Theodore Roosevelt (October 27, 1858 – Januar 6, 1919) wis the 26nt Preses o the Unitit States frae 1901 tae 1909. He previously served as the 25th vice preses o the Unitit States frae Mairch tae September 1901 an as the 33rd govrenor o New York frae 1899 tae 1900. As a leader o the Republican Pairty in this time, he becam a drivin force for the Progressive Era in the Unitit States in the early 20t century. His face is depictit on Munt Rushmore, alangside thae o George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, an Abraham Lincoln. In polls o historians an poleetical scientists, Roosevelt is generally rankit as ane o the five best preses.
Roosevelt wis born a pawie bairn wi debeelitatin asthma, but he owercam his pheesical heal problems bi embracin a strenuous lifestyle. He integratit his exuberant personality, vast range o interests, an warld-famous achievements intae a "cowboy" persona defined bi strang masculinity. Hame-schuiled, he begoud a lifelang naituralist avocation afore attendin Harvard College. His beuk, The Naval War of 1812 (1882), established his reputation as baith a leared historian an as a popular writer. Upon enterin politics, he becam the leader o the reform faction o Republicans in New York's state legislatur. Follaein the near-simultaneous daiths o his wife an mither, he escapit tae a kye ranch in the Dakotas. Roosevelt served as Assistant Secretar o the Navy unner Preses William McKinley, but resigned frae that post tae lead the Rough Riders in the Spaingie–American War. Returnin a war hero, he wis electit Govrenor o New York in 1898. Efter the daith o Vice Preses Garret Hobart, the New York state pairty leadership convinced McKinley tae accept Roosevelt as his runnin mate in the 1900 election. Roosevelt campaigned veegorously, an the McKinley-Roosevelt ticket wan a laundslide veectory based on a platform o peace, prosperity, an conservation.
Efter takkin office as Vice Preses in Mairch 1901, he becam Preses at age 42 follaein McKinley's assassination that September, an remeens the youngest person tae acome Preses o the Unitit States. As a leader o the Progressive muivement, he championed his "Square Deal" domestic policies, promisin the average ceetizen fairness, brakin o trusts, regulation o railweys, an pure fuid an drogs. Makkin conservation a tap priority, he established mony new naitional pairks, forests, an monuments intendit to preserve the naition's naitural resoorces. In furrin policy, he focused on Central Americae, whaur he begoud construction o the Panama Canaul. He expandit the Navy an sent the Great White Fleet on a warld tour tae project the Unitit States' naval pouer aroond the globe. His successfu efforts tae broker the end o the Russo-Japanese War wan him the 1906 Nobel Peace Prize. He avoidit controversial tariff an money issues. Electit in 1904 tae a full term, Roosevelt conteena'd ae promote progressive policies, mony o that war passed in Congress. Roosevelt successfully prepared his close friend, William Howard Taft, an Taft wan the 1908 presidential election tae succeed him.
Frustrated wi Taft's conservatism, Roosevelt belatitly tried tae win the 1912 Republican nomination. He failed, walkit oot an foondit a third pairty, the Progressive, so-cried "Bull Moose" Pairty, that cried for wide-rangin progressive reforms. He ran in the 1912 election an the split alloued the Democratic nominee Woodrow Wilson tae win the election. Follaein his defeat, Roosevelt led a twa-year expedeetion tae the Amazon basin, whaur he nearly dee'd o tropical disease. In Warld War I, he creeticised Preses Wilson for keepin the kintra oot o the war wi Germany, an his offer tae lead volunteers tae Fraunce wis rejectit. Tho he haed conseedert rinnin for preses again in 1920, Roosevelt's heal conteena'd to deteriorate, an he dee'd in 1919.