Coordinates: 15°N 19°E / 15°N 19°E / 15; 19

Chad (French: Tchad, Arabic: تشادTshād), offeecially kent as the Republic o Chad, is a landlocked kintra in central Africae. It is bordered bi Libie tae the north, Sudan tae the east, the Central African Republic tae the sooth, Cameroon an Nigerie tae the soothwast, an Niger tae the wast. Due tae its distance frae the sea an its lairgely desert climate, the kintra is whiles referred tae as the "Deid Hert o Africae".

Republic o Chad

  • جمهورية تشاد (Arabic)
    Jumhūriyyat Tšād
  • République du Tchad (French)
  • "Unité, Travail, Progrès" (French)
  • "الاتحاد، العمل، التقدم" (Arabic)
  • "Unity, Wirk, Progress"
  • La Tchadienne  (French)
  • نشيد تشاد الوطني  (Arabic)
  • (Scots: "The Chadian Hime")
Location o  Chad  (dark green)
Location o  Chad  (dark green)
Location o Chad
and largest city
12°06′N 16°02′E / 12.100°N 16.033°E / 12.100; 16.033
Offeecial leids
Ethnic groups
GovrenmentUnitar Dominant-pairty presidential republic
• Preses
Mahamat Idriss Déby
Succès Masra
LegislaturNaitional Assembly
• frae Fraunce
11 August 1960
• Total
1,284,000 km2 (496,000 sq mi)[1] (20t)
• Water (%)
• 2023 estimate
• 2009 census
• Density
14.4/km2 (37.3/sq mi)
GDP (PPP)2017 estimate
• Total
$29.730 billion[4] (123rd)
• Per capita
$2,439[4] (150t)
GDP (nominal)2017 estimate
• Tot
$9.636 billion[4] (130th)
• Per capita
$790[4] (151st)
Gini (2011)43.3[5]
HDI (2015)Increase 0.396[6]
law · 186th
CurrencyCentral African CFA franc (XAF)
Time zoneUTC+1 (WAT)
Drivin sidericht
Cawin code+235
ISO 3166 codeTD

Chad is dividit intae three major geographical regions: a desert zone in the north, an arid Sahelian belt in the centre an a mair fertile Sudanese savanna zone in the sooth. Lake Chad, efter which the kintra is named, is the lairgest wetland in Chad an the seicont lairgest in Africae. Chad's heichest peak is the Emi Koussi in the Sahara, an N'Djamena, (formerly Fort-Lamy), the caipital, is the lairgest ceety. Chad is hame tae ower 200 different ethnic an linguistic groups. Arabic an French are the offeecial leids. Islam an Christianity ar the maist widely practiced releegions.

Beginnin in the 7t millennium BC, human populations muivit intae the Chadian basin in great nummers. Bi the end o the 1st millennium BC, a series o states an empires rose an fell in Chad's Sahelian strip, each focused on controllin the trans-Saharan trade routes that passed throu the region. Fraunce conquered the territory bi 1920 an incorporated it as pairt o French Equatorial Africae.

In 1960 Chad obtained unthirldom unner the leadership o François Tombalbaye. Resentment towards his policies in the Muslim north culminatit in the eruption o a lang-lastin ceevil war in 1965. In 1979 the rebels conquered the caipital an put an end tae the sooth's hegemony. Housomeivver, the rebel commanders focht amangst thairsels till Hissène Habré defeatit his rivals. He wis owerthrown in 1990 bi his general Idriss Déby. Recently, the Darfur crisis in Sudan haes spilt ower the mairch an destabilised the naition, wi hunders o thoosans o Sudanese refugees livin in an aroond camps in eastren Chad.

While mony poleetical parties are active, pouer lies firmly in the haunds o Preses Déby an his poleetical pairty, thei Patriotic Salvation Movement. Chad remains plagued bi poleetical veeolence an recurrent attemptit coups d'état.

The kintra is ane o the poorest an maist corrupt kintras in the warld; maist Chadians live in poverty as subsistence herders an fermers. Syne 2003 crude ile haes acome the kintra's primary soorce o export earnings, supersedin the traditional cotton industry.


  1. "Le TCHAD en bref" (in French). INSEED. 22 Julie 2013. Archived frae the original on 22 December 2015. Retrieved 18 December 2015.
  2. Template:Cite CIA World Factbook
  3. DEUXIEME RECENSEMENT GENERAL DE LA POPULATION ET DE L'HABITAT (RGPH2, 2009): RESULTATS GLOBAUX DEFINITIFS (PDF) (Report) (in French). INSEED. Mairch 2012. p. 7. Archived frae the original (PDF) on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 18 December 2015.
  4. a b c d "Chad". International Monetary Fund.
  5. "Gini Index". World Bank. Retrieved 16 Apryle 2017.
  6. "2016 Human Development Report" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 2016. Retrieved 21 Mairch 2017.