkaχaːn] or [ˈt͡ʃʰiŋːɡɪs ˈqaχaːn].[6]

ReferencesEedit

  1. "Central Asiatic Journal". Central Asiatic Journal. 5: 239. 1959. Retrieved July 29, 2011. 
  2. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named birth
  3. Ratchnevsky, Paul (1991). Genghis Khan: His Life and Legacy. Blackwell Publishing. p. 142. ISBN 978-0-631-16785-3. It is possible, however, to say with certainty that Genghis Khan died in August 1227; only in specifying the actual day of his death do our sources disagree. 
  4. Morgan, David (2007). The Mongols (2 ed.). Blackwell Publishing. p. 186. ISBN 978-1-4051-3539-9. 
  5. Pronunciation references:
  6. NativLang, What Genghis Khan's Mongolian Sounded Like - and how we know, retrieved 2018-12-28 
  7. John Joseph Saunders-The History of the Mongol Conquests
  8. "Genghis Khan". North Georgia College and State University. Retrieved 2010-01-26.