William Ewart Gladstone

William Ewart Gladstone (/ˈɡlædˌstən/; 29 December 1809 – 19 Mey 1898), wis a Breetish Liberal politeecian. He wis the Prime Meenister o the Unitit Kinrick fower times.


William Ewart Gladstone

1271754717 william-e.-gladstone.jpg
Prime Meenister o the Unitit Kinrick
In office
15 August 1892 – 2 Mairch 1894
MonarchVictoria
Precedit biThe Marquess o Salisbury
Succeedit biThe Yerl o Rosebery
In office
1 Februar 1886 – 20 Julie 1886
MonarchVictoria
Precedit biThe Marquess o Salisbury
Succeedit biThe Marquess o Salisbury
In office
23 Aprile 1880 – 9 Juin 1885
MonarchVictoria
Precedit biThe Yerl o Beaconsfield
Succeedit biThe Marquess o Salisbury
In office
3 December 1868 – 17 Februar 1874
MonarchVictoria
Precedit biBenjamin Disraeli
Succeedit biBenjamin Disraeli
Laird Privy Seal
In office
15 August 1892 – 2 Mairch 1894
Precedit biThe Yerl Cadogan
Succeedit biThe Laird Tweedmouth
In office
1 Februar 1886 – 20 Julie 1886
Precedit biThe Yerl o Harrowby
Succeedit biThe Yerl Cadogan
Leader o the Opposeetion
In office
20 Julie 1886 – 11 August 1892
MonarchVictoria
Precedit biThe Marquess o Salisbury
Succeedit biThe Marquess o Salisbury
In office
9 Juin 1885 – 28 Januar 1886
MonarchVictoria
Precedit biThe Yerl o Beaconsfield
Succeedit biThe Marquess o Salisbury
In office
17 Februar 1874 – 17 Januar 1875
MonarchVictoria
Precedit biBenjamin Disraeli
Succeedit biMarquess o Hartington
Chancellor o the Exchequer
In office
28 Aprile 1880 – 16 December 1882
Precedit biStafford Northcote
Succeedit biHugh Childers
In office
11 August 1873 – 17 Februar 1874
Precedit biRobert Lowe
Succeedit biStafford Northcote
In office
18 Juin 1859 – 26 Juin 1866
Precedit biBenjamin Disraeli
Succeedit biBenjamin Disraeli
In office
28 December 1852 – 28 Februar 1855
Precedit biBenjamin Disraeli
Succeedit biGeorge Cornewall Lewis
Secretar o State for War an the Colonies
In office
23 December 1845 – 27 Juin 1846
Precedit biLaird Stanley
Succeedit biThe Yerl Grey
Preses o the Buird o Trade
In office
15 Mey 1843 – 5 Februar 1845
Precedit biThe Yerl o Ripon
Succeedit biThe Marquess o Dalhousie
Personal details
Born29 December 1809(1809-12-29)
Liverpool, Ingland
Dee'd19 Mey 1898(1898-05-19) (aged 88)
Hawarden Castle, Wales
NaitionalityBreetish
Poleetical pairtyTory (1828–1834)
Conservative (1834–1846)
Peelite (1846–1859)
Liberal (1859–1898)
Spoose(s)Catherine Gladstone
BairnsWilliam
Agnes
Stephen
Catherine
Mary
Helen
Henry
Herbert
Alma materChrist Church, Oxford
ReligionKirk o Ingland (Heich Kirk)
SignaturCursive signatur in ink

Gladstone wis born in Liverpuil tae Scots paurents. He first entered the Hoose o Commons in 1832, beginnin his poleetical career as a High Tory, a groupin that becam the Conservative Pairty unner Robert Peel in 1834. Gladstone served as a meenister in baith o Peel's govrenments, an in 1846 jynt the brakawey Peelite faction, that eventually merged intae the new Liberal Pairty in 1859. He wis Chancellor unner Laird Aiberdeen (1852–1855), Laird Palmerston (1859–1865) an Laird Russell (1865–1866). Gladstone's awn poleetical doctrine—that emphasised equality o opportuinity, free tred, an laissez-faire economic policies—cam tae be kent as Gladstonian leeberalism. His popularity amangst the wirkin-cless earned him the sobriquet "The People's William".

In 1868, Gladstone becam Prime Meenister for the first time. Mony reforms war passed in his first meenistry, includin the disestablishment o the Kirk o Ireland an the introduction o saicret votin. Efter electoral defeat in 1874, Gladstone resigned as leader o the Leeberal Pairty. Frae 1876 he begoud a comeback based on opposeetion tae Turkey's reaction tae the Bulgarie Apryle Uprisin. His Midlowden Campaign o 1879–80 wis an early ensaumple o mony modren poleetical campaignin techniques.[1][2] Efter the 1880 general election, Gladstone formed his seicont meenistry (1880–1885), that saw the passage o the Third Reform Act as weel as creeses in Egyp (culminatin in the Faw o Khartoum) an Ireland, whaur his govrenment passed repressive meisurs but an aw impruived the legal richts o Erse tenant fermers.

Back in office in early 1886, Gladstone proponed hame rule for Ireland but wis defeatit in the Hoose o Commons. The resultin spleet in the Leeberal Pairty helped keep them oot o office – wi ane short brak – for 20 years. Gladstone formed his last govrenment in 1892, at the age o 82. The Second Home Rule Bill passed throu the Commons but wis defeatit in the Hoose o Lairds in 1893. Gladstone left office in Mairch 1894, agit 84, as baith the auldest person tae serve as Prime Meenister an the anerly Prime Meenister tae hae served fower terms. He left Pairlament in 1895 an dee'd three years later.

Gladstone wis kent affectionately bi his supporters as "The People's William" or the "G.O.M." ("Grand Old Man", or, accordin tae his poleetical rival Benjamin Disraeli, "God's Only Mistake").[3] Historians eften cry him ane o Breetain's greatest leaders.[4][5][6][7]

ReferencesEedit

  1. Wiesner-Hanks, Merry E.; Evans, Andrew D.; Wheeler, William Bruce; Ruff, Julius (2014). Discovering the Western Past, Volume II: Since 1500. Cengage Learning. p. 336. ISBN 978-1111837174.
  2. Price, Richard (1999). British Society 1680–1880: Dynamism, Containment and Change (in Inglis). Cambridge University Press. p. 289. ISBN 978-0521657013.
  3. Gardham, Duncan (12 June 2008). "David Davis's Victorian inspiration: William Gladstone". The Daily Telegraph. London.
  4. J.F.C. Harrison (2013). Late Victorian Britain 1875–1901. p. 31. ISBN 978-1136116445.
  5. Richard Aldous (2007). The Lion and the Unicorn: Gladstone Vs Disraeli. p. 4. ISBN 978-0393065701.
  6. Paul Brighton (2016). Original Spin: Downing Street and the Press in Victorian Britain. I.B.Tauris. p. 193. ISBN 978-1780760599.
  7. Paul Grey; et al. (2016). Challenge and Transformation: Britain, c. 1851–1964. Cambridge UP. p. 2. ISBN 978-1107572966.