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The Iran–Iraq War wis an airmed conflict atween Iran an Iraq lastin frae 22 September 1980, whan Iraq invadit Iran, tae August 1988. The war follaed a lang history o mairch disputes, an wis motivatit bi fears that the Iranian Revolution in 1979 wad inspire insurgency amang Iraq's Shi'ite majority, as well as Iraq's desire tae replace Iran as the dominant Persie Gulf state.

Iran–Iraq War
Pairt o the Persie Gulf Conflicts
Iran-Iraq war-gallery.png
Pairticipation o child sodgers on Iranian front (tap left); Iranian sodger wearin a gas mask (tap richt); Port quarter view o USS Stark listin tae port after bein mistakenly struck bi an Iraqi warplane (middle left); Pro-Iraq PMOI forces killed in Operation Mersad (middle richt); Iraqi preesoners o war after the re-captur o Khorramshahr bi Iranians (ablo left); ZU-23-2 bein uised bi the Iranian Airmy (ablo richt).
Date22 September 1980 – 20 August 1988
(7 years, 10 months, 4 weeks and 1 day)
LocationIran, Iraq, Persie Gulf
Result

Militar stalemate

Territorial
changes
"Status quo ante bellum"; observed bi Unitit Naitions Iran–Iraq Militar Observer Group based on Unitit Naitions Security Cooncil Resolution 619
Belligerents

 Iran
KDP
PUK
23x15px ISCI
HazaristanFlagwebversion.jpg Abuzar Brigade[1]

Iraq
PMOI

Commanders an leaders

Iran Ruhollah Khomeini
(Supreme Leader of Iran)

Iraq Saddam Hussein
(Preses o Iraq)

Units involved
see order o battle see order o battle
Strenth
At the onset o the war:[13]
110,000–150,000 sodgers,
1,700–2,100 tanks,[14] (500 operable)[15]
1,000 armoured vehicles,
300 operable artillery pieces,[16]
485 fechter-bombers (~100 operable),
750 helicopters
Efter Iraq widrew frae Iran in 1982:
350,000 sodgers,
700 tanks,
2,700 airmoured vehicles,
400 artillery pieces,
350 aircraft,
700 helicopters
early 1988:[17]
600,000 sodgers,
1,000 operable tanks,
800 airmoured vehicles,
600 hivy artillery pieces,
60–80 fechter-bombers,
70–90 helicopters
At the onset o the war:[18]
200,000 sodgers,
2,800 tanks,
4,000 APCs,
1,400 artillery pieces,
380 fechter-bombers,
350 helicopters
Efter Iraq widrew frae Iran in 1982:
175,000 sodgers,
1,200 tanks,
2,300 airmoured vehicles,
400 artillery pieces,
450 aircraft,
180 helicopters
At the end o the war:
1,500,000 sodgers,[19]
~5,000 tanks,
8,500–10,000 APCs,
6,000–12,000 artillery pieces,
900 fechter-bombers,
1,000 helicopters
Casualties an losses

123,220–160,000 KIA an 60,711 MIA (Iranian claim)[20][21]
200,000–600,000 killed (ither estimates)[20][22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29]
800,000 killed (Iraqi claim)[20]
320,000–500,000 WIA[23][30][31]
40,000–42,875 POW[30][31]
11,000–16,000 ceevilian deid[20][21]

Economic loss of US$627 billion[22][32]

105,000–375,000 killed[30][32][33][34][35]
250,000–500,000 (ither estimates)[36]
400,000 WIA[34]
70,000 POW[23][34]

Economic loss of $561 billion[22][32]

100,000+ ceevilians killed on baith sides[37]
(nae includin 50,000–100,000 ceevilians killed in the Al-Anfal campaign)[38]

¹ The exact nummer o Iraqi Shia that focht alangside Iran is unkent. The Islamic Supreme Cooncil o Iraq an Islamic Dawa Pairty supportit Iran in the war. Iran wad whiles organise diveesions o Iraqi POWs tae fecht against Iraq.

