Richard I o Ingland

Richard I (8 September 1157 – 6 Aprile 1199) wis Keeng o Ingland frae 6 Julie 1189 til his daith. He an aw ruled as Duke o Normandy, Aquitaine an Gascony, Laird o Cyprus, Coont o Poitiers, Anjou, Maine, an Nantes, an wis owerlaird o Brittany at various times in the same period. He wis the third o five sons o King Henry II o Ingland an Duchess Eleanor o Aquitaine. He wis kent as Richard Cœur de Lion or Richard the Lionhert acause o his reputation as a great militar leader an warrior.[1] He wis an aw kent in Occitan as: Oc e No (Scots: Aye an Na), acause o his reputation for terseness.[2]

Richard the Lionhert
Effigy (c. 1199) o Richard I at Fontevraud Abbey, Anjou
Keeng o Ingland (mair..)
Ring6 Julie 1189 – 6 Aprile 1199
Coronation3 September 1189
PredecessorHenry II
RegentEleanor o Aquitaine; William Longchamp (Third Crusade)
Born8 September 1157(1157-09-08)
Beaumont Palace, Oxford, Ingland
Dee'd6 Apryle 1199(1199-04-06) (aged 41)
Châlus, Duchy o Aquitaine
(nou in Limousin, Fraunce)
BuirialFontevraud Abbey, Anjou, Fraunce
ConsortBerengaria o Navarre
IssuePhilip o Cognac
HooseHoose o Plantagenet
FaitherHenry II o Ingland
MitherEleanor o Aquitaine
ReleegionRoman Catholicism

Bi the age o 16, Richard haed taken command o his awn airmy, pittin doun rebellions in Poitou against his faither.[1] Richard wis a central Christian commander in the Third Crusade, leadin the campaign rfter the departur o Philip II o Fraunce an achievin conseederable veectories against his Muslim coonterpart, Saladin, awtho he did nae retak Jerusalem frae Saladin.[3]

Richard spaik baith French an Occitan.[4] He wis born in Ingland, whaur he spent his bairnheid; afore acomin king, houiver, he leeved maist o his adult life in the Duchy o Aquitaine, in the soothwast o Fraunce. Follaein his accession, he spent verra little time, aiblins as little as sax month, in Ingland. Maist o his life as king wis spent on Crusade, in capteevity, or actively defendin his launds in Fraunce. Raither than regairdin his kinrick as a responsibility requirin his presence as ruler, he haes been perceived as preferrin tae uise it merely as a soorce o revenue tae support his airmies.[5] Nevertheless, he was seen as a pious hero by his subjects.[6] He remeens ane o the few kings o Ingland rememmered bi his epithet, raither than regnal nummer, an is an endurin iconic feegur baith in Ingland an in Fraunce.[7]


  1. a b Turner & Heiser 2000, p. 71
  2. Gillingham, John, 'Richard the Lionheart', p. 243, Weidenfeld and Nicolson 1978.
  3. Addison 1842, pp. 141–149.
  4. Flori 1999f, p. 20 (French).
  5. Harvey 1948, pp. 62–64
  6. Turner & Heiser [page needit]
  7. Harvey 1948, p. 58.