ReferencesEedit

  1. "IRGC Commander Praises Afghans for Fighting against ISIL in Syria". 9 August 2016. Retrieved 18 August 2017. 
  2. Iran and Syria Archived 14 October 2015 at the Wayback Machine.| Jubin Goodarzi
  3. Metz, Helen Chapin, ed. (1988), "The Soviet Union", Iraq: a Country Study, Library of Congress Country Studies
  4. Metz, Helen Chapin, ed. (1988), "Arms from The Soviet Union", Iraq: a Country Study, Library of Congress
  5. Metz, Helen Chapin, ed. (1988), "Arms from France", Iraq: a Country Study, Library of Congress[verification needit]
  6. Timmerman, Kenneth R., "Fanning the Flames: Guns, Greed & Geopolitics in the Gulf War", Iran Brief  |contribution= ignored (help)
  7. Friedman, Alan. Spider's Web: The Secret History of How the White House Illegally Armed Iraq, Bantam Books, 1993.
  8. Timmerman, Kenneth R. (1991). The Death Lobby: How the West Armed Iraq. New York: Houghton Mifflin Company. ISBN 0-395-59305-0. 
  9. Stothard, Michael (30 December 2011). "UK secretly supplied Saddam" – via Financial Times. 
  10. 10.0 10.1 Vatanka, Alex (22 March 2012). "The Odd Couple". The Majalla. Saudi Research and Publishing Company. Retrieved 7 November 2012. 
  11. Anthony, John Duke; Ochsenwald, William L.; Crystal, Jill Ann. "Kuwait". Encyclopædia Britannica. 
  12. Mearsheimer, John J.; Walt, Stephen M. (12 November 2002). "Can Saddam Be Contained? History Says Yes". International Security. Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs. 
  13. Pollack, p, 186
  14. Farrokh, Kaveh, 305 (2011)
  15. Pollack, p. 187
  16. Farrokh, Kaveh, 304 (2011)
  17. Pollack, p. 232
  18. Pollack, p. 186
  19. Pollack, p. 3
  20. 20.0 20.1 20.2 20.3 Hiro, Dilip (1991). The Longest War: The Iran–Iraq Military Conflict. New York: Routledge. p. 205. ISBN 9780415904063. OCLC 22347651. 
  21. 21.0 21.1 Abrahamian, Ervand (2008). A History of Modern Iran. Cambridge, U.K.; New York: Cambridge University Press. pp. 171–175, 212. ISBN 9780521528917. OCLC 171111098. 
  22. 22.0 22.1 22.2 Rajaee, Farhang (1997). Iranian Perspectives on the Iran–Iraq War. Gainesville: University Press of Florida. p. 2. ISBN 9780813014760. OCLC 492125659. 
  23. 23.0 23.1 23.2 Mikaberidze, Alexander (2011). Conflict and Conquest in the Islamic World: A Historical Encyclopedia. Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO. p. 418. ISBN 9781598843361. OCLC 775759780. 
  24. Hammond Atlas of the 20th Century (1999) P. 134-5
  25. Dunnigan, A Quick and Dirty Guide to War (1991)
  26. Dictionary of Twentieth Century World History, by Jan Palmowski (Oxford, 1997)
  27. Clodfelter, Michael, Warfare and Armed Conflict: A Statistical Reference to Casualty and Other Figures, 1618–1991
  28. Chirot, Daniel: Modern Tyrants : the power and prevalence of evil in our age (1994)
  29. "B&J:" Jacob Bercovitch and Richard Jackson, International Conflict : A Chronological Encyclopedia of Conflicts and Their Management 1945–1995 (1997) p. 195
  30. 30.0 30.1 30.2 Potter, Lawrence G.; Sick, Gary (2006). Iran, Iraq and the Legacies of War. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. p. 8. ISBN 9781403976093. OCLC 70230312. 
  31. 31.0 31.1 Zargar, Moosa; Araghizadeh, Hassan; Soroush, Mohammad Reza; Khaji, Ali (December 2012). "Iranian casualties during the eight years of Iraq-Iran conflict" (PDF). Revista de Saúde Pública. São Paulo: Faculdade de Higiene e Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo. 41 (6): 1065–1066. doi:10.1590/S0034-89102007000600025. ISSN 0034-8910. OCLC 4645489824. Retrieved 2 November 2013. 
  32. 32.0 32.1 32.2 Hiro, Dilip (1991). The Longest War: The Iran–Iraq Military Conflict. New York: Routledge. p. 251. ISBN 9780415904063. OCLC 22347651. 
  33. Rumel, Rudolph. "Centi-Kilo Murdering States: Estimates, Sources, and Calculations". Power Kills. University of Hawai'i. 
  34. 34.0 34.1 34.2 Karsh, Efraim (2002). The Iran–Iraq War, 1980–1988. Oxford: Osprey Publishing. p. 89. ISBN 9781841763712. OCLC 48783766. 
  35. Koch, Christian; Long, David E. (1997). Gulf Security in the Twenty-First Century. Abu Dhabi: Emirates Center for Strategic Studies and Research. p. 29. ISBN 9781860643163. OCLC 39035954. 
  36. Ian Black. "Iran and Iraq remember war that cost more than a million lives". the Guardian. 
  37. Rumel, Rudolph. "Lesser Murdering States, Quasi-States, and Groups: Estimates, Sources, and Calculations". Power Kills. University of Hawai'i. 
  38. Sinan, Omar (25 June 2007). "Iraq to hang 'Chemical Ali'". Tampa Bay Times. Associated Press. 

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